Volume 9, Issue 3, March 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This Study examined the effect of foreign direct investment on economic development of Ethiopia by using yearly time series analysis ranging from 1974 to 2019. This Thesis used Vector Error Correction model to estimate long-run co-integration among variables after checking for stationarity by unit root test by ADF test type. In order to analyze data, both Descriptive & econometrics analysis were used with the help of e-view 11 statistical software package . By econometrics analysis to test stationary test, unit root test by ADF type was checked for Data series and found that no series were stationary at original data. However the data series became stationary at first difference I(1). After stationarity test, the causality test were made by Granger causality test and found that at the I(1) only 1st difference of Log GDP causes GCF in one way unidirectional. The findings by VEC revealed that GDP as a proxy for economic development has a positive long-run association with NET_FDI, & LQ. From unrestricted VAR model the study confirmed that NET_FDI strongly predicts GCF and have a strong positive relationship with NET_FDI. Therefore, Government should focus to attract FDI in highly labor-intensive sectors & should stimulate job holding FDI and also increasing diversified FDI projects whose benefit lasts long in increasing capital formation to have effect to economic development. Keywords: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE), Vector Error Correction (VEC), Unrestricted VAR model

Intertemporal Analysis of Indonesia Regional Inequality []

This study aims to see the direct and indirect effects of regional income, infrastructure and investment on regional disparities in 25 provinces in Indonesia through economic growth before and after regional autonomy. The type of data analyzed in this study is secondary data in the form of panel data (pooled data) that combines cross-section data and time series data. Analysis of data using regression analysis method (regression analysis).The results showed that regional income has a direct positive effect on regional inequality in 25 provinces in Indonesia before regional autonomy and has a negative effect after regional autonomy does not directly affect economic growth before regional autonomy and has a negative effect after regional autonomy. Infrastructure has a direct positive effect on the regional inequality of 25 provinces in Indonesia before regional autonomy and has a negative effect after regional autonomy and indirectly has no effect through economic growth before regional autonomy has a negative effect after regional autonomy. Investment has a direct positive effect on the regional inequality of 25 provinces in Indonesia before and after regional autonomy and indirectly affects economic growth before regional autonomy and has a positive effect after regional autonomy. Keywords: Regional income, infrastructure, investment, economic growth, regional inequality.


This work seeks to examine leveraging service delivery through ICT: A study of selected banks in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria. . In today’s competitive markets, customers are the most significant factor in management of businesses and marketing actions because they are able to choose their favourite items among variety of choices and therefore can change the marketing strategies firms have. The general objective of this research is to ascertain whether ICT has any effect on effective customer service delivery in selected banks in Imo state, Nigeria. The specific objective is to examine whether functional bank ATM has contributed to positive customers service delivery in selected banks in Imo state. The researcher adopted one hypothesis which states that there is a significant relationship between functional ATM and positive customer service delivery. This work adopted survey research design. The researcher adopted both the simple random sampling technique and proportionate sampling techniques. The researcher gathered data through primary and secondary sources. Data was presented using simple percentages and tables. Hypothesis was tested using the Chi-square statistical tool. The study found that Significant relationship exists between functional ATM and positive customers service delivery among banks in Imo state, Nigeria.


Agricultural waste, a widely abundant, virtually free, renewable and important resource serves as major cause of environmental pollution, which can be ameliorated with application of cellulase produced primarily by fungi, bacteria and protozoans that hydrolyzes cellulose. The present study was undertaken to partially purify and optimize the activity of extracellular cellulase produced by Bacillus cereus sp.10 isolated from agricultural waste. A total of 20 cellulase-producing bacteria belonging to the genera; Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella, were recovered from agricultural waste (sawdust, rice husk, plant waste (grass), palm kernel) collected from three towns (Ifaki-Ekiti, Igbemo-Ekiti and Aare-Afao, Ekiti State, using standard techniques. Among these isolates, Bacillus cereus sp.10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp.2, Klebsiella pneumonia sp.1, exhibited highest cellulase activities of 73.29 μM/min, 61.66 μM/min and 57.43 μM/min respectively. Characterization studies showed that partially purified cellulase produced by Bacillus cereus sp.10 is optimally active at a temperature and pH of 60oC and 5.0 respectively. The cellulase was stable at 70oC for 120 min retaining 80% of its activity. While the activity was enhanced by K+, it was inhibited by Hg+, Zn2+ and Mn2+, inferring the enzyme to belong to the class of metallocellulase. Bacillus cereus sp.10 among other cellulase producing bacteria isolated from agricultural waste has proven to be a very consistent and potent cellulolytic bacterium


Comparing links between triangular numbers 〖(t〗_n) to the partial summing series of positive integers (Z^+) in relation to sum of arithmetic progression 〖(S〗_n) were investigated with simple routine algebraic process leading to a new innovation to be called an approximation formulae which will serve as an alternative formulae for sum of arithmetic progression 〖(S〗_n) in series and sequences.

Marine Pollution : Microplastics Identification on the Digestive Track Crustacea from Pangandaran Waters, West Java []

Microplastics that settle on the bottom of the waters can be dangerous if accidentally swallowed by benthic biota that feeding on the sediments (deposit feeder). Some examples of benthic biota that have the potential to consume microplastics are included in the crustacean subphylum, namely white shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and crab (Portunus pelagicus). The purpose of this study was to visually determine the abundance of microplastics present in the digestive tract of white shrimp and crabs and to determine the ratio of the abundance of microplastics in the body of the two types of crustacean biota with the average body weight. The research station was determined by using a purposive sampling method. Microplastics extraction in digestive track of crustaceans was carried out using a 10% KOH solution. The results showed that the microplastics found in the digestive tract of the crustacean samples were 1 μm – 2 mm in size and consisted of fibers, fragments, films, and pellets with the predominant colors being black and transparent. White shrimp accumulated more microplastics in their digestive tract than crabs with an average abundance of microplastics in the shrimp body of 0.21 particles/g in an average body mass of 35.45 g while the average abundance of microplastics in the crab body was 0.03 particles/g in the average body mass is 183.17 g.


As the world progress with its technology, different circumstances and ideas have emerged that put into practice. Every year there is a development that will help to improve the quality of education. Education in 21st century requires a new level of technologies as innovation emerge. One of them is the use of blended learning. Blended Learning said to enable the learners to learn better and helps them succeed but others contradicts as motivation, socio-economic background, internet infrastructure, teachers role affects their learning performance. This study analyzes the factors that affect the learners’ performance associated on blended learning education gathered from different research paper, article and journals. Related studies reveal external factors and internal factors that affect the learners’ performance on blended learning. Keywords: Blended Learning, 21st century education, Internal Factors, External Factors, Teachers Role, Learning Environment


Nigeria’s engagement with the World Bank in the Fourth Republic can generally be regarded as very rewarding (beneficial). A lot of financial assistance in forms of credits and loans have been granted to Nigeria to assist the country in general infrastructural development between 1999 and 2020. In spite of this positive engagement between the country and the World Bank, much is yet to be done towards moving the county towards the attainment of the Federal Ministry of Industry, Trade & Investment’s “Zero Oil Policy”. The failure of the country to direct all these World Bank assistance, loans and debt relief towards boosting the industrial, manufacturing and other non-oil exports informed the need for this study. The study is a qualitative one where data was generated through secondary sources such as books, journals, magazines, internet facilities, newspapers and periodicals. The data generated was analyzed through descriptive method. The concept of economic relations and theories of global economy and interdependence were clarified as anchors for the study. At the end, recommendations were proffered. Principal among which is the need for Nigeria to maximally utilized all financial assistance from the global apex Bank for expanding its foreign revenue sources in the areas of industrialization and manufacturing; where unique manufactured goods in which the country has comparative competitive advantage will be sold in the international market. This will eventually serve as a viable major alternative foreign revenue earner for the country.

Identification of the patients admitted to the NHSL in the year 2013 with common household agents and pharmaceutical poisoning []

IDENTIFICATION OF THE PATIENTS ADMITTED TO THE NHSL IN THE YEAR 2013 WITH COMMON HOUSEHOLD AGENTS AND PHARMACEUTICAL POISONING Waruna Gunathilaka1, Samantha Liyanage1, Prasanna Karunanayake1 1 National Poisons Information Centre, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo *Correspondence: samanthakhliyanage@gmail.com Background: Within the last few years the pattern of poisoning has changed in hospitals mainly in cities and pharmaceutical poisoning is an emerging problem, while in more urban arears household substances use for suicides as well. Aims: To identify the common household agents and pharmaceutical drugs responsible for poisoning, the vulnerable groups, triggering factors and management cost for antidotes use in drug poisoning. Method: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted over the period of three consecutive months at the Medical Record Division at National Hospital Colombo. Among the all the Bed Head Tickets coded and entered in registry of Indoor Morbidity and Mortality Returns in year 2013 as poisoning, the toxic effects of household products and medicinal agents were extracted using pretested, structured data extraction sheet. The details of patients, socio demographic factors, triggering factors of poisoning, type of poison, route, circumstances of exposure and summary of treatment given was extracted to identify the total dose of antidote given for each patient who had exposed to pharmaceutical drug poisoning. Results: Total of 403 data were extracted. Pharmaceuticals were 81.6% (n=329) and household products were 18% (n=72). Majority 58.3% (n=235) were young adults belongs to 20-40 years. The children under 19 years were 32% (n=129). Majority (93.8%, n=378) were deliberate self-harm. Analgesics and Antipyretics was the commonest (68.1%, n=224) medicinal agents used for poisoning and among these 83% (n=186.) was due to paracetamol. Rodenticides was the common (23.6%, n=17) household product used for poisoning. N-Acetylcysteine was the most commonly (92.5%, n=172) used antidote for paracetamol exposure patients and its usage dose was significant compared to other types of antidote used in pharmaceutical poisoning (P<0.05). The estimated average cost of IV N- Acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol poisoning patient was Rs. 22347.57/-. Conclusions & Recommendations:Exposure to over dose of medicinal agents was the commonest and paracetamol was the common drug of choice. Household products used for poisoning was associated with the availability of substances at home. The availability and easy accessibility of these drugs as an over the counter medications should be limited and household products should have stored securely to prevent unnecessary morbidity of poisoning. Key words: poisoning, household products, medicinal agents, cost for antidote usage

The evaluation of the Encase and FTK forensic tool for effective evidence extraction []

The paper present features. of FTK and Encase forensic tool and Encase strength,advantages,similarities and discaused area of their strength and weaknesses,also proposes a. General frame work that will overcomes their weakness.

Survey of the inclusion of Cumulative Impact Assessment in Oil and Gas Environmental impact Assessment reports in Nigeria []

It is well understood that there are cumulative impacts for development projects so there is a need for projects to incorporate cumulative assessments in their Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports. It is based on this understanding that this study investigated the inclusion of Cumulative Impact Assessment in oil and gas development project EIA reports in Nigeria between 1994-2019. The study utilised the Burris and Canter (1997) model in assessing the level of cumulative impacts assesses on 33 EIA reports examined. Results show that 48.48% of the reports neither mentioned nor assessed cumulative impacts, 33.33% did mention cumulative impacts but did not assess them while 18.18% mentioned nad assessed these impacts. Results also reveal that cumulative impact evaluation improved from the year 2015. There is an indication that awarenesses levels have increased in the area of cumulative assessments. The paper recommends that cumulative impacts of major developments be reviewed by various independent reviewers and updated evaluation criteria be used in assessing cumulative impact quality in EIA reports. Furthermore, project planners should anticipate the possibility of cumulative impacts in a project and address their concerns at the initial stages of project planning prior to project registration.

The Reality of E-learning in Kindergarten Institutions in Palestine From The Point of View of Kindergarten Managers []

ABSTRACT The study aimed to reveal the reality of e-learning in kindergarten institutions in Palestine from the of principals of kindergarten institutions perspective, and to achieve the goals of the study, the researcher used the descriptive analytical approach, and the study sample is consisted of (57) principals of kindergarten institutions in Palestine, the researcher used also the questionare as a study tool it contains (20) items related to e-learning, to reveal the reality of e-learning in terms of its importance, availability, and use in kindergarten institutions in Palestine. The results of the study found that the degree of importance came in a percentage (74.48%), which indicates a degree of great importance for e-learning tools, and that the degree of availability came in a percentage (45.62%), and it indicates a low degree of availability of e-learning tools, and that the degree of use came with a percentage (41.85%), which indicates the degree of little use of e-learning tools in kindergarten institutions from the point of view of managers of kindergarten institutions in the Gaza Strip,The researcher recommends the need to pay attention to and provide e-learning tools, in order to give kindergarten teachers the opportunity to use them and employ them in the educational process. Key words: E-learning, kindergarten institutions.

Crime Rate among ASEAN Members in relation to Government and Education []

A countries’ economy is affected by stability, security and safety. Due to the growing tourism of the ten dynamic countries, researchers explore to find out if the ASEAN countries’ form of government, and status of educational attainment, have an influence on its crime rate. The study used exploratory data analysis or commonly known as data mining. The variables considered were: government type, employment rate, minimum wage, average education years, literacy rate, and safety rate. The degree of safety in a country does not depend on the citizen’s literacy or educational attainment, nor on the structure of government. Carrying out a strategic and effective policing power is independent of the structure of government a country has.

Analysis of Financial Performance at Pt Mercor Indonesia 2012-2019 Period []

In the financial aspect, the company can see the financial performance of a company which then becomes one of the benchmarks to assess the extent of the strength and health of a company. companies, as well as to what extent a company can develop and compete. One of the construction service companies in Makassar is PT. Mercor Indonesia is a company in the middle category as a construction service provider that is aware of the competition in construction service technology innovation. This research was conducted to measure the company's financial performance through financial ratio analysis methods, vertical analysis, and horizontal analysis which can assess the financial condition and development of PT Mercor Indonesia for the period 2012-2019. This research uses a descriptive quantitative approach. The research data source is secondary data, namely the financial statements of PT Mercor Indonesia. Data analysis with financial ratio analysis, vertical-horizontal analysis. The results of this study are based on the results of PT Mercor Indonesia's financial ratio analysis for the 2012-2019 period, the profitability ratio is optimal. Liquidity ratio of a company in a liquid state. Solvency Ratio in good condition activity ratio is less than optimal in asset management, it is necessary to increase operational activities and activities of PT Mercor Indonesia. the results of vertical analysis PT Mercor Indonesia's balance report is quite optimal and the income statement is less than optimal, while the results of the Horizontal analysis of the PT Mercor Indonesia balance report show good financial performance and the income statement is fluctuating and the need to improve the financial performance of PT Mercor Indonesia. Keywords: Financial Performance, Financial Ratio Analysis, Vertical Analysis, Horizontal Analysis.


This study aims to evaluate and analyze the implementation and constraints in the application of the government's internal control system in collecting parking services at PD Parkir Makassar Raya. SPIP aims to provide sufficient confidence to achieve effectiveness and efficiency, reliability of financial reporting, security of state assets, and compliance. against statutory regulations. If the SPI evaluation is implemented properly and correctly in a government, it can facilitate the achievement of goals in accordance with the plans that have been made by the government and can increase the source of local revenue, especially the parking service sector. This study uses a qualitative method carried out at PD Parkir Makassar Raya. The informants of this research are the Director of Operations, the Head of General Affairs and the Head of the Parking Management Section who are directly involved in the management, collection and return of parking services, third parties as field managers and collectors as assistants to collect the results of parking services from field managers. The data obtained were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results of this study indicate that the implementation of the internal control system shows that the control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication and monitoring of levies have not been effective. Employee integrity and ethical values related to the practice of granting permits that still deviate from a number of problems, such as the number of employees who handle parking fees only numbering 20 people. Control activities carried out in collection to return are still very weak. Communication facilities have not run optimally in smoothing the performance of PD Parking, especially related to the need for collecting parking services and monitoring is only limited to certain locations in the Makassar City area. Keywords: SPIP, law, parking services and PAD

Development of guidelines to improve the implementation of infection prevention and control measures in public hospitals in Gauteng Province []

The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines that will improve the implementation of infection prevention and control measures (IPC) in public hospitals, in Gauteng Province. Method: An explanatory, mixed methods design was used, involving the collection of qualitative data after a quantitative phase, to follow up in more depth on the quantitative data in the first quantitative phase of the study, 120 questionnaires, of 40 questionnaires were distributed per hospital. Data was collected from three (3) public hospitals, namely academic, district, and regional hospitals to collect data from nurses working there. The second qualitative phase was conducted, using semi-structured interviews, with the sample of nurses who participated in 5 focus groups from the different hospitals under study. In this exploratory phase, follow-up, factors influencing the implementation of infection prevention and control were explored. The exploratory follow-up was to build upon the initial quantitative results in order to develop a systematic guideline. The qualitative data was transcribed, and the quantitative data was analysed by a statistician. Using the mixed method, both data were integrated and triangulated in developing the guidelines for nurses working with patients on preventing hospital-acquired infections in the wards. Results: Most nurses have been found that have attended an hour to a day IPC training, which they alluded has no impact on their implementation as is too short. The study also found that institutions, where nursing qualifications were obtained, have a significant impact on implementation of IPC measures. There is an agreement that con-tinuous training on Conclusion: The Inclusion of IPC module must be recognised, to inform and influence nurses. Continuous in-service training provided on IPC measures to both nurses, students nurses, and nurse managers for updates towards changing health systems. Nurses need to be involved in drafting the IPC policies and in procurement of material resources as work on the ground with patients. Support program to nurse managers need to be developed.

Review on: Challenges to Soil Fertility in Ethiopia []

Abstract Site specific and balanced fertilizer recommendations are used for not only sustainable soil fertility management and crop production, but used also as reduced environmental impacts and minimized farmers from unnecessary costs. Previous studies have shown that the country is only deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus soil nutrients. However, there are currently deficiencies of macro and micronutrients in most Ethiopian soils. For instance, the studies K, S, Zn and Cu deficiency were prevalent in across parts of the country. Thus, the problems were associated with soil erosion, acidity and nutrient depletion, lack of soil fertility replenishment, nutrient mining and lack of balanced fertilization. As a result of the complex and dynamic nature of the soil, soil analysis alone cannot reflect what the plant was able to extract and store during the current season. Therefore, mapping of soil fertility, soil-test based data with crop responses is recommended for site-specific and balanced fertilizer recommendations. Keywords: soil test, soil erosion, fertilizer


Government applications are widely being used across the world; because, of benefits such as increased efficiency, transparency and service delivery at reduced cost. However, the eGovernment project implementation runs into problems, especially in developing countries such as Pakistan, where most of the initiatives are unsuccessful. As such, this study focuses on the challenges in eGovernment projects of KPK government, identifies the critical issues and explores why there is less successful projects in the government sector of Pakistan. The purpose of this paper is to identify a major concern for development. Both qualitative and quantitative methods comprising of interviews and expert evaluation were employed in the study. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the eGovernment development status in the world, identifying and mapping the major eGovernment and software development process identification challenges, and an empirical study to validate the challenges from KPK government. The findings show that a major issue of eGovernment project failure is the selection of a “Software Development Process” according to the context. It is due to the lack of practitioners’ knowledge and expertise in software development process and its practices. The study also reveals that such insufficient knowledge and expertise issues are critical and impede the implementation of KPK eGovernment projects. This study provides a valuable discussion that although KPK government has developed a number of various success eGovernment projects, there is still the need for a defined software development process in eGovernment initiatives of the KPK province of Pakistan. The paper gives a detailed description about the relevance and significance of proper software devel-opment process in the projects of KPK government.

The Statistical Characteristics of Markets []

Modern markets today are centralized places of trading created to enable people advertise their needs and offerings on a more public domain, like the New York Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, South Africa Stock Exchange, and the Ghana Stock Exchange. These markets exhibit some elements of stationarity and efficiency, while at the same time they are subject to external and periodic regime of shifts. This therefore necessitates and calls for occasional reassessment of their characteristics. The statistical characteristics of markets identify market trends which help measure and evaluate market potential and its success. A market success depends identifying the target market accurately and using effective tools or methods to interpret it. These statistical methods enable the collection of data, use of correct analysis and effectively producing the needed results. Using many and varied tests of statistical and econometrics properties will draw very important insights into market behavior and will serve as conduit for decision making by the market participants and a reference point for researchers. Goals sought to be achieved in this project are: to identify market datasets, construct various tests to examine price, yield, and index properties of the markets; implement various exploratory data analysis techniques to document the properties. The objectives sought are: collect and collate data of prices and yields for a representative section of instruments from stock market indexes including MTN and JPN, spanning at least for a period not less than 10 years; carryout extensive exploratory data analysis of these market indexes, reviewing statistical moments, correlations, and behaviors using graphical measurements of these market indexes in various time periods; determine the extent to which these markets have experienced regime shifts and document the evidence, summarize and draw conclusions from the findings. In our research, we have used data from two giant markets around the world to ascertain how regime shifts and external shocks affect the behavior of these market trends. Furthermore, we able to ascertain how these properties affect markets with higher daily returns like the JPN and MTN. We were also able to see how the novel COVID 19 pandemic affected the market trends.


On assuming the political leadership of Nigeria in 2007, President Umaru Musa Yar’adua undertook so many diplomatic visits to further launder the image of the country and seek international collaborative efforts to tackle security challenges in the country. He utilized Nigeria’s foreign policy to attract foreign investors and other international business/development partners to invest in the country assuring them that the domestic environment was safe, secure and clean enough for doing business. There was however underperformance of the country’s foreign policy where it failed to support its economic relations instrument for directing the attracted Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) towards boosting the industrial and manufacturing sector and subsector of the economy. These sectors and sub-sectors with the highest volume of production processes in the domestic economy, have the potential of engaging our unemployed youths and of keeping them away from crimes and criminality. The study is a qualitative one and data generated through secondary sources was analyzed through discourse and explanatory method.


This analysis focuses on the definition of social justice in La République of Plato. We have tried to capture the essence of justice in the city by determining the three major principles on which it is based. Attached to unity and social harmony, the ideal platonic city is founded on the rule of law and reason in the conduct of public affairs. The state, like the soul is right when rationality prevails and determining the respect for the law for the sake of happiness in harmony. Three principles where then identify: the principle of har-mony, the principle of legality and the principle of rationality. The investigation leads us to place the logos at the heart of the problematic of social justice, because reason, the matrix of wisdom, organises and orders the political community.


The majority of teacher’s priority is to maintain order in the classroom and to have a controlled learning environment. Any suggestion of adopting very innovative teaching techniques such as using ICT is therefore seen as threatening this orderly pattern and therefore not desirable. There is a genuine fear amongst many teachers about ICT and skepticism of its value to their pupils( Cox et.al.1999). The impact of the Internet on the development and delivery of lessons is real. The move to online learning has a huge groundswell of approval and support across all sectors of education and it is likely that this level of interest which has been growing steadily will continue to grow even further in the immediate future. There are a number of clear reasons that can be seen to sit behind the popularity of this form of technology-based education. Some of the more common factors and influences driving the uptake of online delivery include: Flexibility, Economy and Enhanced learning (Oliver, Herrington, 2011). Diffusion of knowledge in digital age is rapidly changing. The impact of technology in learning become core area of research in literature however integration of ICT in special education stays partial( Aksal, 2015). Being digital native, digital inclusion and leadership role in ICT integration in education require strategic planning and management process which ICT inclusion and provision are vital in order to cope with global standards as developing countries education system. The need for usage of technologies which removes the boundaries of time and location increases day by day today when information and accession to information gains importance.( Tugrul & Alkan, 2011).

Responsabilité Sociétale et Sociale des Industries Aurifères au Mali []

Cet article a pour but d’expliquer la responsabilité sociétale des industries aurifères maliennes au point de vue environnemental, juridique et économique. Nous analysons au point économique les fondements des cotes part des investisseurs aurifères et de l’État malien avec le modèle à correction d'erreur d’investissement-production. Au point juridique, nous démantelons les instruments juridiques pour voir si les opérateurs respectent la règlementation aurifère en vigueur conformément au code d’exploitation minière malienne. Sur le plan environnemental, nous expérimentons notre analyse sur l’incident des déchets aurifère sur la biocénose des zones d’exploitation minière. L’analyse des résultats du modèle à correction d'erreur d’investissement suggère que l’État malien pourrait mener une politique d’accroissement favorable de son taux de quota avec un code minier actualisé qui corrigerait les effets pervers sociaux et environnementaux liés à l’extraction minière. Cependant, l’analyse révèle que la production aurifère est une fonction décroissante d’investissements. En conclusion, l’investissement dans le secteur aurifère malien serait plus compétitif en présence d’un code minier flexible qu’en présence d’un code minier rigoureux et moins transparent.

Covid- 19 and vital organs []

corona virus is a genus belongs to corona viridae family with very small size of genomic single stranded RNA 30-32kb. There are three different types of corona viruses according to their mode of infection in different animals and size of genome. Every type is host specific and causes specific disorders. The three types alpha, beta and gamma corona virus having their unique properties of infection. It causes different respiratory disorders like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), severe pneumonia as well as infects other organ system of humans and other animals. Recently emerged corona virus known as novel corona virus has been discovered in December 2019 in the Wuhan city of china. It has become the most deadlier virus of 21st century. Now the whole world is suffering with sever pneumonia and major respiratory disorders that’s why it is declared pandemic named as covid-19. It attacks on the lungs of infected person and lungs filled with fluid that causes respiratory problem as death of patient occurs due to the severity of respiratory disorder.

Prediction of A Singly Reinforced Concrete Beam Steel using Artificial Neural Network []

This paper presents the prediction of a singly reinforced concrete beam using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The method was adopted for cost optimization of the structural element and compared with the requirements of Eurocode 2 design. The code provisions for the design of a singly reinforced beam can vary from place to place. The use of a system immune from the code variation is an excellent means of predicting the reinforcement’s need of a rectangular concrete beam. In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) is employed to forecast the reinforcement of such a beam. Artificial neural network has the potential to simulate the data that are hard to produce in arithmetical analysis. The scheme was established using the MATLAB tool kit. The design variables were the depth of the beam, the width of the beam, and the moments. A forward pass supervised backward propagation training. The regression analysis of the results is one to one match. The predicted and target values are completely in accord.