Volume 9, Issue 3, March 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Talent Retention Enriches Organizational Performance. A study of Hotel Industry in Sri Lanka. []

Growing and competitive corporate world, retention of skilled employee is that the main challenge to each organization. To realize this aim, all organizations are specializing in to reinforce customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, product and service quality and employer branding (internal branding). But, the research on "talent retention enriches organizational performance" in hotel industry in Sri Lanka is scarce and partial. This study attempts to accumulate literature so as to how talent retention enriches organizational performance in hotel industry in Sri Lanka. The results show the underlying patterns of relationships between talent retention and organizational performance and its influencing factors. Such understanding has relevancy for academicians and researchers for furthering the add this field. The insights into the previous studies are discussed and suggestions for future research that concentrate on identified gaps within the literature are provided. Keywords: Learning and Development, Organizational Performance, Talent Attraction, Talent Management, Talent Retention.


Majidun River is used for artisanal fishing, transportation and domestic activities in Ikorodu, Lagos State. At the lower course, the river receives eluate from solid wastes dumped at the shore; this coupled with sand mining could impact adversely on the biota and their environment. There is dearth of information on their limnology. The aim of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics of Majidun River in order to provide information for effective management. Monthly sampling was carried out from three randomly selected sites on Majidun River (from September 2019 to August, 2020. Water temperature was measured in situ. Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH and alkalinity were determined from collected surface water according to APHA methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and ANOVA. Mean temperature, conductivity, DO, BOD, pH and alkalinity were 27.6 °C ± 3.3°C,116.3 ± 2.0 μScm-1,6.3±1.2 mg/L,3.0±0.8 mg/L,7.3± 0.1 and 12.0 ±2.9 mg/L respectively for the river, Water temperature, pH, conductivity, BOD, DO and alkalinity values fell within WHO limits for aquatic life. The findings suggest that the river is impacted by anthropogenic activities. There is need for enforcement of management policies against dumping of wastes into the river. The river could be used for aqua cultural practices, but not for drinking. Keywords: Physico-chemical characteristics, Anthropogenic wastes, Majidun River and Reservoir.

An Aquatic park as a strategy for waterfront development []

AN AQUATIC PARK AS A STRATEGY FOR WATERFRONT DEVELOPEMENT By BALOGUN, PROMISE JOSEPH Department of Architecture, Rivers State University Nkpolu Oroworukwo, Port –Harcourt. Abstract This paper identifies the importance of Aquatic parks as a strategy for the development of waterfront areas and the questions to address to ensure a successful waterfront development. The development of the areas at the waterfront has major importance enabling an appropriate insertion of human activities and agglomerations in an increasingly threatened and deteriorating environment. For cities located along a major waterfront – whether that's a lake, river, or ocean – figuring out how to best utilize that space without harming the environment can be a challenge. Many of the most popular activities, such as boating, can be highly polluting, and overdevelopment near the shore can cause problems with erosion, runoff, and contamination. Still, used correctly, waterfront property can be a key part of urban recreation space without contributing to these problems. However, in some cases, the implementation of these waterfront projects is driven more by investment needs than by community and environmental needs, with developers neither taking part nor contributing to the government goals of sustaining water and riversas assets for the country. Aquatic Park provides an opportunity for the development of economic growth within the waterfront area. However, the nature of sustainability assessment practice for aquatic Parks tends to be more focused on social and environmental aspects. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to investigate the relevant economic and sustainability assessment of Aquatic Parks. Keywords: Aquatic Parks, waterfront development, waterfront, Strategy, sustainability

Concept Paper- Social Media and Influencer Marketing Strategies: A conceptual Review on Contemporary Applications []

Growing usage of social media globally has changed the dynamics of marketing and consumer behaviour. Social media has become an important communication strategy for marketers to build their brands. Influencer Marketing (IM) is relatively a new discipline in marketing to interact and engage with stakeholders in social media. The increasing importance of social media influencers (SMIs) has been acknowledged by marketers and gained attention of the academics. Despite the growing relevance of this social media-marketing (SMM) tool, extant literature paid limited attention on the effectiveness of influencer marketing on delivering the outcomes of strategic social media marketing communication. Therefore this paper followed a deductive approach to review extant scholarly work on Influencer marketing and social media marketing literature and researches on its contemporary application. Finally, this paper has proposed a conceptual framework for marketers to evaluate the effectiveness of influencer marketing strategies on social media to drive organisational performance by synthesising the empirical thoughts and content. Keywords: Influencer Marketing, Social Media, Social Media Marketing, Social Media Influencers

Motivation and Personalities' Traits in Team Management []

To be an effective leader, it is expected that one must know how to motivate his/her team well. To do this, one factor that he/she must consider is the personality and behavior of each member of the team. There are various ways in assessing everyone’s personality traits. Including being very close to team members, utilizing emotional intelligence to understand deeply the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional attitude, as well as the astrological traits. Despite that, the two authors have the belief that astrology is not an approved science and cannot be considered or approved as the main source to grasp individuals’ characters, but it has been used among the other said methods to plan the useful ways to motivate the team. Research has suggested that by using this approach, a thorough understanding among each member of the team will suffice and a healthy working relationship is attainable. In fact, the authors of this paper have conducted research on a group of 40 individuals that constitutes a project team from different disciplines, backgrounds, and nationalities. The research has shown this approach is effective among the leader and his employees resulting in 90% of the participants showing interest and enthusiasm to better job performance. As a result, a more harmonious working relationship between the superior and his subordinates as well as among the colleagues was achieved.

The Impact of Product Image Brand Trust, and Customer Satisfaction on Loyalty of Local Products in Yemen []

Abstract The main objective of this study to examine the Impact of Product Image, Brand Trust, and Customer Satisfaction on Loyalty of Local Products in Yemen The study has significant implications to practice and theory. This research is primarily using quantitative approaches. The survey will distribute online and collected consumer of local products in Yemen and will subsequently use in validating and testing necessary hypotheses. The study is important to practice because it provides new insights into brand loyalty factors by identifying the determining factors that influence Yemeni consumers to develop loyalty to local products to industry managers and practitioners. In this way, specific and relevant measures can be instituted toward the end. It provides the underpinning theory, loyalty to local products. The literature on product image, satisfaction, trust, and brand loyalty also the of discusses literature on brand loyalty, product image, satisfaction, and brand trust, which eventually lead to the theoretical framework and hypothesis of this study Keywords: Product, Important, Products, Impact, loyalty, Brand, Yemeni and Image

Innovative Entrepreneur and Creativity: A Bibliometric Analysis []

Given the current, competitive, and demanding market scenario, it is necessary to understand and create unusual strategies to achieve greater gains in relation to the competition. One of these strategies is already widely studied, practiced, and characterized by its ability to renew business, by the commitment of all stakeholders and by covering clear objectives. This is innovative entrepreneurship, which in recent years brings excellent results to those who adopt it. However, this entrepreneurship is based on many actions and conditions favorable to innovation, considered fundamental to boost a company towards its objectives and, therefore, also favor the career of the professionals responsible for them. Therefore, this article proposes to analyze through exploratory bibliographic, documentary research and a bibliometric study the evolution of publications on the themes of entrepreneurship, innovation, and creativity in the last years. The main research platforms were used to access bibliographic databases, citation counting, subject significance and the opportunity for further research in the area. The theoretical framework contextualized the history of the application of the terms innovative entrepreneurship and creativity. After the treatment of the data, it was already possible to perceive with the results obtained the great relevance of the subject addressed and, because it is a frequently updated topic, there is a great interest of researchers for the development of new studies.

Influence of Environmental Parameters on General health status and Condition Index of Brackish water clam Meretrix casta occur in selected estuaries in Sri Lanka []

Many economically important bivalve species such as oysters, mussels, scallops, clams and cockles are recorded in the Coastal waters of Sri Lanka. Condition index (CI), is an inexpensive tool for assessing their general health, growth differences and for monitoring environmental pollution. It is a quantitative measure of the relative physical condition of the molluscs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the CI of Meretrix casta, a brackish water clam commonly found in estuarine habitats of Sri Lanka. For this study we selected four sites Namely Mundal Lake, Marawala in Chilaw lagoon, Pamunugama and Pitipana in Negombo lagoon. The effect (If any) of general water quality parameters on the CI of these clams was also assessed. The clams were sampled from each site (n=30) monthly during the period of September 2007 to May 2008 (nine months) and site specific temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels in water were measured in each sampling period. The condition index was determined as a percentage of soft tissue weight to whole weight of the animal. The results showed that CI of the clams collected from Mundal Lake and Marawala was significantly lower (ANOVA, Fisher’s test, P<0.05) than that of clams collected from the sampling sites of Negombo lagoon despite significant temporal variations in CI of clams in each site during the study period. The CI of clams collected from Mundal Lake was significantly correlated with the conductivity (r = 0.759, P < 0.05) and salinity (r = 0.759, P < 0.05) of water. However no significant correlations were found between the CI of the clams collected from each site and other water quality parameters. Shell erosion especially in the umbo region was prominent in the clams collected from Mundal Lake (> 90%) and Marawala (> 96%) Chillaw lagoon in all sampling periods compared to the clams collected from Pitipana and Pamunugama in Negombo lagoon. The shell erosion may have affected the general condition of the clams residing in Mundal Lake and Marawala sites.

Review of Coordination and Governance of Agriculture Industry Activities in Sri Lanka and Potential Use of ICT in Value Chain Strategy []

Over last sixty years, Sri Lankan agriculture sector has gone through a downhill resulting a growth drop from thirty percent to seven percent of its contribution to national GDP. There might be multiple factors contributing to this downturn including weak coordination of industry activities and inadequate governance of various functions. Therefore, this case review investigates how the activity coordination and governance of agricultural industry relates to this degrowth and potential use of ICTs to improve the situation. The review brings in value chain concepts and associated theories into the analysis to unpack the coordination and governance issues. In series the available literature and sector performances indicators are also reviewed. The possible use of modern ICTs is assessed to improve the agriculture value chain coordination and governance (AVC C&G) of activities. The government initiatives on e-agriculture adaptation and the existing ICT service platforms deployed at present in supporting agriculture are briefly assessed in the process of propositioning a conceptual approach to design the modules of full-featured agro support system which can integrate industry activities for improved AVC C&G. The review proposes a research based methodical approach to design the artifacts (modules) of the system following the design science research method (DSR). The proposed approach opens up three research areas: 1) Identification of barriers of user adaptation to ICTs into an integrated AVC, 2) Selection of appropriate technology to onboard AVC actors, and provide AVC C&G services, 3) Identification of strategic business model for such digital deployment in Sri Lankan context. Keywords: agriculture; agriculture value chain; e-agriculture; information exchange; value chain coordination and governance; conceptual model


Abstract The Covid 19 has given an opportunity for many organizations to rethink and reframe their work force management. The pandemic has opened the eyes of many employers for look for more feasible working patterns for both the organizations and its employees. With the corona pandemic a massive hit happen to the Sri Lankan economy due to the lockdowns and slowdown of the workforce in many industries. If we take the government sector, most of the departments of the government sector did not function almost for three months. The private sector also didn’t fully function during the first wave and this became a major hit on Sri Lankan economy and there was a stand still on the revenue generators of the country. During the lockdown the Business owners had to rethink re-aligning the work. New strategic imperatives were introduced during the lockdown and continued carefully observing the situation in the country. Many organizations have faced challengers managing their workforce with the Covid 19 guild lines imposed by the government. Staff limitations, health measurements, hygiene and safety precautions were imposed by many organizations. This paper provides an opportunity to understand how Covid 19 impacted on the work force management and how it should thoughtfully managed by the organizations to overcome economic crisis in Sri Lanka. Included are reviews from different articles reviewing the global impact and the impact within Sri Lanka. The literature review highlight the empirical discussions taking examples from Sri Lankan industries giving examples of the challenges that the organizations had and the suggestions to overcome the issues. The important practices that could be implemented to overcome the situation is discussed in the paper. The paper will give you an idea on how the Covid 19 pandemic affected on the work force in Sri Lanka and a general view on how this has impacted on the economy of the county. Finally the paper concludes discussing on the overall reviews and giving suggestions which could be implemented to overcome the situation in the long run. Keywords: Covid 19, Economic Impact, Industry Impact, Sri Lanka, Work Force Management


The cruise shipping industry in the world is a new segment that has distinguished itself over the years through a constant increase in passenger flows and vessel sizes, representing the fastest growing business in the leisure and tourism industry. The market drivers of the contemporary cruise industry are similar to those that fostered the growth of tourism after World War II, particularly the rising affluence of the global population and the growing popularity of exotic and resort destinations. The cruise industry, thus, presents an illusion of diversity with the bulk of the market firmly in the hands of large players. The cruise industry over time became oligopolistic as high levels of concentration emerged. Although the penetration into new markets occurs through alliances and collaboration with local brands, there is a dominant power of the cruise companies and a concentration of itineraries, leading to the overload of a small number of ports, whether homeports or ports of call. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of cruise shipping industry on port performance. The selected variables included port infrastructure, proximity to inland assets, and terminal logistics as cruise determinants on port performance. The study adopted the theory of Spatial Integration Model and Any Port Model. The research methodology was a descriptive research design. The target population were middle level managers, transport and logistics staff and communications staff members from Port of Mombasa totaling to 53 members upon which a sample of 42memebers were selected for the study. Questionnaires with closed questions structured in a Likert Scale format, ranging from one to five was used as the main instrument of data collection. The study findings indicated that all the selected variables had a positive influence on port performance. Thus, the study recommended that a policy be formulated to enhance cruise activities at the port of Mombasa. Further suggestion on future was indicated to use different settings with distinctive variables and use different measured variables to attests for the results. Key Words. Cruise shipping, infrastructure, inland assets & terminal logistics


Water for Agriculture sector in Sri Lanka is facing challenges through increased demands by other sectors and also confronts the issues of a market economy and international and regional trade agreements that are exerting pressures on prices and thus farmer incomes. Issues of ability of most farmers to secure full employment from irrigated farming thus impacting on their income generation avenues are requiring new initiatives as well. This study identified the potential river basins and irrigation schemes for further development. Uti-lize the water resources in an effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable manner, consistent with the social, economic, environmental and political needs of present and future generations by practicing effective water management. Shift from subsistence agriculture to commercially oriented agriculture leads to increase in production, especially of high value of crops that would readily find a create employment opportunities and ensure enhanced income level and improve higher standard of living.


This study designed to investigates the association between selected board characteristics and firm performances of organizations registered under non-financial firms in the Colombo Stock Exchange. Accordingly, 174 companies have been used as a sample over four years (2015 -2018) with the main objectives of measure the levels of corporate governance and board characteristics of selected companies and examine their association. ROA and ROE used as the dependent variables of the study and the Board characteristics index used as independent variables while controlling for three variables (i.e., firm size, age, and leverage). Results obtained via correlation analysis, OLS regression, and panel regression and which identified that there is a significant (p<0.1) association between board characteristics and return on assets of the firms. Firm size and Leverage are the only control variables that become significant (p<0.01) in explaining the variation of firm performances. The study suggests vital managerial implications to policymakers in reforming and strengthen corporate governance guidelines in achieving higher firm performances.


Education for Sustainable Development has been launched as one of the key answers to dealing with the sustainability of education at all levels. This study is conducted to find out the predominant model for integrating Education Sustainable Development in tertiary institutions. A total of 34 articles from 18 peer-reviewed journals were selected for the review in which different models of implementing education for sustainable development in the teaching and learning in tertiary institutions were presented and illustrated by four studies. The results indicated that “three pillars model of sustainability” was predominantly used in the integration of education for sustainable development. Moreover, “Sustainable Development Institute’s theoretical model” and “Wheeler's model of education for sustainable development were also found effective when implemented in tertiary institutions. Consequently, the findings indicated that the human factor including resistance, communication, empowerment & involvement, and organisational culture could become barriers for the integration of SD in Higher Education.


Enhancing students take the imitative in learning is the primary goals of many educational institutions. The main purpose of this study is to discuss the extensive features of the self- directed learning as a strategy in teaching social studies. Definitely, this study focuses on the benefits of self-directed learning, perception of teachers and students to self-directed learning, self-directed as a strategy in teaching social studies and effects associated with self- directed learning. Related studies reveal that when teachers use self- directed learning, learners feel, and exercise, authentic control over the learning, phase and purpose of their own readiness. Thus, self-directed learning can help teachers to diagnose learner’s needs with or without help of others. Both academic, metacognition and readiness can enhance the learners.

Integrated Lean Strategic Tools And Business Process Management To Sustain Organizational Overall Performance For Sri Lankan Lean Manufacturing Firms: An Interpretive Structural Modelling of Cultural Transformational Approach []

ABSTRACT This conceptual paper builds on the deliberation regarding the application of Lean strategy principles and Lean management tools are to define a process for executing strategic planning oriented towards with Business Process Management (BPM) in modern Lean organization, specifically focusing on the manufacturing sector. The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to highlight the potential role played by Lean strategy tools for strategic planning and management, particularly in reference to the Hoshin Kanri policy deployment system and the “Focus, Alignment, Integration, and Review”(FAIR) method; second, to discuss how Lean strategy principle can be operationalized, specifically relying on the X-Matrix reporting tool; and third, to explore a process for executing strategic planning oriented towards the promotion of a BPM management approach the how simulation techniques, in the form of role-playing (RP), may support the aforementioned operationalization of Lean Management while at the same time promoting policymaking in policy management (PM) and knowledge sharing to Daily management (DM) hence sustainability of organizational overall performance to get competitive advantage. Specifically, the paper relies on the proposition of a new approach to promote BPM in alignment with Lean strategic and Lean management tools, which was synthesized in the model presented. The use of this technique facilitated the identification of solutions to the root causes identified in the conceptual framework of assessment. These two Policy Management (PM) and Daily Management (DM) systems functioning in isolation cannot deliver the expected benefits to the organization and it will not help to gain competitive advantage in today’s context. Consequently, most of the Lean implemented organizations are struggling to sustain implemented systems, tools and concepts including the human behavioral change. The conceptual framework supports the definition of actions oriented to solving most of the management dysfunctions of the organization in focus. The relevant literatures were examined to develop the structural model with referring FAIR method from PM system to DM systems by using business process management technique to ensure the sustainability of organizational overall performance through cultural Lean transformational in Sri Lankan manufacturing firms. Keywords: Business Process Management, Daily Management, Lean Management, Lean Strategy, Policy Management, Organizational performance


The location of Bonny bestows the Island with a climate that poses unique challenges to the built environment. Standout data, for instance, reveals that Bonny Island receives approximately 4000mm of rainfall annually, amongst the highest of any Nigerian town. Prior research established that presently, the Bonny Island built environment does not adequately respond to its insular climate. The adverse impact of heavy rainfall on the built environment especially in urban areas is regrettably obvious as rain delivers a significant amount of water for various deterioration mechanisms from rising damp to deterioration of concrete reinforcement. Also because of global warming there is potential for the intensification of extreme rainfall events and thus an increase in climate vulnerability of the built environment. However, the considerable negative consequences are mostly underestimated when not addressed holistically. The problem is the marked absence of research-based architecture and planning parameters and guidelines that mitigate the Bonny insular climatic challenges, which is available to the population at large. Consequential changes like the upsurge of employment opportunities of Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas Company (NLNG SevenPlus), the proposed deep-sea port, and the road link to the mainland with their consequent potential for heavy migration into the island can alter the demographics significantly, lunching a developmental and infrastructural explosion on Bonny Island. These changes all underscore the importance for researched mitigation strategies and guidelines in response to the rainfall, based upon current scientific knowledge, techniques, materials, and methods of construction. This study focuses on, identifying both advantageous and adverse rainfall impacts, mitigating parameters and weather management strategies specific to Bonny Island. The methodologies used in this ex-post facto research included literature review that established the inadequacies of the broad regional approach to climate response for design purposes, opting for site-specific climate variations as determinants of design parameters and guidelines. The approach is passive observational, relying on surveys, individual depth interviews and photographic documentation. Also obtained were secondary archival climatic data as well as prior information from the Bonny Island Joint Industries Committee (JIC), NLNG, SHELL and MOBIL. Data analysis identified persistently high rainfall and humidity as the most predominant climatic elements militating against comfort and sustainability of the Island’s built environment. Guided by novel application of confirmed archival scientific principles and considerations for appropriate climate response objectives, the recommendations for mitigating the impact of rainfall on Bonny Island was determined.

Challenges And Opportunities For IT Startups/SMEs In Sri Lanka : Special Focus On COVID 19 Outbreak []

Abstract This paper aims at identifying the challenges faced by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and startups and opportunities of the same in the information technology industry in Sri Lanka during the Covid 19 outbreak. Numerous studies have been conducted on challenges for SMEs and startups in different industries focusing Covid 19 outbreak. In general, the literature on challenges of SMEs and Startups is very specific according to the industry. When focusing on the corona outbreak some of the challenges are similar despite the difference in the industries. It is crucial to identify such challenges more specifically in relation to the information technology industry which is one of the major foreign income sources in Sri Lanka. The study supported to identify that most of the Startups face financial crises, human resource management challenges, process challenges, technology, and infrastructure challenges while some companies converted the challenge they faced to opportunities by diverting the business, focusing on new demands. The critical discussion provided in this paper would improve the body of knowledge on the SME and startups' challenges and opportunities that affect business performance, besides acting as a reference for pragmatic research. Keywords: Challenges, Covid 19, Opportunities, SMEs, Startups,

Transfer of Genetic Materials and The community Rights protection Under the Ethiopian laws []

Right to use to genetic matrials and community rights protection is one of the blazing issues at every state and communities all over the globe. Currently, however, countries those have apparent policy guidelines concerning conservation and sustainable uses of genetic materials as well as for the benefit sharing from the utilization of the resources with the community rights protections are few in number. Now days, the issue is becoming a crucial point to guarantee sustainable development, conservation and use of genetic resources. Thus, to achieve these goals, it is vital for states that they should effectively and efficiently put into practice the laws within their jurisdiction taking into account the principles of the international treaties in general. Taking this reality into consideration, Ethiopia has been attributed to the enactment of the 2006 ABS law that compels the contracting parties to conduct the ABS agreements. However, the two laws, that is the access to genetic resources community knowledge and right law and the plant breeders’ right law has made short comings on the rights of the community even though the contents of these laws are not compliant with that of international convention and treaty and the Ethiopian constitution. Therefore, this research aims to bridge the gaps through forwarding recommendations for the identified loopholes in relation to access to genetic resource and benefit-sharing, community rights and knowledge. In this regard, the Ethiopian ABS law needs to be incorporating the rights of the community which are provided in international treaties and the Ethiopian constitution to overcome the existing shortcomings.


Shopping centres keep evolving with time as technology responds to human needs, expectations and environmental change. In the ancient world i.e. Greece, Rome, Babylon etc. the central shopping areas consisted mainly of open/common space where merchants could display and sell their products. Some centres also featured several restaurants and bars. Today, shopping malls have achieved and surpassed those early expectations. In today’s consumer culture, the Mall can be seen as the centre of all human earthly experience. The concept of consumer behaviour/culture in recent times have been linked to research from different disciplines such as Law, Economics, Geography, Architecture etc. This study was aimed at determining the impact of Architectural discipline and consumer behaviour in shopping designs using Spar Port-Harcourt shopping mall as a case study. Design criteria that influence consumer preferences and quantity have been investigated by determining the extent to which the location of various stores and facilities, as well as the physical surroundings and location, have affected today’s consumer Behaviour.


2020 can easily be the greatest period of uncertainty and economic volatility the present generation has ever seen. The pandemic has changed buying behaviors. There has been a shift in demand from brick-and-mortar retail to e-commerce fueled by self-imposed social distancing together with the strict confinement measures implemented by the governments. As a result, businesses had to rethink and accelerate changes to how they serve customers and commu-nities. The pandemic challenged the current business norms and paved the way for businesses to be more virtual, and agile—and execute at lightning speeds. Long term digital transformation roadmaps got squeezed into a matter of days and weeks. Businesses had to figure out quick ways to reach their customers essentially overnight and as a result in-vestment in technology to go online soared exponentially. To maximize the investments made in technology its critical to ensure long term use of the technology so that investments become sustainable. To achieve long term use, its critical to deliver an exceptional experience. Loyalty determines business success ultimately. This concept paper explores whether consumers would go back to their old ways of transacting and engagement in the event a vaccine puts the pandemic to a permanent rest. This leaves the tech investments made by businesses in a disarray. The exploration is centered around a combination of established models on technology adoption and behavioral change to potentially help Sri Lankan retailers strategize to ensure long term adoption of their digital version of their business. Ensuring long term use is critical to ensure their investments reap sustainable returns and they strive to foster a long relation-ship with first time to online buyers.

An Integrated Approach for Municipal Solid Waste Management Deemed to Reducing Dependency on Landfill []

Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most challenging issues for Narayangonj City Corporation (NCC) in Bangladesh, which is facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste and therefore facing the land crisis for dumping those giant volume of municipal solid waste. Various studies, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Key Informant Interview (KII) and physical survey reveal that about 40% to 50% solid waste of its generation has been collecting and transporting in open dumps in low land and roadside in NCC. This paper analyses the municipal waste fraction and per capita waste generation from primary and secondary data and explore future trends of solid waste generation up to 2036. Calculating the required land for dumping and evaluating financial assistant. The study has developed the flow diagrams, one is exiting, and another is for future for analysing how the challenges would be addresses effectively


The year 2020 has been extremely challenging and by far the most dramatic year with the Covid-19 outbreak. The situation demanded unprecedented actions across the world to limit the virus spreading, leading to put restrictions on many human events such as travelling and unnecessary human gatherings. The biggest hit of this, however, was on organizations as they were forced to rethink the way they function business activities and the way of working. With the requests made by governments worldwide to work remotely, businesses had no other option left with other than converting to virtual platform embracing it as the new normal. However, the impact this shift has on organizations seems to be varying from minor to extreme as well as positive to negative, due to the differences among organizations. The main affected point has been the culture of the organization, as it was highly depended on the how the organization is working which emphasizes the physical interactions between various organizational features including employees. Accordingly, this paper will be looking at the extent to which the culture of an organization could be affected by this new normal of working remotely and how it could be used to mold and preserve the culture in a better way to achieve the success, the organization always wanted to thrive. Based on past literature, both positive and negative implications this pandemic situation has created on organizational culture have been identified along with the potential ways in which this cumbersome situation could be handled being in line with the new normal. The analysis emphasized that more than working physically; changing the mindset towards culture would have to be tackled at every level of the organization. Identification of the work types to be facilitated virtually, maintaining a better relationship with employees even through virtual platforms with the involvement of senior management and reconstructing existing work arrangements or reinventing new ones while paying considerable attention to all the stakeholders have been identified as the crucial factors which might help achieve the success of the organization through a sustained, yet practical culture.