Volume 9, Issue 12, December 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]


Irrigation knowledge that saves water is essential to convince the economic and environmental sustainability of commercial agriculture. Accurate irrigation scheduling is serious to improving irrigation efficiency. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the responses of tomatoes to irrigation regimes (when and how much) and to identify water productivity under optimal irrigation regimes. The study was conducted for two consecutive years at Hawassa Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Four irrigation scheduling (125% MAD, 100% MAD, 75% MAD, and Farmer practice were used. The design of the experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) which has four replications. Roma VF variety of tomato was used for this experiment. Results showed that tomato marketable, total yield, and water productivity were significantly affected by irrigation scheduling. The highest marketable tomato yields of 42750kg/ha were obtained from treatment 75%MAD irrigation scheduling. The lowest marketable tomato yield of 25250kg/ha was obtained from treatment Farmer practice. However, from economic analysis results, 100% MAD irrigation scheduling had a better marginal rate of return (5337.5). Therefore, based on the current findings, the application of irrigation scheduling for tomatoes in the study and similar agro-climatic area and soil type application of irrigation scheduling at 100% MAD gives the highest tomato yield and water use efficiency. Keywords: Irrigation Scheduling, RBCD, MAD, and Water Use Efficiency.

The Effect of Attractiveness and Credibility of Bangtan Boys (BTS) as Brand Ambassadors on Brand Image on the Tokopedia Site in Makassar []

Abstract This study aims to analyse (1) the influence of Bangtan Boys' attractiveness on brand ambassadors (2) the influence of Bangtan Boys' credibility on brand ambassadors, (3) the influence of Bangtan Boys’ attractiveness on brand image, (4) the influence of Bangtan Boys' credibility on brand image, (5) the influence of Bangtan Boys as brand ambassadors on brand image, (6) the influence of Bangtan Boys' attractiveness on brand image through brand ambassadors, (7) the influence of Bangtan Boys’ credibility on brand image through brand ambassadors. This study used a non-probability sampling technique with a sample of 384 respondents. This research is quantitative research. The data were analyzed using SEM analysis. The results show that (1) the attractiveness of Bangtan Boys affects brand ambassadors (2) the credibility of Bangtan Boys affects brand ambassadors, (3) the attractiveness of Bangtan Boys affects brand image, (4) the credibility of Bangtan Boys affects brand image, (5) Bangtan Boys as brand ambassadors affect brand image, (6) Bangtan Boys' attractiveness affects brand image through brand ambassadors, (7) Bangtan Boys’ credibility affects brand image through brand ambassadors. Keywords: Attractiveness, Credibility, Bangtan Boys, Brand Ambassador, Brand Image.


PT. Baba Studio is a company engaged in the field of computer education. Lately, the level of employee satisfaction in working at PT. Baba Studio is decreasing. The company is interested to know the variables causing this issue. This paper is intended to develop a conceptual model to determine the effect of work, family, work environment, and work stress on employee satisfaction with a case study of PT. Baba Studio. This paper proposes a conceptual model for decreasing employee satisfaction level, with a literature review, hypotheses, and research methodology. The implementation of this paper can provide information about the effects of work, family, work environment, and work stress on employee satisfaction.


Aphasia refers to a family of clinically diverse disorders that affects the ability to communicate by oral or written language due to brain damage .The present study is aimed at investigating about the differences in verbal fluency between the typical group and individuals with aphasia. The study objectives were the comparison of frequency , cluster ,cluster size , cluster ratio in semantic verbal fluency tasks. The verbal fluency tasks (‘animal’ , ‘vegetables’ and ‘vehicles’) between two groups i.e., the typical population and individuals with aphasia were compared. The study findings showed that verbal fluency scores for typical individuals were greater than that for individuals with Aphasia. Hence, the finding implies that the typical population had better performance than the clinical population due to their intact neurological structure and physiology.


The study investigated the level of the contribution of teachers’ job satisfaction on teachers’ job performance in Tanzania secondary schools. The field work covered six secondary schools in two Districts in Ruvuma region – Tanzania namely Songea municipality and Songea district council. Data was collected through a questionnaire and was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results indicated that there was significant contribution of teacher’s job satisfaction on teacher’s job performance. Further, when the independent variables involved to describe teachers job satisfaction considered separately, job security was found to have high significant contribution on teachers job performance, followed by communication which has significant contribution, then independence which has insignificant contribution and finally work condition which has significant contribution. It was recommended that, since job satisfaction has significant but low impact on teachers’ performance, the other aspects rather than satisfaction have to be considered including motivation, human resource management and supervision, setting target to reach and measures to be taken, training and workshop for improvement of teacher’s job performance. Key words: job performance, job satisfaction, teachers’ job performance and teachers’ job satisfaction.

Dining in Unison: Unravelling Barbecue culture in the Indian Society []

The Beauty of food is its creation and appreciation that follows, and the construct of Eating together has been redesigned and Unlearned in quite some ways, with the changing times. A World Eye view is relevant in this study to foresee and speculate the texts, media, politics and history that has gone into the construction of this understanding of ‘Eating Together. This paper will shred the myths and existing norms of Barbecue, the political outlook, Gender Politics and its relevance in the Indian Society along with throwing light upon how the west understands Tandoor. A comparison and contrast of ‘Barbecue’ and ‘Tandoor’ will be included to provide an informative analysis of this study. This paper will aim to explore the mechanisms, technology, use of utensils, western imprints, sports and several other themes and look at the History of Barbecue culture and the kind of Traditions adopted alongside, in its making as chapters/themes. Researchers from all domains and especially from that of Sociology and Anthropology have done regressive research and presented Data to substantiate their arguments about the lens through which the emergence of Barbecue culture is mostly done in communities and groups. Keywords: Barbecue, Culture, India, Food, Eating Together and Tandoor

The Effects of Shrimp Shell Extract Addition in Feed to Growth and Survival Rate of Sangkuriang Catfish (Clarias gariepipnus) []

The availability of feed ingredients, such as fish meal and soybean meal, is increasingly limited. Feed makers then use various methods to deal with this, one of which is through the addition of synthetic amino acids or alternative materials to feed, both as source of protein in feed ingredients or as feed additives. Shrimp shell extract from the bio-processed microbes (Bacillus licheniformis, Lactobacillus sp., and Sacharomyces sereviseae) is one of the materials that can be used as feed additive because it can improve protein quality in feed. The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal dose of shrimp shell extract addition to feed by observing the use of it on the growth and survival rate of Sangkuriang catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The research was conducted in April – May 2021. The research was carried out at the Education Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor. The method used was experimental method of Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three replications, analyzed using Analysis of Vari-ance (Anova), and as significant difference was found, then proceeded with the Duncan's Test at a level of 5%. The results showed that the addition of shrimp shell extract showed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the growth rate. All treatments resulted in a survival rate of 100%, the highest growth with the addition of shrimp shell extract at a dose of 5ml/kg was 4.63 ± 0.05% and the lowest was in the con-trol (commercial feed without the addition of shrimp shell extract) 4.4 ± 0, 08%. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the addition of shrimp shell extract at 5 ml/kg to the feed can increase the growth of Sangkuriang catfish (Clarias gariepinus).


This study aims to analyze and explain the influence of human resources, accountability and organizational commitment on financial performance through leadership style in the government of West Sulawesi Province. The data used in this study is primary data using a questionnaire. This research was conducted using a quantitative research methodology approach with an explanatory research strategy, because the research data are in the form of numbers and analysis using statistics with a hypothesis testing study research design to test the effect between variables. The study used Multiple Linear Regression and Moderated Regression Analysis using the SPSS program. The research sample amounted to 100 respondents. The results showed that: 1) human resources, accountability and organizational commitment have an effect on financial performance. 2) Leadership style can strengthen human resource relationships, accountability and organizational commitment to financial performance..


Assessment of learners is one of the key determinants for quality of education for any nation. Continuous pursuits for improvement in quality of assessment progressively led education practitioners at different levels to use varying strategies. In Uganda for instance efforts towards improving assessment has been done with emphasis on application non- discrimination of learners at different primary school class levels. The Government Uganda particularly increased opportunities for equal assessment through providing assessment materials to every learner and competent teachers deployed to support learners at various levels of assessment. Infrastructure development initiatives undertaken to reduce assessment imbalances arising from crowded classroom and lack of space. Changes in policies that encouraged skilled based and continuous assessment made and utilized. However, such efforts notwithstanding assessment outcomes in Ugandan primary schools especially Lango Sub Region. Therefore, examined the influence of democratization of education on learners’ assessment in Uganda with specific reference to Lango Sub region.

Slums in Casablanca: Assessment of the VSB program, case study: Er-hamna Slum []

The Cities Without Slums Program (VSBP) is Morocco's most well-known slum clearance initiative. It was established in 2004 on royal orders, following terrorist assaults on the country's economic center, Casablanca, in 2003. The slum clearance effort has resulted in a 66 per cent relocation rate. This rapid reduction in slums earned the Moroccan Ministry of Housing and Urban Development and Al Omrane Holding (both significant players in the VSBP), the UN-Habitat Award of Honor in 2010. Nonetheless, slums continue to resist in major cities such as Casablanca. Slums in Casablanca are a response devised by the impoverished as a result of government bureaucracy and failed housing policies; they show governments' inability to respond to urban development's need for appropriate housing for the vulnerable people. This problem will be addressed by looking back at prior techniques and examining the benefits and drawbacks of the most current VSB Program. One of these flaws is the inability of mechanisms intended for slum dwellers to gain access to property ownership, the concentration on clearing land rather than establishing new communities, and the-one-size- fits -all strategy. Afterwards, the focus is placed on whether enhancing physical housing comfort is a significant element in people's improvement of their living conditions. Using an in-depth analysis through Er-hamna slum to explore the suitability of these options regarding the overall situation of the slum dwellers and assessing people attitudes towards resettlement, and therefore to direct improved and valuable recommendations to address the slum problem.

An Investigation of effect of Inclusive Leadership on Innovative Work behavior of employees and the mediating function of Creative Self Efficacy in IT Industry []

This looks at turned into performed to discover the consequences of inclusive management at the Innovative Work Performance through Creative Self Efficacy. This looks at asses the connection among Inclusive Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior in presence of mediator Creative Self Efficacy. Our goal area is Information Technology (IT) area of Pakistan. Data turned into gathered from the IT (Information Technology) associated Organizations and software program homes of City Lahore. A general of a hundred questionnaires have been stuffed through the respondents. For the evaluation Smart PLS 3. zero is used on these studies. The evaluation of statistics confirmed that the Innovative paintings Behavior of personnel is stronger circuitously through the Inclusive Leadership in their supervisor or leaders. If the leaders are extra open, accessible, corporative, in brief they display inclusiveness to their personnel, then the personnel will generate and put into effect new and particular methods to their paintings in a scientific way. Its method they may display Innovative Behavior at their Work. Moreover, our outcomes postulate that the relation of Inclusive Leadership and Innovative Work Behavior is fortify through the Creative Self Efficacy i.e., Creative Self Efficacy have a mediating impact in among Inclusive Leadership and Innovative Work Behaviours. This look at is an extension of a present literature through addition of Creative Self efficacy as predictor of Employees Innovation at paintings. These studies will offer control of enterprise strategies to boom their employee’s innovation. They can behaviours schooling on inclusiveness of managers and leaders to be able to assist their personnel to create innovation thoughts and display revolutionary paintings conduct through increment in their Creative Self Efficacy.


ABSTRACT: Basically the very aim of this research article is to assess and measure the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the paper industry in Pakistan. For this, primary research has been adopted in which all primary data has been collected through conducting survey. The COVID-19 outbreak has significantly affected paper industry like many other industries throughout the world. Pakistan has also experienced an adverse impact on paper industry during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic due to closing of all schools for months. Production was reduced almost from 20% to 30% per month soon after the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The amplification of COVD-19 has been predicted to cause a long-term bad impact on paper mills of Pakistan. Paper industry of Pakistan has not been excluded from the curse of this Pandemic. This research examines the real damage caused to the paper industry and survey was carried out for better assessment of loss caused by the closing of schools during the first wave of Covid-19. In order to get exact results data has been collected from seven paper mills of Lahore and Sheikhupura region randomly to build research based on the foundation of a working hypothesis. Telephonic interviews were organized with production heads of the mills and detailed discussion was done to dig the exact figure of production due to Government policy to restrict students from attending schools for some months consequently.  This research is a result-oriented descriptive study describing the current situation using a quantitative approach. Probability with simple random sampling to assess the most appropriate results. This study is essential to paving the way for the development of additional contingency plans and new working strategy in a minimized human contact situation due to COVID-19 pandemic.


Abstract The contribution of information and communication technology in various sectors of the economy which family survival is not excluded is well recognized globally. Despite this, the question of whether ICT enhances family survival still wagging in the tongue of researcher. However, this paper attempts to investigate the extent at which ICT contributed to family survival on the bases of communication, livelihood and learning. Qualitative research method was used in this study. The population of this research are the productive age couples in Lagos State with a sample size of 180 comprising 60 respondents from each of the three senatorial zones in the state. The researcher also uses an in-depth interview with the chosen sample to gain all the data needed for this research. PPMCC and Linear Regression Analysis Method was used to analyze the hypotheses. The study concluded that ICT enhanced family survival. It also concludes that ICT positively Influence the family effective communication and source of livelihood. The result of hypothesis tested showed that there is significant relationship between ICT products and family learning. Based on the findings of this study, the study recommended that government should provide more ICT infrastructure and that ICTs should be widely affordable and very reasonable in order to aid more family communication, livelihood and learning. Keywords: ICT, ICT Products, Effective Communication, Livelihood, Learning, Lagos, Computer


Indonesia as a maritime country should be able to further develop the fisheries sector. Fish is a perishable food source, so it needs to be processed quickly and accurately currently, canned fish products have been widely circulated in the free market, including those found in supermarkets and traditional markets. Not only home industries have produced canned fish, but also large industries. The existence of canned fish began to be known to the public, although not widely. Therefore, a literature review is needed regarding the potential and advantages of canned packaging in fishery products. The results of this literature review are expected to present further experimental research related to the use of canned packaging in fishery products that have a better impact on fishery products and consumers. The results of the review article that has been done show that fishery products that can be packaged in cans according to several previous studies include milkfish, African catfish fillet, tuna, sardines, skipjack tuna, gray tuna, lemuru fish, and tembang fish. In canned fish products, the pH value is influenced by many factors, a decrease in the pH value occurs in smoked Dumbo Catfish Fillet from 6.80 to 5.47, then Chela Fish from 6.8 to 5.9, in tuna fish from 5.97 to 5.91. Then the water content of milkfish is 59.41% and canned sardines is 10.25% and ash content is 2.46%.

Statistical Analysis on Child Abuse Prevalence in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council, Borno State []

This aimed at assessing child abuse prevalence in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council. A survey research technique was used, three strategic areas of Moduganari, Monday market and Tashan Bama of the metropolis were considered. Simple random sampling techniques used to select a sample of 150 respondents for convenience. Structured questionnaire was the main instrument used in the collection of relevant information from the respondents. The data collected were organized and analysed using descriptive statistics of bar chart and tables and inferential statistics of chi-square. From the study it shows that factors such as divorce, gender, environment, parental status and parents educational level and that child negligence is the most common type of child abuse in Maiduguri and child labour is the most common form of child abuse have significant influence on child abuse prevalence in Maiduguri metropolis. The study recommends that government should set up a community based service that provides home visitation programs to educate parents on child development, counseling, problem solving, promotion of positive parent-child interaction, ensuring a source regular health care, promotion of environmental safety and classes for preparing for motherhood.

Political connection, Firm performance and tax benefits: Pakistan Evidences []

It is a broad concern that tax benefits and firm performance depends not only on the mangers ability to exploit the market of the economy but also on the success ability of political markets. This paper performs an investigation on the political effect on firm performance towards enterprises SEOs and private enterprises. We utilize the information of Pakistani recorded firms from 2014 to 2020, and we found that politically associated administrators of private firms outflank without such chiefs whose neighborhood SOEs fail to meet expectations without such supervisors. We tracked down that some private firms, which are politically related supervisors inclined or serious issues of over financial backers. This study resolves the mixture of findings with the previous literature on political connections impact on the frim performance and tax benefits.

Review on parasites of commercially important tropical fishes: - Characteristics, Distribution, risk factors and Prevention approaches []

This review has been made with the objectives of compiling the nature and characteristics of the most common fish parasites in the tropical regions of the world. The review was made with a collection of published articles in the area of fish parasitology in tropical regions of the world. Fish parasites are important components of host biology, population structure and indeed ecosystem functioning. They can be found in any fish species and within any type of aquatic and culture system. They range from protozoans such as flagellates, ciliates, and apicomplexans to metazoans including myxozoans, trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, nematodes, and crustaceans. Over 40% of all known species on earth are parasitic with parasitism being ubiquitous in some taxa and either absent or rare in others. The knowledge of the status of parasite diversity in the tropics is still inadequate. Parasitic infestation frequently occurs in fish that causes retarded growth rate, reduced production, consumer rejection, low reproduction and mass mortality in fish. The most common symptoms of parasitic infestations in fish are weight loss, disruption of reproduction or impotency, blindness, abnormal behaviour, epithelial lesions, deformities of gills and others. These all eventually cause an economic loss in the fish farming sector and hence parasites are among the important factors responsible for production losses but fish parasites may be present in or on fish in subclinical state or carrier state and do not always cause disease in fish. Therefore, it is essential to conduct research on the major fish parasitic pathogens which will help for future aquaculture productivity and other environmental functions of the fish parasites in the aquatic environment.


Steam reforming which accounts for over 50% of hydrogen production is limited by thermal equilibrium. Frequent occurrences in conventional tubular steam reformer are sintering of catalysts, hot spots and hot-bands on tubes and low methane conversion. To overcome the equilibrium limitation of methane reforming, a membrane steam reformer is suggested whereby the production and separation of synthesis gas is consolidated in one system. In this study, 1-D steady state models were developed to predict the performance of methane steam reforming reaction in a membrane reactor. To evaluate the kinetics of membrane steam reforming of methane, the widely accepted Xu and Fromment equations were employed. MATLAB ODE23s solver which implements the 4th order Runge-Kutta algorithm was useful in obtaining solutions to the developed models. Effects of changing parameters such as inlet temperature, steam to gas ratio and membrane thickness, were investigated. Simulation studies carried out in this research revealed that performing reforming of methane in membrane type reactor can lead to 99% reactant conversion at moderate temperature (500-600 oC). Using input parameters of a conventional steam reformer (inlet temperature and pressure of 530oC /29bar respec-tively) resulted in a methane conversion and hydrogen yield of 73.6%/2.7 respectively. Model results showed a 21.6% increase of methane conversion in membrane reactor against a conventional steam reformer. The results were validated with [1] and deviations of 2% (methane conversion) and 9% (hydrogen yield) were recorded. Hydrogen yield reached 3.5 at an optimal temperature of 590 oC.


Fish is a very important source of animal protein. Therefore, efforts are needed to increase the shelf life of fishery products. Fishery products are products that are very quickly damaged and if not immediately taken action preservation. Aluminium foil is a type of packaging that is produced using aluminium foil or alufoil as the basic material. In general, this packaging is used for products that need to be protected from sunlight and powder products that clump. The method used in this journal is a laboratory test method by analysis the water content of a processed fishery product packaged in aluminium foil. The purpose of this journal is to determine the water content of fishery products. In addition, this journal also aims to determine the effect of the type of aluminium foil packaging on the quality of fishery products. Keywords : Processed Fish, Aluminium Foil Packaging, Water Content


This article aims to study the method of isolation of chitin from crab shells. Based on the literacy study above, it can be concluded that the isolation of chitin from crab shells can be done by chemical methods, fermentation methods, and enzymatic methods. Of the three methods actually have the same steps as demineralization and deproteinization, the demineralization process aims to remove minerals in the crab shell, while deproteinization aims to remove the protein content in chitin.

Towards the Creation of Information and Knowledge Culture []

Information and knowledge in knowledge management creates polarity and subservience in their utilization, storage, and distribution biased against information because it is always believed that the creation and management of knowledge determines organizational success far beyond information processing. This paper argues that the confluence of information and knowledge uptake in a highly globalized society should be the new paradigm where parallel functions of the two ensure systems approach management recognizing both as inseparable and interdependent ele-ments and the creation of an information and knowledge culture in an organization is recognized as the dictum of optimal organiza-tional management.

Robust Ridge Regression Estimators for Handling Multicollinearity and Outliers in Linear Regression Models []

In multiple linear regression analysis, the ordinary least squares (OLS) method has been the most popular technique for estimating parameters of linear regression model due to its optimal properties. OLS estimator may fail when the assumption of independence is violated. This assumption can be violated when there is correlation between the exploratory variables. In this situation, the data is said to contain multicollinearity and eventually will mislead the inferential statistics. However, the problem becomes more complicated when there are abnormal observational data known as outliers. Multicollinearity and Outliers are two main problems. When multicollinearity exists, biased estimation technique Ridge Estimator are preferable to OLS. On the other hand, when outliers exist in the data, robust estimator like LTS Estimator, are preferred. To handle these two problems jointly, the study ussed Robust Ridge Regression estimator. This study aims to examine the performances of four estimators of multiple linear regression model with combined problems of multicollinearity and outliers. The performance of the four estimators, namely the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Ridge Regression (RIDGE), Least Trimmed Square (LTS) and a robust ridge regression estimator based on Least Trimmed Square estimator (RIDGE LTS) are compared using mean square error as criteria for assessment. For this purpose, a simulation data with p = 3; n = 25, 50,100; and full multicollinearity (r = 0.90, 0.95, 0.99) and outliers (0%, 20%) was used. The existence of multicollinearity was evaluated using VIF value. The empirical evidence shows that RIDGE LTS is the best among the four estimators for degree of multicollinearity and number of outliers and is more efficient because it has the smallest MSE than LTS and RIDGE in any samples sizes.


ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of group continuous assessment strategies on candidate teachers’ academic achievement and attitude towards modern algebra (Mathematics). Group continuous assessment strategies as a preferred continuous assessment methods were tested and proved as stated in the result section of this research. The study was conducted at Giggle Beles College of Teachers Education (GBCTE) on second year mathematics stream candidate teachers. Three intact sections were taken and candidate teachers’ are grouped into 4 according to their mathematics group point Average (GPA) taken from the registrar of the college and each group is formed systematically according to their achievement level. In the study, data were obtained through the use of quasi experimental group model. Two types of instruments were used for measurement: achievement tests and survey method using five Likert scale questionnaire to know candidate teachers’ attitude towards Modern Algebra due to the effect of group continuous assessment. Pilot study was carried out on 20 candidate teachers of the same background taken from other College of Teachers Education (CTE) but not in the sample group to test the reliability of the questionnaire items and achievement test items. The calculated Cronbach alpha coefficient result was greater than 6.5 for each questionnaire and GCA test questions. The data obtained from the three intact sections and all groups result were analyzed using SPSS window 16.0. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation were used to describe candidate teachers’’ achievement test scores and their questionnaire responses. Meanwhile, multiple regressions were used to analyze the contribution of continuous marks to final grades of candidate teachers’; ANOVA also used to analyze significant differences in the assessment marks. Each intact section was grouped into four and treated with four GCA strategies and one test after the treatment of each GCA Strategies and with one final examination independently. Likert scale was used to know students' attitude towards modern algebra. Results in table 5 and 8 indicated that implementing GCA strategies improved candidate teachers’’ academic achievement in modern algebra and attitude towards modern algebra. Candidate teachers developed positive attitude towards GCA strategies, their academic achievement and attitude towards modern algebra were positively correlated. At college level other teachers are encouraged to implement GCA methods of continuous assessment for their candidate teachers in the teaching of mathematic concept. Key Words: Group Continuous Assessment, Collaborative Learning, Achievement of Mathematics

Consumer purchase Awareness and Intension towards Green Produts []

Abstract This paper aims to analyze whether the Cost Effectiveness, Knowledge, Benefit and Promotional Strategy have significant effect on consumers purchasing intension towards green product in Nepal. A convenient sample of 288 respondents approaching self-administered questionnaires survey from different locations in Butwal has been conducted. Regression analysis were used to explore the relationship between independent variables (Cost Effectiveness, Knowledge, Benefit and Promotional Strategy) and dependent variable i.e. consumers purchasing intension. The results reveal that Cost Effectiveness, Knowledge, Benefit and Promotional Strategy have positive effect to determine the consumers purchasing intension towards green product in Nepal. Cost effectiveness, Benefit of the green product does not affect consumers purchasing intension towards green product in Nepal. Key words- Green product, Cost Effectiveness, Knowledge, Benefit and Promotional Strategy, Consumer purchase intension, Multiple Regression, Correlation .

Customers Buying Behavior towards Smart Phones in Butwal, Nepal []

Cell phones are one of the moving web-based media nowadays. It's turning into a piece of life as it becomes impeded without this. The cell phone is assuming a significant part that has returned our TV, Radio FM, watch, and so forth in this innovation and cutthroat period, this review will be more fundamental intended for Mobility organizations that their business &profit will be founded on client prerequisites and insights. Every one of the shoppers use cell phones to make their life more straightforward and to embrace the digitalized world by associating the web with the entire world. Highlights/credits that considered by clients while purchasing cell phones are, for example, brand picture, useful, highlights, and applications, battery use, working framework, goal of camera, pixels, stockpiling limit, solidness and similarity, cost. These likewise incorporate various brands like ex-china telephones.

Tunde Kelani’s The Narrow Path: An Approach to Feminist Discourse []

Nigerian Home Videos and Films have become a colossal imprint entity that dictates the pace for African films. Many film producers, no doubt, have contributed immensely to this tremendous growth. However, one towering figure who has contributed significantly to this phenomenal image of Nigerian film industry is Tunde Kelani. TK, as he is popularly called, has affected positively the content, language and pictures of Nigerian Film Industry. Many of TK’s films have been critically examined and analyzed along the line of language, lexis and moodand style but the feminist angle to his works has not been thoroughly explored. Hence, the significance of this paper. Tunde Kelani has shown through his films that he is unapologetically a feminist through the treatment and roles he gives to women in his films such as Arugba, Maami, The Narrow Path and others.Unlike some other Nollywood film producers, TK has adorned women with pride, honour and gait, though, he equally lampoons and discredits exuberance and negative attitudes. His film, The Narrow Path which is the object of the current research is exceptionally crafted and is one of his best in the promotion of feminist views, moral values, etiquette, cultural balance and nemesis. This paper discusses how all the above items are portrayed in the film. It is our opinion that filmmakers, in Africa, especially in Nigeria should take a cue from the innovations and trends in TK’s films in order to further enhance the positive image of African films.


The study on effect of metacognition on secondary school students’ interest in mathematics in Gwer-East Local Government Area of Benue State was an attempt to ascertain the effect of metacognitive strategy on students’ interest in mathematics and to determine the effect of metacognitive strategy on male and female students’ interest in mathematics. The study used a quasi-experimental design. 120 senior secondary one student (SSS1) were used. The experimental group were expose to metacognitive teaching approach while the control group were taught using the conventional method. The instrument used for data collection was Metacognitive Mathematics Interest Inventory (MMII) with a reliability coefficient of 0.83 using Cronbach’s Alpha. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. Results from the study revealed that the students taught mathematics using the metacognitive teaching approach showed higher interest in learning mathematics than the students in the conventional method group. The study also revealed that both the male and female students in the experimental group had interest in mathematics. The study recommended among others that; teachers should teach students how their brain is wired for growth. The beliefs that students adopt about learning and their own brain will affect their performance. Research shows that when students develop a growth mindset and a fixed mindset, they are more likely to engage in reflective thinking about how they learn and grow. Teachers should build in ways for students to “stop and take stock” during class. During class, teachers should ask students to pause for 1-2 minutes and think about what they are doing at that moment. After the pause, this could be a good time for students to ask question. By way of participation in the mathematics class, students can get interested in learning mathematics.