Volume 9, Issue 12, December 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The study determined the effect of relational teaching approach on students’ interest and performance in primary schools. The study was carried out in Makurdi local government area of Benue State. A sample size of forty (40) primary school pupils was used. The study was a quasi-experimental design. Data were collected using tow (2) instruments, namely: Mathematics Performance Test (MPT) and Mathematics Interest Inventory (MII). Four research questions and four research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research questions were answered using mean and stand deviation while the hypotheses were tested at 5% level of significance. Results from the study revealed that students taught mathematics using relational teaching approach performed higher and also showed greater interest in learning mathematics than those taught with the instrumental approach. The study also revealed that the male students performed higher than the female students in mathematics in the experimental group, however, they showed similar interest in mathematics.

Relationship Between Strategic Environmental Scanning and Mining Companies Performance: A Case of Banro Corporation []

Background: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between strategic environmental scanning and mining companies’ performance of Banro Corporation. Materials and Methods: To conduct this research, surveys were used to collect data from the sample population. The research relied on questionnaire, as it was easy to send to respondents at their own place and collect it after having answered it. The study adopted a descriptive research design and the target population of this study was comprised of 150 respondents; 100 employees, 25 Heads of departments/units and 25 executive managers from which the sample size of 109 respondents used stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques by using Slovin’s formula. Data was entered into the Microsoft Excel and by the Stata 12 and the Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS – Version 21) computer software for analysis. Descriptive statistics using percentages and frequencies were used to explain analysed data which was presented in Tables. Results: The overall Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient obtained from the principal component analysis was 0.948, the KMO was 0.765 and the p- value of Bartlett’s Test of sphericity was 0.000. The components considered explained the total variance of 77.739% of the environmental scanning. The confirmatory analysis with the multiple regressions showed that the continuous scanning of the three main components: community needs assessments, the objectives set and government support has a positive impact of 68.10% on Banro Business Performance. The results obtained from the survey conducted on Banro Corporation demonstrated that there is a strong positive relationship between environmental scanning and mining companies ‘performance. The harsh unexpected internal and external pressure and turbulence occurring in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been a trigger to push many of the mining companies to fail and threaten to close the business operations. To get the desired information about the business environment for strategies formulation, smart decisions making, survive from the internal and external constraints and earn competitive advantages, any mining company that expects to do business in the Democratic Republic of Congo should continuously scan the business environment which is dynamic. It has been revealed from this study that the environmental scanning factors such as the community needs assessment, the company objectives set and the government support, explain 68.10% of the variance in the business performance. Conclusion: From the research findings presented, mining companies’ owners should put in place all the necessary resources required and use scanning techniques and tools in their organization to establish a controlled environmental scanning system in their companies. To vigorously observe and respect the laws of the country where operating, such as the mining code and any commitments signed with the local community and or with the government to get full support and work in a peaceful social climate. Establish and strengthen the collaboration and trust between the mining companies’ owners and the management with the community and the government to avoid any frustration and misunderstanding that could trigger a conflict and harm the smooth running of the company ‘operations. Key Words: Environmental Scanning, mining companies’ performance, Banro Corporation, Democratic Republic of Congo


When it comes to the circular economy, if any utility installs multiple HDPE micro ducts in their corridor, the other utilities can share the spare micro duct which are newly installed utilities for their network development. This methodology enhances the adoption of circular economy policy ineffective way by reducing the installation of non-degradable materials in utility corridors, which enhances the generation of frees spaces in utility corridors


This papers examined how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has caused changes in mass media production, distribution and reception. Regardless of the diverse research studies conducted on ICT as it relates to news processing and reporting, there are a very limited number of studies that especially examine how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) affects changes in Mass Media production and Distribution. Gone are the time when one had to read a newspaper, watch television or listen to the radio to keep abreast of the happenings in the society. Today, one can get all information on websites, social media pages, and mobile devices. This diversification has made it possible for communication to be efficient, effective and reach all four corners of the world. Despite this advantage, little or no studies have been conducted to examine how ICT has caused changes in the distribution, production and perception of broadcatst media messages most especially in Nigeria. However, regardless of these impediments, Nigeria has recorded considerable progress in the use of the new ICTs in different sectors. Many Nigerian media for instance, are now on the Internet. The NTA, AIT, MBI, Channels TV, RayPower FM, Cool FM, Rhythm FM and a few others are now embarking on satellite broadcasting. With this, Nigeria is now launched into the globalization scheme. The world can now hear, see and read us through our own media perspectives. This is a good development.


This paper assessed Opinions of Community Development Personnel on financial and cultural challenges in the implementation of Community-Based Projects in Kano Metropolis. The objectives of the study included; to identify the approaches to the implementation of Community-based projects in Kano Metropolis, to examine the opinions of community development personnel on their contribution to the implementation of community-based projects in Kano Metropolis, to examine the opinions of community development personnel on the financial challenges in the implementation of Community-based projects in Kano Metropolis; to examine the opinions of community development personnel on the cultural challenges to the implementation of Community-based projects in Kano Metropolis, Kano State. In carrying out the study, the survey research method was used. The population of the study comprised 371 Local Government Community Development personnel of Kano Metropolis. Of this, a sample of 191 subjects was selected. For the reliability, reliability index of 0.67 was obtained which show the instrument was reliable. The data were analyzed using percentages, frequency counts, Means and Standard Deviations. The study revealed that the approaches used in the implementation of community-based projects in Kano metropolis are top-down, mixed government and community-led, community-driven or bottom-up, self-help and technical assistance approaches.. Based on the findings, the study recommends that a Bottom –Up Strategy such as Participatory Community Appraisal should be employed to enhance the full participation of communities in problem identification, solution, planning and implementation as well as identifying communities problems and proffering appropriate solutions to facilitate sustainable development.


This research analysed fire safety preparedness and disaster reduction among domestic airports in Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to: Analyse availability of fire service units and investigate the availability of water Hydrant Facilities and the effect on fire disaster preparedness at Nigerian Domestic Airports. The study adopted a cross-sectional design using the survey method. The population of the study involves 21 domestic Airports operating in Nigeria with 462 heads of internal departments, 105 safety officers of safety services, and 2 additional employees from each internal department i.e., 924 operating in the 21 domestic airports total (1,491) as statistically reported by the Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (2019). Out of 21 domestic airports in Nigeria, 8 airports were randomly selected. The study sample size of 400 was obtained using the Taro Yamane formula. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. Data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The null hypotheses were tested at a 0.05 level of significance, using ANOVA. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the perceptions of respondents on the availability of fire service units and water hydrant facilities at Nigerian Domestic Airports (P =. 307, & .737 > 0.05). Recommendations were made as follows: airport administrators and the government urgently need to upgrade facilities to meet up with modern disaster demands in the airports, stakeholders have to establish a Terms of Reference, have regular meetings, and use a common Operational Airport Information System.

Edible Film/Coating for Fish Products and Their Derivatives []

Fish and its derivative products are easily damaged materials if they are under bad conditions. Currently edible film / coating has begun to become a concern because of its potential as packaging for food products made from fish. The film / coating can be made from biopolymer waste produced by the food industry based on protein, fat, or polysaccharides that can be degraded naturally, can be consumed but also serve as packaging. The use of film /coating as packaging of fish products that have the function of inhibiting the destruction of food. The purpose of this writing is to compare the types of films / coatings used and their effect on shelf life. The results showed that the use of various films / coatings has a different value added storage period, mostly showing the storage of products that have been packaged film / coating in cold temperatures have a large long shelf value. That way it is increasingly clear the potential of film / coating as a packaging material for fishery products and derivatives that are safe to use.

Application of Picture Uncertainty Soft Relations in Multi- attribute Decision Making []

In this paper, we first analyze picture Uncertainty soft Col- lection (PUSC) and discuss some of their relevant operations such as subset, equal, complement, AND,OR... and so on. We investigate some theorems on picture Uncertainty soft Collection based on union and intersection with counter examples. Also we proved a necessary and sufficient condition for the dual laws of PFSS theory. Finally, we then introduce an algorithms based on relational picture Uncertainty soft matrix to solve decision making problems.

Mirror equation []

: If we are outside the orbit of earth and sun (in vacuum or not in vacuum) , but we can see earth and sun. Also if we are waiting in darkness with some firestones , what is the area we can view is a question. When I see the space from earth it seems something in day and something else at night. When I see space above earth , there are not much differences. I can see opaque birds or people or objects. Question is, how would space seem to me on one side(which contains sun, earth) and on the other side(devoid of solar system)? We don’t know this from earth. But generally speaking if we create a virtual space and find out how it looks to the observer from the sphere earth and from space. We are moving in space through earth and we don’t realize it . The circular paths or spheres are a more geometrical ways of looking at things. They are more of time involving entities. We also have memory involving an entity. We are on a circular path and we have memory because we are creating space and we don’t remember the path. If our path is circular , we probably are in a loop forever and we are fine with it, maybe. If our path is straight, question is in space what is straight? Straight is another of those systematic intelligence which is relative and confined to the observer standing on the sphere. Fire does not move straight. But spheres have to, because the intelligence has memory. Now a firestone in space floats in vacuum. That's a more intelligent way of concealing the past(how the creator made it and why is it black in colour).Maybe, Cause fire repels though keeps moving. Question is what do we get from black? We get shadows of entities. Moon. In the presence of the moon we can see shadows. In the presence of opaque objects and light , we see shadows. We can see shadows of objects that do not seem to emit light. I have seen the moon semicircular, arc like and fully circular. I haven’t seen the shadow of the moon. That is a sphere, you cannot see but you have definitely seen it in pictures. Moon does not have gravity as we have read. We haven’t seen the shadow of earth . Yes , but the blue entity projects the shadow of earth. Question is, why do we see a half moon? Answers are flooding the internet. The moon can’t have its own light. Because the blue projection does show the moon also. Light always has a habit of casting shadows of opaque entities. If I keep an object in light , i can’t see the full object , i see only the front side and little area of the shadow. If I turn the object upside down, I see a different object altogether. The moon is not moving in a straight line. It is flexible at its moves unlike the sun. How can a sphere show a semicircle? Moon is an entity which shows white. Question is , why in absence of a blue entity , things seem white?

Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli types and their pathogenesis []

Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes.


This paper addressed a buyer-seller contract renewal negotiation case, regarding a service provider and a power transmission company, on the provision of cleaning, conservation, and bush cutting services for approximately 120 electrical substations, the unit of analysis. Key findings pointed out compliance issues crucial to prevent the contract signature with the main competitor. The article provides scholars, decision-makers, negotiators, and other practitioners with a new perspective on contract negotiation and corporate governance. The discussion of implications and future research recommendations compile the present work.


This paper is aimed to explore choosing the right type of real estate to invest in. This study is enjoined to bring into account the positive thing about real estate is that, even in a bad economy, it is still better than other forms of investment like stocks, mutual funds and other commodities. Basic accounting states that you do not depreciate land and its valuation will just be a matter of supply and demand. It reviewed articles from 2010-2021. The review focused its emphasis on the findings and conclusions of the articles reviewed. Venturing into real estate properties requires more background study since you will be transferring your liquid assets into a very illiquid asset. In the real estate marketing business, we have the end-user and the investor. With an overall knowledge about the industry, a real-estate investment may be different from your primary home so factors other than personal preferences might come into play. For an investor, when it comes to real estate, it’s all about location, location, location. Be on the lookout for reputable developers who will be conducting pre-selling of previously raw lands because you will definitely have the first-mover advantage and prices are relatively lower. The potential social change benefits from the proposed study include sustained employment of the agent, real estate brokers, developer’s employees, and construction team which can improve self-worth and human dignity for employed individuals and business owners. Outcomes from this paper would be helpful in hiring more employees. Also, increased business and employment may result in more tax revenues for communities, which can help citizens and in extension, the national economy. Keywords: real estate, foreclosed, house flipping, acquired asset


Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is frequently reported in dogs and is responsible for high morbidity rates and economic losses. CTVT is considered as the oldest cancer in the world which is nowadays widely distributed worldwide and it is endemic in at least 90 countries. Presence of free-roaming dogs is associated with increased CTVT prevalence. In the present study, it is tried to establish the therapeutic effect of treatment with vincristine sulphate. Five females and five males diagnosed with CTVT based on case history, clinical findings and hematological examination were treated by surgical removal, or chemotherapy or a combination of both in Central Referral Veterinary Hospital (CRVH) Kathmandu, Nepal. The dogs were treated with Vincristine sulphate intravenously at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg at weekly intervals for 2-4 injections and recovered fully within 4 weeks. Interestingly, all ten dogs with chemotherapy were found in good health and no tumor recurrence was noted after 90 days of treatment. Treatment of CTVT with vincristine sulphate appears to have impressive therapeutic effect. Keywords: CTVT, Free-roaming, Chemotherapy, CRVH, Vincristine sulphate, Prevalence, Recurrence


With the continuous penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in the electricity market and power grid, new technologies will continue to influence the way we manage electricity generation and the distribution channels with the goal of easing transmission and distribution of electrical power to consumers. In order to handle distributed generation and to intensify its visibility within power markets, the idea of virtual power plant (VPP) has emerged. Virtual Power plant integrates energy resources with storage and controllable loads to provide capacity and ancillary services to the grid operations. It is composed of combining various small size distributed generating units to form a “single virtual generating unit” that can act as a conventional one and capable of being visible or manageable on an individual basis. Present paper tries to sheds light on main issues related to the idea of the VPP. The definitions, primary concepts and types of VPPs will be reviewed in this study to draw a conclusion on why VPPs decentralization of power sector is vital for the continuous integration of micro grid and renewable energies for a sustainable power transaction economy.


It is a known fact that parental educational level and marital status are important determinants of social adjustment and academic performance of fresh undergraduate students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of parental educational level and marital status on social adjustment and academic performance of fresh undergraduate students in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 20. It was recommended that parents should ensure that they use their knowledge to create a social climate that can help their wards cope with the challenges in schools. Parents should desist from the habits of divorce and stick to their couples in order to satisfy the social and emotional needs of their children.

Value Chain Analysis of Fish Production and Marketing from Lake Tana, Ethiopia []

A value chain is a sequence of related enterprises (operators) conducting activities (functions) so as to add value to a product from its primary production, through its processing and marketing, to the final sale of the product to consumers. The main objective of this research was studying fish value chain in major fish production and marketing from Lake Tana and Sort out major problems on fish production and marketing. Stratified random sampling was used to ensure that sole fishers in the catching and landing sites were equally represented in the survey. Ninety One (91) fishers were interviewed from 4 landing sites selected on a stratified random basis. There are four major fish market outlet from L.Tana. Fish traders and respected stakeholders were also interviewed. Fishers travel daily from primary landing sites to fish market places for 68 minutes on average. At landing sites, the whole fish price ranges from 20-25 birr per kilograms for Tilapia and Barbus. Wholesaler selling price of filleted fish range of 65-75, 55-65 and 50-60 birr per kilogram for tilapia, Barbus and Catfish, respectively. Women who do filleting, the time spent for a kilogram of Tilapia can took an average of 25 minutes. Fishery cooperatives should strongly work on value adding activities instead of selling whole fish.

Marine Products Business Development Strategy in Building Competitive Advantage (Case Study at PT. Anugerah Sinar Laut Abadi Jambi city) []

To be able to increase the business of marine products, it is necessary to build a competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is a unique position that a company develops in dealing with competitors and it is possible that the company can outperform them consistently. The purpose of this study was to determine a strategy for developing a seafood business at PT Anugrah Sinar Laut Abadi in Jambi City in building a competitive advantage using SWOT analysis. Data collection techniques through observation, interviews, questionnaires and documentation, with data analysis techniques using SWOT analysis. The results of the study found that the IFAS and EFAS analysis in the swot matrix showed that the biggest role was having skilled human resources and followed by having a large capital aspect that was used to finance the company's operational activities, while the biggest weakness score was the limited acquisition of raw materials from farmers. as a result of the weather/climate and the delay in shipping seaweed to the customer's location as a result of the transportation fleet which is considered insufficient. Then in the EFAS analysis, the biggest role in the company's opportunities is the increasing need for seaweed and the high purchasing power of the people. In addition, there are uncertain price changes due to relatively fluctuating raw materials and increasing government regulations. The results of the analysis of business development strategy planning to build competitive advantage in the SWOT analysis, the company is in a profitable situation. Where PT Anugrah Sinar Laut in Jambi City has opportunities and strengths, so they can take advantage of existing opportunities. The strategy that must be applied in this condition is to support an aggressive growth policy. Keywords: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

Review article the use of fish scales for accessories []

This article reviews how to make accessories from fish scales, product quality and market. Based on the results of literacy information obtained that the manufacture of accessories from fish scales can be done through 3 methods. The quality of the accessories produced is quite good and the price is quite affordable. The market for accessories products in Indonesia is women

Impact of Incentives on the Employees’ Loyalty: Evidence from Bahrain []

The aim of this research is to identify the impact of incentives on the employees’ loyalty (emotional loyalty, normative loyalty and constant loyalty) at a private company in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A hundred and ten employees were surveyed through a simple random sample. The analysis is based on the outcomes of the questionnaire survey that was given out to a representative sample of the employees of a private company in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The researchers hypothesized that there is a positive significant impact for incentives, on the employees’ loyalty (emotional loyalty, normative loyalty and constant loyalty) at a private company in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The findings revealed that, there is a positive significant impact for incentives on the employees’ loyalty (emotional loyalty, normative loyalty and constant loyalty) at the company in question in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Moreover, the results indicated that there is no positive significant impact for incentives on the employees’ loyalty (emotional loyalty, normative loyalty and constant loyalty) at the company in question in the Kingdom of Bahrain due to the demographics (gender, qualification, years of experience and position). Only there was a significant impact due to the demographic (age).


The study investigates the roles of Forum for Africa Women Educationalist in the education of the girl child in Bo City with especial reference to FAWE Primary School, Kortugbuma. The organization was pioneered by African Women Ministers in charge of Education in various Africa Countries. Dr. Christiana Thorpe did the pioneer work when she became secretary of State Education with some other powerful women in Sierra Leone. The objectives of the study are: To investigate the contribution of FAWE in the education of the girl child. To identify problems encountered by the Administrators and Teachers, and to evaluate the numerous problems face by the girl child.


ABSTRACT Objective: The study identified the commonly abused substances among students in public secondary schools in Anambra State. Methods: A research question and a null hypothesis guided the study. The study was a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study consisted of 263 principals in the 263 public secondary schools in Anambra State. There was no sampling because the entire population was small and manageable by the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher and titled: “Commonly Abused Substance among Students Questionnaire (CASSQ)”. The instrument was content and face validated by three experts. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained using Cronbach Alpha Statistics and the average coefficient value of 0.84 was obtained which was considered reliable and suitable for the study. Data collected were analysed using mean and independent sample t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Result: The study showed that marijuana, cigarette, alcohol, tramadol, shisha and codein were the most commonly abused substance among students in public secondary schools in Anambra State. Recommendation: The researcher recommended among others that a comprehensive curriculum on substance abuse should be introduced in schools to neutralize the influence of peer pressure in influencing students into substance abuse. Students should be facilitated at home and in school to develop a feeling of happiness about family life in terms of good interpersonal relationship and acceptance to parenting.

Commercial Sex Work in Port Harcourt City: A Sociological X-ray of the Pull and Push Factors []

The study examined the pull and push factors that explain the prevalence of commercial sex work in Port Harcourt. The study survey research design and obtained data using primarily questionnaire and complimented by interviews from 531 participants made up of 521 female commercial sex workers, 5 managers/owners of hotels/brothels and 5 clients of commercial sex workers. It benefited from other secondary data and theoretically triangulated by combining social strain and rational choice theory. Tables were used to present data and the SPSS software used to run the analysis while recorded interview were transcribed and summarized and used to support quantitative results. The findings show that: while socio-economic conditions particularly, unemployment 26.2%, poverty 16.1% and low family income 26.2% constitute the push factors, concentration of oil production activities and presence of many men engaged in petroleum related work with high disposable income 99.1% constitute the pull factors for the prevalence of commercial sex work The study recommended a holistic approach founded not only on criminalization but also job creation and poverty reduction, women empowerment, education scholarship, rehabilitation and reintegration of ex-prostitutes, tackling the demand side of commercial sex and awareness programs to address the menace

On The Greatest of All Time (GOAT) Debate between Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo Using 2021 FIFA Ballon D’or Ranking, A Mathematical Approach. []

In this work, we established the GOAT Determinant and proved that Messi is the first and best player in the world while Cristiano Ronaldo is the 6th best player in the world using the 2021 FIFA Ballon D’or statistics as provided on the 29th of November 2021 during the award ceremony in France. We further proved by deduction that Messi is the first and best player in the world while Ronaldo remained the 6th using the same stats. Keywords: GOAT, Determinant, Messi, Ronaldo, FIFA, Ballon D’or, Statistics.

The Effectiveness of Flexible Work Arrangements in Philippine Call centers during Pandemic, in Business Management, Operational Efficiency and Performance: A Literature Review Paper []

The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of flexible work arrangements on the call center industry in the Philippines at the time of pandemic focusing on its Business Management, Operational Efficiency, and performance. To curtail the spread of Covid 19, government leaders on all nations has reinforced strict lockdown on each of the provinces in each local government units. These lockdown protocol has restricted the movement of people from one area to another. Philippine government issued statements that only essential businesses are to be allowed to operate. Nonetheless, to keep these businesses’ locations open, they must implement flexible work arrangements. This has forced most employers to halt their business operations while the BPO sector in the Philippines, which is the largest private sector in the country, has been given exemptions to operate, provided they follow government protocols on skeletal workforce, social distancing and give their employees temporary accommodation or shuttle services when required to go to the office. The industry has also been quick to adapt in implementing flexible work arrangement at the early part of the lockdown months of 2020. BPO firms had to deploy thousands of their employees for a work-at-home model without adequate preparation. There might be challenges on productivity, employee satisfaction, financial impact while abiding to their client requirements on security and data privacy but one can say it continue to thrive after more than a year of multiple quarantine protocols. The BPO industry continue to work on flexible work arrangement set up to this point. This may now be the new business unusual or the new normal type of work and could be seen as a long term if not a short-term solution to the BPO sector. Business management in this new normal involves a high degree of innovation to ensure the three-legged stool of strong financials, client, and employee satisfaction still intact. Operational efficiency may have posed a challenge in the beginning as Philippines is not known to have the most reliable internet service. This literature review focuses on related articles showing the effectiveness of flexible work arrangements in the Philippine BPO Industry this pandemic setting, how they surpassed the challenges, how is their overall performance and employee productivity and the response of their client to the flexibility of this working condition.


This study give an overview of the dynamics of diabetes mellitus and its complications in a population. Five stages of the disease progression and control are incorporated into the formulated mathematical model of the dynamics of diabetes and its complications. The disease prevalence equilibrum states are obtained from the model equations. The stability of the disease prevalence equilibrum states of the system are analyzed using the constructed quadratic Lyapunov function method. The disease prevalence equilibrum states was found to be locally and globally asymptotically stable.


Abon is one of the processed dry foods made from meat by boiling, slashed, fried and pressed and then added spices so that it has a distinctive taste. There are several factors that affect the quality such as taste and scent, as well as the shelf life of fish abon, one of which is the packaging used. The use of packaging can prevent the entry of bacteria that will stick to a product. Plastics commonly used in abon packaging are polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) plastics. The use of different types of plastic can also affect the quality and shelf life of fish abon such as moisture content and organoleptic rusteristics (color, scent and texture). On this review article, the temperature used were 30oC, 40oC, 50oC, cold temperature and room temperature.

Test Performance of Grade 9 Students in Economics in the Fourth Quarter in Two Varied Learning Modalities in the School Year 2020-2021 []

The COVID 19 crisis adversely affected all sectors in our country. Since it entered the territory of the country, the day-to-day life of the people greatly changed. The prevalence of the virus particularly in the National Capital Region as the epicenter resulted in the untimely close down of various industries and educational institutions since March 2020. Schools on the other hand suddenly stopped their operations. Teachers and students were prevented from going to school. Face-to-face meetings were prohibited. Closing activities like graduation and recognition were not implemented as usual but were done virtually. The closing of the school year 2019-20201 was quite challenging because the schools needed to shorten the meetings with the students and asked them to work on activities that can be done and submitted online before the end of the school year. Meanwhile, the school year 2020-2021 was more challenging for both school administrators, teachers, parents, and students. The opening of classes was hampered by the continuous increase of COVID 19 cases in the country and impositions of various categories of community quarantine in different parts of the country. This research aimed to determine if there was significant difference in the performance of students in two learning modalities such as fully online and home-based learning. This study was anchored from the theory of connectionism, specifically the law of effect. A quantitative research method was employed in the study. Specifically, a descriptive method of study was used with the intention of describing and comparing the test performance of the students in the fourth quarter summative test. Two groups of students composed of 62 students from fully online and 12 students from home based learning were chosen as participants in this study. The results of the test performance of students in the two learning modalities were compared. Statistical treatment such as frequency, percentage, and t-test were employed. It was revealed in this research that the students in the home-based learning performed better than the students in the fully online learning modality. Furthermore, it was revealed that there was a significant difference in the test performance of students in Economics in the fourth quarter. This result revealed that home-based learning helped students to perform well in the summative test. Home-based learning was effective because this helps students to develop independent learning, flexibility, and provides them opportunities to finish their works at their own pace. On the other hand, a fully online modality will be more effective if students are fully engaged. Various assessments must be adopted by the teachers to fully form the students. The result of this study is not conclusive. It is recommended that this research must be repeated involving a bigger number of participants especially the students in the home-based learning modality to further confirm the result of this research. Keywords: Economics, Fully online-learning modality, Home-based learning modality, and Test Performance


Abstract The study analyzed urban development and its effect on overhead powerline right-of-way in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with the view of suggesting strategies for controlling development in the study area. To map medium voltage powerlines across the study area, ArcGIS was used. The coordinates of each pole holding the lines were obtained using the Global Positioning System (GPS). This was digitized in ArcGIS environment and the map of medium voltage overhead powerline of the study area was produced. The overhead powerline right-of-way was obtained by buffering the powerlines with a distance of 11m to represent the stipulated setback. The lines were buffered to enabled the capturing of the buildings within the 11m setback from the powerlines. The result showed that 12% of the structures in the study area were under the menace of medium voltage powerline hazards. Furthermore, Landsat images was used to delineate the extent of encroachment into the powerline right-of-way. The area extent of development into the overhead powerline right-of-way was delineated from the overlay of the powerline on the image analysis of urban development across the state capitals. The result also revealed that, the built-up areas with powerline coverage experienced constant and rapid increase especially in Port Harcourt. This was as a result of increase in urbanization and the need for power supply. The respondents experienced some hazard events such as shock, burns, electrocution, powerline sagging and flash lights. It is therefore recommended that, demolition of encroached buildings, landscaping and planting of trees and shrubs on powerline rights-of-ways should be encouraged as another way of greening the cities and improving urban ecology. This study therefore showed the importance of Geographic Information System (GIS) in environmental monitoring and planning.

The effect of co-curricular activities on the intellectual and social development of students in Secondary Schools of Douala III Municipality []

The main focus of this study was to investigate the effect of co-curricular activities on the intellectual and social development of students in secondary schools of Douala III Municipality. The research design adopted for this study was the descriptive survey. The purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting schools and then respondents for this study. The population of the study consisted of students of secondary schools in the Douala III Municipality. The sample of the study was made up of 300 form Five and Upper Sixth students randomly selected from six secondary schools in the area. The main instrument for data collection was the questionnaire designed using a modified Likert scale. Data collected were analysed descriptively using percentages and summary tables. Findings revealed that; 1) students’ participation in club activities significantly influences their intellectual and social development in secondary schools; 2) participation in cultural activities within the schools has a significant influence on the intellectual and social development of students in secondary schools. Based on the findings, it was recommended that education stakeholders should provide adequate human, material and financial resources to secondary schools to enhance the practice of co-curricular activities (athletics, football, handball, volley ball, basketball, debate clubs, drama clubs, writers’ clubs, history club, cultural activities and fieldtrip) in schools.