Volume 9, Issue 12, December 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Effect of Some Commonly Used Anti-Fungus Treatment Chemicals on the Hatching Rate of Eggs, Survival and Growth Performance of Fry of the African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) []

Hatchability and survivability rates are an essential part of the African catfish rearing, seeing that it is the most farms fish in Nigeria and even the African continent. Therefore, adequate analysis of the various disinfectant chemicals used by fish farmers was carried out to determine the chemical with the most favourable hatchability rate in percentage and the chemical with the most favourable survivability rate. Four bowls of thirty Clarias eggs each were treated with iodine (100mg/l), hydrogen peroxide (250mg/l), malachite green (5mg/l), and formalin (250mg/l) in bath treatments for 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes respectively for each treatment type excluding the control bowl (untreated). Percentage hatchability was evaluated by dividing the number of hatched eggs by the total number of eggs and multiplying by 100. Percentage survivability was evaluated by dividing the number of surviving fries by the number of hatched fries. Formalin accounted for 70% hatchability, with iodine recording the least 30%; meanwhile, hydrogen peroxide accounted for 83.33% survivability, with iodine recording the least survivability of 0%. This study further suggests using formalin in disinfecting catfish egg diseases, while it promotes hydrogen peroxide usage in disinfecting newly hatched fry and enhancing their survivability.

Using the EGARCH Model to Estimate the Factors Effecting Inflation in Sudan 1992-2018 []

The study investigated to estimate the effect of inflation factors in Sudan by using the Exponential General Auto-regression Conditional Heteroscedasticity Model (EGARCH M). The study problem was formulated in the following main question: What are the factors affecting inflation in Sudan? The study was built on the following hypothesis: There was a direct relationship between money supply, import prices, budget deficit, financing cost and inflation. The study reached that the increase in the money supply, import price index, budget deficit and the cost of finance lead to increase inflation in Sudan. While devaluing the exchange rate leads to increase inflation. The study recommended the adoption of an effective monetary and financial economic policy and to reduce inflation and achieve economic and monetary stability in Sudan.


This study compares the impact of debt financing on profitability of non-financial firms in Nigeria. Using a panel regression model to examine the impact of debt financing on profitability of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. The results show that the quoted firms are listed on the Nigeria stock exchange. The results showed that debt financing is statistically significant in determining profitability of manufacturing firms in the quoted firms in Nigeria. The regression results indicate that LTDR, LSTDR, LLTDR and LPROF are important in influencing the profitability of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. A well-managed capital structure in terms of debt financing, leads to an increase in the profitability of the firms as showed in the result.


for hundreds of times, the study of probability has formerly been bandied in 1600, French mathematicians utilised probability rules to place and succeed bets. in consequence, probability proposition as sense expanded well beyond the as similar’s cross uentist academy systems of probability proposition and it's innovated on further abecedarian hypotheticals (desiderata) and is mainly further adaptable in its operations, as revealed in this job. liability proposition, in verity, is good judgement converted in to the accurate fine pronouncements in order to get introductory and extremely clear responded through the process of reduction to simulation. rather than ignoring any excellent data, difficulty is lowered to simplicity.' probability proposition as sense' simply a means for reaching constant findings in the face of inadequate moxie that extends well beyond conventional sense or deducible logic. As a result, it truly represents a sense in and itself.The fashion has a wide range of operations in a variety of scientific disciplines, including mathematics, drugs, biology, drug, economics, psychology, social lores, and numerous further. It's useful, for illustration, when logic with bitsy samples, which is typical in remedial or cerebral evaluation exploration. At the end of this paper, an illustration of such a circumstance is addressed to give a concrete case of the introductory frame. Probability knowledge has advanced extensively and is now an essential tool in statistics. The introductory theoretical generalities of probability will be addressed in this study in order to ameliorate understanding of statistical conclusion

The effect of crisis management strategies on covid-19 pandemic in Organizations. []

ABSTRACT Due to the unpredictability of global crisis events such as Covid-19 pandemic, it is necessary for organizations to prepare and adopt proper crisis management strategy at all levels in each country, to respond to this crisis that brings about social change. The study was designed to discover suitable response policies in tackling the coronavirus and its negative effect on organizations. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between crisis management strategy and the impact of Covid-19 in organizations, the study has three (3) major objectives, however, the study provides a marvelous information power to help individuals, organization, and society to be more innovative and proactive by acquiring and adopting crisis preparedness and response matrix, crisis management plan (CMP), towards tackling the issue of Covid-19. The effective and efficient survival of organizations is typically considered as a strategic goal for its beneficiary in creating long and short term interests. Furthermore the study recommends that organizations leaders and managers should initiate health campaign programmes, in terms of creating awareness of the deadly coronavirus (Covid-19) and also to institute workers optimization program instead of workers layoff as a result of the Covid-19 crisis. Lastly, vaccinating the global population against COVID-19 is the only short and long-term strategy to contain the coronavirus crisis (WHO, 2021). Keyword: Crisis Management Strategy, Coronavirus (Covid-19), Organization, Crisis Prevention and Crisis Management Plan.

Analog and Digital Technologies []

Throughout history, humans have constantly been evolving economically, socially and politically, among others. The rise of civilizations since the dawn of history has been due to different levels of human activities giving rise to products and services which were critical for ad-vancement. In the midst of society’s developmental process, the use of technologies, both analog and digital, has become home vocabulary for people born within the period such technology emerged. For instance, the use of analog tools has defined a society of technological users with televisions, radios, microphones, and such, helping daily activities of human beings. Analog tools defined a culture of people. With the advent of digital technology, human processes have become fast and complex allowing for inventions and innovations to flood in the society. In the same manner that analog technology brought along a culture of technological users – that of a viewing public, and listen-ers to information from various analog tools utilized, digital culture was born with people hooked to digital gadgets, with information chunked into binary units that could be preserved for a long time – all these things are continually emerging, affecting lives of people in many ways. Interconnectivity is greatly observed with digital consumers using abundant communication-enhancing tools within their midst. Lives have improved and cultures have boomed. This paper looks into the intricacies of analog and digital technologies in terms of disparities, similarities and the multiple applications and connections they have built in numerous processes. Human processes have become indulgent with technological affordance in their midst. Both analog and digital tools are symbols of human progress that this paper elucidates.

Autonomous Learning in "Principles and Theoretical Perspectives in Online Economics" []

Principles and Theoretical Perspectives in Economics is a three-unit subject delivered fully online to selected Leyte Normal University (LNU) undergraduate students under the Social Science Unit. The course draws on principles of autonomous learning in an Information Communica-tion Technology (ICT)-supported platform and the project involved the development of an online course in economics using Information, Communication Technology (ICT) and human interactivity in achieving autonomous learning. The aims of the project were (1) to develop an online course, Principles and Theoretical Perspectives in Online Economics, as an alternative learning platform for undergraduate students of Leyte Normal University (2) to utilize Information, Communication Technology (ICT) and human interactivity in achieving autonomous learning (3) to evaluate the course based on its learning autonomous learning design princi-ples. Results of the study revealed that students learned autonomously through independent, learner-centered and knowledge-centered approach by employing constructivist and cognitive strategies with a high degree of learning control. Next, technological affordance was construed as support to knowledge construction in a learner-centered environment where the importance of student-student, teacher-student interactions illustrating ‘pedagogy of nearness’ as a learning continuum proved vital in the learning process.

The Relationship between Organisational Structure and the Provision of Quality Education: A Comparative Study of a Private Secondary School and a Public Secondary School. []

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between organizational structure and the provision of quality education, by comparing a private school and a public school. The study adopted a descriptive and naturalistic study design where quantitative findings were represented in the form of tables and figures while qualitative findings was organized into themes. The study sample comprised teachers, head teachers, parents/guardian, and the learners of the selected schools for the study. The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20) was used to generate descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentage to analyze the quantitative data in the study. According to the results of the research, the two schools had two different organisational structures in place. The private school used a team-based organisation structure while a public school used a hierarchical organisation structure. The private school had better physical facilities that promote quality learning experiences in the school for the learners compared to the public school and these are enhanced or hindered by the organizational structure which determines the development and maintenance of the facilities. The private school had a faster process of maintaining its facilities such as computer laboratories as well as science laboratory and the physical buildings of the school compared to the public school. The majority of parents from the private school had confidence in the school environment in fostering relationships between the teachers and the learners. The study recommends that Government through the Ministry of Education must restructure the consumer ethics and lines of accountability for both Government and private schools with greater links between teachers, administrators, and the parents to be promoted at all schools public and private for effective educational experiences and the wellbeing of all learners. Key Terms: Education Provision, Organisational Structure, and Quality Education


This paper evaluates the implementation of competency-based TVET curriculum embedded in the 2-year Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) Course in Surallah National Agricultural School (SUNAS) and offers policy framework as a set of indicative recommendations to enhance program implementation. The need for program evaluation becomes urgent in the wake of the ASEAN integration requiring Philippine skilled workforce to be globally competitive and be able to respond to the challenges of a growing economy. These TVET programs namely: Bartending NC II, Food and Beverage Services NC II, Cookery NC II, and Housekeeping NC II had been running for the last 10 years however, no evaluation was made so far to point out specific areas for enhancement since its inception in 2007. The study employed mixed research type where percentages, mean values, and standard deviation were employed to analyze the quantitative data and content analysis for qualitative data. A total of 178 samples who were purposively selected for the study consists of 128 trainees, 4 trainers teaching the 4 TVET programs, 16 industry partners and employers, 5 members of the Regional Expert Panel for Competency-Based Training (REP-CBT), the Curriculum Head, the Vocational Instruction Supervisor, and the Vocational School Superintendent. In general, the study revealed that competency-based TVET curriculum in SUNAS was successfully implemented. Based on the findings, it is recommended that SUNAS needs to enhance teachers’ competence in developing competency-based learning materials to guide students in learning the required competencies. The biggest challenge faced by stakeholders in implementing competency-based TVET curriculum is the competence of teachers in developing a standard Competency-Based Learning Materials (CBLMs) for the trainees because this is a very critical component in the program delivery of competency-based instruction.


The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the use of experiential learning as a teaching methodology in the DAT-BAT course. Interviews were conducted with four instructors to determine their knowledge and familiarity with experiential learning, use of The Kolb Model of Experiential Learning in their classrooms, and their self-perceived role when using experiential learning in the DAT-BAT course. Additionally, instructor-perceived benefits and challenges posed in the use of experiential learning in the DAT-BAT were identified. The findings suggested that the instructors have a good knowledge and understanding about experiential learning. However, phases of experiential learning as implemented in the DAT-BAT courses did not always follow the cyclical process illustrated in Kolb’s model. Instructors perceived their role in the experiential learning process as a guide, or facilitator of learning. They also recognized multiple benefits of experiential learning which includes: increased subject matter retention among students, active engagement, use of higher order thinking skills, and academic success. The challenges on the use of experiential learning in the DAT-BAT course were class enrollment, time, supervision and management of student activities, modifications in teaching style, and maturity level of students.

A Review of IoT Solutions for Aquaculture Management []

Internet of Things (IoT) is a technology that allows for control, communication, collaboration with various hardware, data through the internet network. Now technology is more needed for the development and utilization of natural resources, included are fisheries. The purpose of this review is to determine the development of IoT technology in aquaculture management. Based on a literature study, the more popular IoT for aquaculture is a water quality tool, for example, monitoring temperature, DO, salinity. Other IoT applications are automatic feeders or auto feeders, feed control devices, design of fish laureate, a marketplace that connects fish farmers and consumers, and design of aquaculture models that use IoT technology relatively. Although the application of IoT in Indonesia in terms of development, it can be application development using the prototype method as a software development method because the application is for many users in the future can be an iteration for future development technology-based fisheries.

“E- learning: A Tool for Knowledge access and Management” []

E-learning investigates the importance and challenges faced by teachers and learners during this pandemic. It has created a new market of education and can be successfully used for lifelong learning. Although important developments in e-learning are made on both academic and professional platforms, there are some important issues such as how e-learning is made on both issues such as how e-learning and knowledge management can be considered. This research focuses on, do this current system available by the government is able to meet the knowledge management requirements? What are the issues and challenges faced by the teacher and learners?


The purpose of the study was to find out whether teachers are implementing the Adventist Philosophy of education in Seventh Day Adventist Primary Schools in East Central Rwanda Field. This field mentioned above is made up of five primary schools with 102 teachers. All teachers (100%) were involved in the study. The study used a descriptive research design. Three research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated. This study followed the theory advanced by John Wesley Taylor that stipulated that Adventist education must nurture faith (Taylor, 2008). In this research, purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents from the target population among teachers. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire from 102 teachers in Seventh Day Adventist Primary Schools in East Central Rwanda Field. The findings of this study indicated that there are more male teachers than female teachers in SDA primary schools. From the results of this study most teachers studied in Adventist schools. About religion, most teachers in SDA primary schools in Central Rwanda Field were Adventists. The evaluation rating of the orientation program in the areas such as Knowledge about SDA philosophy of education, instructional practice and outcomes of the orientation program was high.

A 30 Days Global Campaign of Stay at Safe Place, but if forced to go out never wear off Face Mask until return back []

Philosophically, instead of treating after ill, better not let to be infected in advance! For instance, it is advantageous not to be infected by corona (if possible) than to have a treatment (if any at all). However, in reality this is not easy to accomplish, in particular if this corona is not only invisible, but also it is transmitted mainly through air droplet/aerosol! Moreover, it becomes hard to be safe, if the pandemic induce a social-economical and even political temperature. For instance, if the responsible bodies intentionally are involving in adverting for non-feasible intramuscular mode of experimental vaccines for such pathogen. Because of such muddles, in this 21st century, when civilization is trying to conquer the universe, we can’t stop when SARS-CoV-2 is crumbling lives as an autumn leaves. Therefore, the question “how not to contract the disease COVID-19”? – is a tangible question to get a real answer at this day. As a biochemist, we tried to alert the world; about what the cheapest, fastest, but effective-feasible prophylaxis option is – stay at safe place or never wear off your face mask until return back. Nevertheless, still no effective measures from responsible international organizations like WHO. Now, what we decided is to address a separate work on the given option. For this, we implemented a survey (primary data collection) and clinical-epidemiology based secondary data analysis. As a result, we reveal that public still does not aware of the mentioned option, because no one elaborates its feasibility. Instead everywhere is vaccination mandate, which is useless at least for the lungs alveolar cells! The other issue is - the word “lockdown” irritate the public, because of which we created a soft phrase and acronyms “stay at safe place (SaSP) and NOFF (never wear off until return back). Therefore, we are suggesting that implementing at least for a month the SaSP and or NOFF can eradicate not only this pandemic, but also others respiratory based pathogens. If responsible bodies interested on our work, we will offer them initial document on how to run global SaSp. Key words: pandemic, vaccine, influenza, Face Mask, control-prevention, prophylaxis


Investigation of the inhibitive effect of lucky nut oil on the corrosion of mild steel plate was carried out. Lucky nut oil otherwise called yellow oleander oil (Thevetia Peruviana), extract was made from the plant seeds using the crude method, thus drying the seeds and grinding with the aid of a grinding stone and then compressing the grind manually to get the oil. Blends were made with polished mild steel, H2SO4, NaOH, water and lucky nut oil for five weeks or 840 hours. The different blends used were water, NaOH and dilute H2SO4 solution. The results obtained showed that corrosion rate decreased with increase in inhibitor concentration in water and increased with decrease in inhibitor concentration in water. The corrosion rate in dilute H2SO4 decreased a bit with increase in inhibitor concentration and increased immensely with decrease in inhibitor concentration and the corrosion rate in absence of inhibitor was catastrophic. The presence of inhibitor indicated no change on the corrosion rate of polished mild steel plate in NaOH. Thus, it can be concluded that Lucky nut oil as an inhibitor is very effective in water, slightly effective in dilute H2SO4, mainly because of primary absorption of its oil (lucky nut oil) on the surface of the mild steel plate and could replace toxic organic chemicals. It poses no change on the corrosion rate of mild steel plate in NaOH as the blend do not corrode even in the absence of the inhibitor in NaOH solution. It concluded that corrosion rate of mild steel plate in water and dilute H2SO4 is a function of the concentration of lucky nut oil as an organic inhibitor.