Volume 9, Issue 3, March 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]

The Effectiveness of Commercial Motorbike Riding as a Tool for Employment Creation in Fundong Sub-Division, North West Region, Cameroon []

ABSTRACT The upsurge of commercial motorbike riders in Cameroon cities and rural areas is indicative that the activity has provided employment solace to thousands of youths. This is the case in Fundong Sub-division where over 500 young people are involved in the activity. Paradoxically, motorbike riding seems to have created more of underemployment as most of the educated young people who are unable to find dignified jobs commensurate to their professional and educational qualifications tend to seek employment refuge under this sector. Job scarcity has instigated most of the youths to get involved into bike riding irrespective of their qualifications. This study, therefore, sets out to investigate factors for the upsurge of the activity and the type of employment created by this sector to the youths in Fundong Sub-division. Data for this study was gotten via a systematic and a random sampling technique where a total of 104 respondents from 25 villages in Fundong Sub-division provided the responses. Supplementary primary data was gotten from interviews, focus group discussions while secondary data sources were from published and unpublished documents such as; articles, conference papers, relevant Decrees and dissertations relating to motorbike riding and employment creation. Results revealed that the main factor for the upsurge of the activity is the inability of youths to secure feasible jobs after studies. Also, the activity has created both visible and invisible forms of underemployment to the youths involved in the activity as well as well as substantial employment to the youths especially those who have not undergone formal education and training. In prospects, the recommends that mitigating these issues highly depends on good employment policies and the creation of more feasible jobs by the state to absorb these youths. Key words: Motorbike riders, employment, underemployment, education and training and Fundong Sub-division

The influence of Somalis’ poor English language skills on doing (second degree) master's. Case study (Some selected Universities in Kampala-Uganda.) []

The main purpose of this article is to analysis the sources and resolutions of poor language on Somali Master Students in Kampala, Accordingly, the objectives of this article as follows:- • To discovery the reasons of poor language on our Students • To designate the greatest conducts that can solve poor language As methodology, the author used explanatory design to explain the causes and solutions of poor language on Somali Master Students the Considering the findings of this article, it can be concluded that there are more male master students as compared to females in UGANDA, most of them English is third language, and the people were not use as communication, lastly the best way that can solve this problem is to establish boarding English collages with hiring foreign language teachers from traditional English speaking countries. And the lastly, the author presents key recommendations from the article information findings based on objectives. 1- Students should recognize their weakness before they request a master degree to outside and inside of the country. 2- Academic directors of the universities should ensure the communication level of their graduate Students before they sent to a master degree to outside countries.

Fiscal policy and price stability in Nigeria: An empirical analysis []

The study investigated the impact of fiscal policy on price stability in Nigeria. Annual time series data were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical for the period 1981 to 2019 on the variables used for the study. Unit root test was conducted using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and Phillips-Perron test techniques and the results showed that the variables were stationary though at different levels. Co-integration test was also conducted using Johansen co-integration test method and the result showed that the variables in the model are co-integrated meaning that the variables have a long run relationship. The error correction mechanism showed that the coefficient of multiple determination (R2) in the overparameterized model was 0.770417 while it was 0.678828 in the parsimonious model. The short run regression result showed that external debt has a positive and insignificant impact on price stability in Nigeria. The short run result also showed that domestic debt has a positive and significant impact on price stability in Nigeria while recurrent expenditure has a positive and insignificant impact on price stability in Nigeria. The result also showed that capital expenditure has a positive and significant impact on CPI in Nigeria while non-oil revenue has a negative and significant impact on CPI in Nigeria. The result from long run dynamic analysis revealed that price stability in the one period lag has a positive and significant impact on the current CPI. The result showed that domestic debt has a positive and insignificant impact on CPI. The also revealed that recurrent expenditure has a positive and significant impact on CPI while capital expenditure has a positive and significant impact on CPI. The result also showed that non-oil revenue has a negative and significant impact on CPI. Based on these findings, it was recommended that government should minimize its borrowing activities, improve its taxing activities to reduce tax evasion and avoidance and also ensure that optimal prudence is observed in its spending.

Concept Paper -Salesforce Automation and Product Optimization of Sales Employees in Pharmaceutical Industry []

Abstract The technological innovation is highly innovative approaches in the industry, and it is very important to address the many critical issues in the industry. As well as product optimization is also an innovative approach in many industries in the world. Based on the above two concepts, this study has developed to examine the automation and product optimization on sales force management in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the purpose of the study is reviewing the literature of sale force automation and product optimization appliances of sale employees in the pharmaceutical industry. This paper is developed using the context of 24 peer-reviewed and author reviewed article between 2000 and 2020 and the respective cross-references. Those sources were analyzed using narrative analysis method. According to the outcome of the study, it has found that the sale force automation and the product optimization can be utilized innovatively face to the current pandemic situation to maintain a minimum physical interaction between stakeholders and to increase the revenue of the pharmaceutical business reducing some of the significant cost factors of the business. Keywords: Salesforce Automation, Product Optimization, Pharmaceutical Industry


The study examined the electric power supply to Onne Federal Ocean Terminal, Port Harcourt. Currently, the facility is autonomously operated by a diesel generator. The operational of diesel generator is huge and also not environmental friendly. The proposed hybrid diesel generator, PV and grid integration system impacted significantly in mitigating the high operation and maintenance cost as well as greenhouse gas emission associated with diesel generator. HOMER 3.11.2 software was used to simulate the system for three (3) scenarios[diesel generator and solar PV system, diesel generator and grid system, finally, diesel generator, solar PV was connected to the grid system] The result obtained shows that for base case when only diesel generator was used. [Cost of energy COE=N0.296], [net present cost NPC=N123M],[operating cost OC=N5.46M], [fuel cost FC=N3.80M,]. Also the GHG emission [CO2=13,271,421Kg/yr, CO=83,656kg/yr, Unburned Hydrocarbon =3,650kg/yr, Particle matters=507kg/yr, Sulphur dioxide=26811kg/yr, Nitrogen oxides=78586kg/yr]. However, after optimization of the hybrid system, diesel generator/solarPV/grid system gives the best cost reduction. [Cost of energy COE=N0.107], [net present cost NPC=N46.2M],[operating cost OC=N1.28M] , [fuel cost FC=N83,999,]. The GHG emission was reduced [CO2=7,356,091Kg/yr, CO=1.848kg/yr, Unburned Hydrocarbon= 80.6kg/yr, Particle matters =11.2kg/yr, Sulphur dioxide=31.213kg/yr, Nitrogen oxides= 16.711 kg/yr].

The Effect of Buccal Corridor Size on Aesthetic Smiles Based on the Perceptions of Dentistry and Economics Faculty Students at the Prima University of Indonesia. []

Background: The concept of aesthetics is a science that is related to the concept of beauty and is sub-jective. This concept is one very important aspect of life because it can affect the quality of human life. An im-portant factor in an aesthetic smile is the shape of the smile. In the modern world of orthodontics, the appeal of a smile has its value. The aesthetic smile can be assessed by several factors, including the shape and length of the teeth, the appearance of the gingiva, the curve of the smile, the colour and alignment of the teeth, and the buccal corridor. The buccal corridor is an important component of the aesthetic smile. The buccal corridor measures from the mesial angle of the maxillary first premolar to the interior portion of the lip crease. The negative space or dark space created by the width or even the absence of the buccal corridor can affect the aesthetic of the smile. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in perceptions regarding the effect of the size of the buccal corridor on aesthetic smiles in dentistry and econom-ics students at Prima Indonesia University. Methods: This study used an analytic survey research design with a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted on students of the Faculty of Dentistry and the Faculty of Economics, the University of Prima Indonesia with a total sample of 86 people. Results: The results showed that there was no difference in perceptions regarding the effect of the size of the buccal corridor on aesthetic smile among dentistry and economics faculty students at Prima Indonesia University.

Effect of fuel temperature on diesel engine performance and emission characteristics for ethanol-diesel blend fuel []

The increase of demands to use petroleum products causes rapid depletion of the fuel and becomes very limited and expensive. The two factors to implement alternative fuels in IC engines are the environmental effects and the energy independence from petroleum-based fuels. High price, limited source of petroleum products, and high level of global warming have directed to searching for renewable fuels. To match the requirements of the demands and to reduce environmental pollutions alternative renewable fuels are very important and attract researchers to study since they are renewable, sustainable, biodegradable, and emit low greenhouse gases. Ethanol is a sustainable power source and is more beneficial than other biofuels since it ensures less pollution to the environment. One of the difficulties with the usage of alternate fuels is their poor fuel properties in comparison to fossil fuels (diesel). To eliminate this, preheating of the ethanol-diesel blend is a good option as it makes the fuel-efficient. The objectives are to explore the effects of fuel temperature on the performance parameters and emission on compression ignition engine run in ethanol-diesel blend fuel at a constant engine speed under varying engine loads. Ethanol-diesel blends were used from 10% of ethanol and 90% diesel (E10) to 40% of ethanol and 60% diesel (E40). Engine performance and emission characteristics were measured and compared with pure diesel fuel mode. Performance improvement and reduction of exhaust emissions were observed using preheated ethanol diesel blend fuel than pure diesel.


Steganography refers to the science of “invisible" communication. Unlike cryptography, where the goal is to secure communications from an eaves- dropper, steganographic techniques strive to hide the very presence of the message itself from an observer. The general idea of hiding some information in digital content has a wider class of applications that go beyond steganography. The techniques involved in such applications are collectively referred to as information hiding. For example, an image printed on a document could be annotated by metadata that could lead a user to its high resolution version. In general, metadata provides additional information about an image. Although metadata can also be stored in the ¯le header of a digital image, this approach has many limitations. Usually, when a ¯le is transformed to another format (e.g., from TIFF to JPEG or to BMP), the metadata is lost. Similarly, cropping or any other form of image manipulation destroys the metadata. Finally, metadata can only be attached to an image as long as the image exists in the digital form and is lost once the image is printed.

Evaluating adoption of electronic banking (e-banking), during the Covid 19 era: A discourse of barriers facing banking clients, in the Zimbabwean context. []

The outbreak of coronavirus has forced the Zimbabwean government to impose aggressive lock downs strict travel restrictions since march 2020, leaving only essential services partly functioning. All individuals were forced to do their work and transact while at home. In addition, Zimbabwean banks have up-to-date e-banking facilities, but yet ques are still existence in the banking halls without regard to the call to stay at home. It is against this background that this study aims to discuss the barriers facing banking customers in adopting electronic banking during the Covid 19 era. The study applied mixed methodology approach where questionnaires were used to collect statistical data while interviews were administered to collect qualitative data. Stratified random sampling was used to select the sample for questionnaires while purposive sampling was used for selecting respondents for interviews. The study found out that among others age, cost, access, risk and other economic behaviours are barriers to adoption of e-banking facilities by banking clients. Conclusions made were that e-banking is not cost effective in the hands of banking customers, economic challenges prevent banking customers from adopting e-banking and Hwange banking customers are not conforming to the lock down rules imposed by the government

A Rapid Appraisal of COVID-19 on Global Tourism []

Following the outbreak of currently un-vaccinatable novel corona virus (COVID-19), along with a dramatic increase in the number of cases and deaths, greater terror postdated necessitating to lockdowns and restricted travels within and between borders as control measures for the virus spread. This incident has largely ravaged global tourism and economic activities. In particular, global air-travels which are key component for tourism has drastically dropped by 20-to-30 percent within this short course. On account of emergence-based challenges, the present study undertakes a rapid appraisal of COVID-19 on tourism to discover observed and expected impacts of COVID-19 on global tourism business as well as proffers inferences for the future of tourism that would support the tourism business to strive and expedite during pandemic diseases such as corona virus.

Strength and Conditioning in Sri Lankan Sports; Fulfilling a high performance Need []

The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of strength and conditioning interventions on sports for high performance in Sri Lanka. Training for strength and conditioning is a standard occurrence in any sport that seeks to improve performance or prevent injuries. Studies on the impact of strength and conditioning on athletic results, however, are scarce; the effect of age, gender or level of competition is even scarcer. Existing studies conducted by Sri Lankan researchers do not include research on strength and conditioning which has resulted in a knowledge gap and a lack of qualified coaches, lack in knowledge of players and lack in knowledge of the sports management. Further it gives importance and prominence to sports specific skills and less importance to physical fitness area when it comes to team selection. Hence players and coaches give less emphasis to strength and conditioning in all levels of sport in Sri Lanka. Due to these reasons, strength and conditioning is in a very primitive stage in Sri Lankan sports. If Sri Lanka is to win another medal in the Olympic level or at world level, prominence should be given to strength and conditioning to achieve high performance.

Studies of climate impact on occurrence of bunch rot disease caused by Botrytis cinerea on Grapevine using some weather parameters and some controlling programs []

In Egypt, grapes are one of most broadly grown fruit crops, it comes second only to citrus. Egypt is ranked fourth worldwide in the global production volume of grapes (FAOSTAT). Botrytis cinerea causing grapevine grape bunch rot is one of the most hazardous diseaseswhich may cause enormous damage both during plant growth and in post-harvest phase causing great losses. Disease incidence % and disease severity % of bunch rot were assessed on Thompson seedless grape during 2019 and 2020 seasons in three different governorates in Egypt. Disease occurrence was more prevailing in Gharbia governorate than Giza and Qalyoubia. Pathogenicity test on Thompson seedless grape bunches showed that B. cinerea which isolated from bunch rot are pathogenic. 70% and 80% disease severity of grape bunches with B. cinerea was estimated at end of cold storage after 25 and 30 days respectively.Five fungicides viz., ABASH 50%WG,Amistar top 32.5% EC, Topsin M70WP, NO ROT 38%WG and Imazalil 50%EC were used to controlbunch rot disease under field conditions. Trial were conducted by spraying with compounds at commercial recommended dose each alone at the three different time, first of April orfirst of May and or first of June.The highest percentage of reduction happened, when grape clusters sprayed with Amistar top and Topsin M70 in the first application time which fungicides sprayed at the first of April.Disease development was monitored on grapes in vitro and vivo.In vitro, under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, we observed the disease severity at different temperature degrees of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 ˚C each with different relative humidity (RH) levels of 70, 80, 90 and 100% and presence or absence of wetness. Optimal conditions for highest disease severity (DS) were at temperature between 15 ˚C and 25 ˚C with RH greater than 90% and precipitation > 0.5 mm. In vivo, this study was conducted in Gharbia Governorate to study the Disease severity of B. cinerea causing grape bunch rot of grapevine in several district of Gharbia Governorate during season 2019 / 2020. In all study areas, 100 grapevines were examined against infection of bunch rot involving various climatic parameters collected by Agro-weather stations. Collected data was then used for assessment of relations between effect of different temperature degrees and Relative humidity percentages on the disease incidence and severity.

Covid-19 Outbreak and FinTech sector in Sri Lanka []

Covid-19 Outbreak and FinTech sector in Sri Lanka : Importance of digital transformation to thrive History of Sri Lankan economy runs to agriculture based which has shifted to a service economy within last few decades. The main share in that is owned by the banking and financial industry (BFI). Technology companies started offering innovative solutions using financial services known as Fintech which is the combination of both Finance and Technology. At the beginning, finance services were dominated by BFIs and there were lot of red tapes for technology companies to get into the business. With the initiation of regulating fintech companies, doors for tech companies started opening. However, the real business atmosphere a tech company really required didn’t come up. This marriage between financial service providers and tech companies was full of domestic issues. In 2019, covid-19 pandemic hit the entire world economy and the Sri Lankan economy also was shattered just like any other country. This outbreak was a tragedy for many but turned out as a blessing for some. With the travel bans and risk in using cash, the demand for online business started rocketing. Many businesses started focusing at digital transformation, initially as a part of a survival game but later on figured out that it is the future. In adopting fintech innovations to Sri Lankan businesses, there are several other parameters which requires to consider in deep. This researcher discusses these concerns and asses how companies should adopt digital transformation in order to thrive.


We need light to see the world around us. Light is a natural phenomenon vital to our very existence. The quality, quantity and intensity of light around us, greatly affects our visual appreciation of our surroundings. It is important for us to understand the relationship between light, colour, what we see and how we see it. The entirety of museum architecture, is designing a building that tells a ‘story’; beginning from the concept and form of the building to materials and method of construction. These stories are mostly historical and visual in nature, which can be experienced through sighting of artefacts or virtual/guided tour. All these and more, are characterized by movement of people from space to space, of which requires efficient lighting of the spaces. To better address this issue, the authors have discussed both natural and artificial sources of light as a method of lighting museums. How these sources where best harnessed to ensure for efficient lighting in a museum, gives a good foundation to this research work. This research paper highlights the effects of light on 2-dimentional and 3-dmentional objects and the best type of lighting suitable. Furthermore, an investigation of behaviour of light on walls, ceilings and floors in relation to materials used, was also carried out.

Discussion on the technology of controlling thermal crack of mass concrete in the tropics []

This paper is an experimental investigation and analytical simulation of thermal effects on mass concrete structures in the tropics. A study of the tem-perature rise of a 1.1 m × 1.1 m × 1.1 m experimental mass concrete block, well instrumented with thermocouples to monitor the temperatures distribution was performed. A validated finite element model was used to predict the temperature development of the hydrating experimental mass concrete block. Thermal stress analysis was performed to give an estimate of stresses induced by the thermal gradient of the concrete block section and the crack index was used to quantify the probability of thermal cracking. The temperature rise during concrete hardening is caused by the hydration of cement paste [6,7]. The heat evolution of concrete is particularly important with regard to mass concrete that used for dams and large foundations in which the maximal temperature may reach even 50-70°C [8,9]A parametric study on the effect of the surface area to volume ratio (SVR) of mass concrete was performed to quantify the maximum allowable thermal gradient as well as the induced thermal stresses that may cause thermal cracks. For SVR less than 0.36, thermal cracks may occur at early ages of concrete strength development in the tropics. Subsequently, thermal cracks occur when the tensile stress reaches the tensile strength of concrete. Researchers of this study developed a new automated curing system, which maintains the gap between the internal temperature and external temperature of a structure below a temperature criterion in order to minimize the thermal cracks of mass concrete. The developed curing method was successfully demonstrated through a mock-up test and a field application. Accordingly, it is concluded that the automated curing system developed in this study can improve the quality of mass concrete structure.


A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate pituitary morphometry and its correlation with sex and age with 3D MRI sequence in the Department of Radiology and Imaging, National Academy of Medical Science, Bir Hospital from May 2019 to November 2019. The study population consisted of 231 patients who underwent MRI brain scanning for clinical suspicion of brain pathology. Among these patients total of 178 patients were selected for data collection whose MRI showed normal sella and parasellar region. Pituitary measurement was done on MPR images of 1 mm thin section in coronal and sagittal plain generated from 3D FLAIR sequence. Data was analyzed using SPSS program. Descriptive statistics and parametric test were used to evaluate the association between different parameters. Level of significance was kept at p < 0.05. This study showed mean pituitary height in female 5.25±0.83mm, in male 5.16±0.85mm, mean pituitary length in female 11.04±1.05mm, in male 11.10±1.17mm, mean pituitary width in female 13.12±1.48 mm and in male 12.89±1.39mm, mean pituitary volume in female 392.66±73.73mm3 and in male 384.07±89.77mm3 respectively. There was weak linear correlation between age with pituitary height and volume. No statistical significant variation was found among male and female pituitary morphometry. This study provides data regarding pituitary morphometry and its variation with respect to sex and age using 3D volumetric FLAIR sequences in MRI. Further larger study is advisable to establish a standard morphometry of pituitary gland in Nepali population.

biogas, renewable energy supply in borena woreda ,Amhara regional state, Ethiopia : []

1. Executive Summary The name of the project is Borena woreda biogas renewable energy supply. will be run by any volunteers/donors. Budget needs 10873 $ or326,200 birr to start the project. our project will be aimed at reduce the green gas emission, dependence of fuel on biomass consumption, land degradation, deforestation and, to be able to establish alternative biomass renewable energy and reducing inefficiency traditional cooking fuel consumption. Biogas is a flammable gas mixture produced during the anaerobic digestion of organic matter in an anaerobic biogas reactor during anaerobic digestion, wastes are treated and degraded and biogas is produced. Anaerobic treatment also has the advantage over aerobic treatment of a smaller emission of greenhouse gases. Biogas is a renewable green energy source Since it often produced from materials that form manure and waste products. It can be used to produce electricity and for the purpose of heating as well. So, our project can be fulfilling this gap and proving renewable biogas energy consumption as well as use of energy efficiency in the study area.

Characterization of Alkaleri Clay and Its Suitability for Ceramic Filter Membrane []

This study focuses on the characterization of Kaolin clay found in commercial quantities in Alkaleri in Alkaleri Local Government Area (LGA) of Bauchi State, North-East Nigeria for its use as Ceramic Filter Membrane (CFM). The mineral composition is evaluated by X- Ray Fluorescence (XRF), crystalline structure by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-EDX and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR The content in fluxing oxides (Na2O, K2O, CaO, and MgO) is very low and this may result in low vitreous phase formation during firing and The presence of TiO2 is indicative of low anatase contents in all samples. The infra-red spectra are typical of kaolinite as indicative of the XRD of the investigated samples and the presence of kaolinite with quartz, corundum syn, montmorilonite and ilmenite as pure clay fractions in the clay mineral. The presence of relatively low less than 1 wt% of other oxides such as Fe2O3, K2O, and TiO2; can be considered as acceptable in the elaboration of clay for ceramic membranes.


The thermal decomposition of Obajana limestone using Themogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Coats-Redfern model was studied with focus on limestone particle size and temperature as process variables of interest. The thermal decomposition was carried inside a TGA where calcium carbonate decomposes to produce calcium oxide and carbon dioxide in the presence of nitrogen. The first order kinetic was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of limestone process by varying the limestone particle size at optimum values of other parameters. Kinetic parameters such as pre-exponential factor (A) and activation energy (E) were then estimated for each of the limestone particle size. The result of the kinetic analysis shows that the most suitable particle size for the first order model is 600 mm producing activation energy of 9.807×〖10〗^3 kJ/mol and pre-exponential factor of 8.21×〖10〗^9 with coefficient of determination of 0.9957. Also, the values of the kinetic parameters compared favourably with that obtained in literature. The characterization of the Obajana limestone shows that it has the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of a commercial limestone.

Evaluate Electoral Violence in Nigeria using an Expert System. []

This paper focused on the evaluation of electoral violence in the Anambra State Senatorial Election in Nigeria. Knowledge Base Engineering approach was used in the development, an inference of 840 electorate attributes were used over 3 periodic years. The FTA provides an in-depth overview.[10]. Analysis gotten determines what event of risk could occur as a result of electoral violence.


ABSTRACT Government expenditure contributes indirectly to economic growth by increasing the marginal productivity of both government and private supplied factors of production and also on research and development which provides higher productivity in the interaction between physical and human capital factors. However, owing to the fact that there are limited studies on government expenditure and economic growth, various studies indicate divergent views on the effect of government expenditure on economic growth. For this reason, it is not clear whether or not government expenditure affect economic growth in COMESA countries. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Government expenditure on economic growth in COMESA countries. This study was modeled using the Endogenous growth theory and correlation research design will be adopted. Panel unit root test and Hausman Specification tests was conducted to assess whether to use the fixed effects or random effect panel estimation. Results revealed that Government final consumption expenditure had negative and statistically significant relationship with economic growth at five percent level, military expenditure had negative and statistically significant at 1 percent significant level and Capital stock in the study had positive and statistically significant relationship with economic growth at five percent level. The study thus recommends that governments in COMESA counties to embark on expansionary fiscal policies in the form of investing in infrastructure particularly infrastructure that would boost human capital, to increase its investments in areas that are beneficial to the private sector and eschew from those that compete with or crowd it out. Also the government in COMESA countries should increase its expenditures allocation to defense and public order and national security Governments should streamline its expenditures allocation to the debt servicing.Sample size consisted a panel data set of 9 COMESA countries for the period from 2003-2018 and secondary data was collected. A total of 144 observations.

The Role of Housing Policy Implementation in the Delivery of Sustainable Social Housing Developments in Greater Port Harcourt City []

Adequate housing has been a widely discussed theme in the countries of the Global South especially as it related to catering for the no-income, low-income and lower middle-income inhabitants of cities. This is so, owing to the fact that urbanization in Nigeria is growing at a rate that most cities in the country are unable to cope with and government alone is unable to address the challenge of housing due to diverse financial and regulatory constraints. The study examines policy issues that limit efforts towards the provision of social housing in Greater Port Harcourt City. The two objectives of this study are to examine UN-Habitat requirements for acceptable sustainable social housing provision and to review national and state policies that affect the provision of social housing within Greater Port Harcourt city. Furthermore, the study is a qualitative study aimed at explicating findings through structured interviews and key informant discussions. Findings reveal that housing developed by the private sector were expensive and out of the reach of the poor within the city, and that high cost of building materials, lack of funding, poor implementation of housing policies, corruption and poor governance has impeded the provision of social housing in the city. The study recommends that the government embarks on proper demographic studies that will aid in the enactment of policies that will enhance the provision of housing for those who need them.

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation among primary school children in Benghazi []

Abstract. Introduction: intestinal parasitic infestations are amongst the most common infections worldwide. In developing countries parasitic diseases continue to constitute a major public health problem especially among schoolchildren. Epidemiological research carried out in different countries have shown that the social and economical situation of the individuals is an important cause in the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Aim: to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite among primary schoolchildren in Benghazi and their association with socio-economic factors and hygienic habits. Methods: stratified random sampling was used in the selection of the study sample. A questionnaire and a stool specimen examination were done. Results: a total of 600 stool specimens were collected. 129 students (21.5%) were infected with one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were the parasites detected. Intestinal parasite prevalence was higher among male, in schoolchildren with low parents educational level and in family with low income. The relation between infestation presence and mother education is well known. Most of the complaints of the study population and dining out were significantly related with the intestinal parasitic infestation. Conclusions: intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in Benghazi, Libya. Low level of mother education , low family income and dining out were the significant associations. Intervention including health education on personal hygiene to the students and to the parents, especially to mothers are required. The ratio of uneducated women should be declined with specific programs.

Perceived Level of Self-Efficacy of Preschool Teachers []

The study was conducted to identify the level of self-efficacy of the preschool teachers in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya and their difference when compared with sex, age, and years of teaching experience using the revised version of the KASE instrument developed by Komlodi (2007) and was used by Kimmy (2017). There were 18 preschool teacher-respondents who answered the 50-item survey which was divided into three areas: Instruction of Literacy, Knowledge of Literacy, and Diagnosis of Literacy Difficulties. The data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. From the study, it was found out that females have higher level of self-efficacy than males. It was also revealed that teachers who are 35 years old or younger have lower self-efficacy level than those who are 36 years old and older. In terms of years of experience, both groups have very high level of self-efficacy but those with less experience in teaching obtained a higher mean score. Overall, the teachers have a very high level of self-efficacy. Keywords: self-efficacy, literacy, instruction

Credit Risk Management and Risk Taking: An International Study []

This article examines the effects of national culture on banking risk taking using a sample of 75 countries around the world for the period (2003-2013). More specifically, we study the effect of the national culture dimensions namely individualism, hierarchical distance, masculinity and tolerance for uncertainty on financial difficulties in banks using the z-score. Our results show that banks belonging to countries characterized by collectivism, masculinity, a low degree of aversion take more risk. Keywords: risk taking, national culture, national cultural values, financial difficulties, z-score

Multidrug resistant bacteria and the role of bacteriocins in resolving the global problem as a new generation of antimicrobials. []

The emergence of serious multidrug resistance problems has been recognised in recent years as a major public health issue impacting humans around the world. Multidrug-resistant species are now also occurring in community settings, in addition to appearing in the hospital environment, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital.Almost all competent infecting agents have used elevated levels of multidrug resistance (MDR) with increased morbidity and mortality. Currently, the World Health Organization has listed antibiotic resistance as one of the three most severe public health problems of the 21st century. The key mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are achieved by reducing the drug's intake, altering the drug's goal, inactivating the drug and activating the drug's efflux.The danger posed by multiple multidrug resistant (MDR) species to public health can be addressed by stimulating the detection, production, and redesign of new antibacterial agents with a broad inhibition range. Interestingly, bacteriocins are a common bacterial protection mechanism against other bacterial agents, removing the potential opponents of the former and increasing the amount of nutrients available in the atmosphere for their own growth.The healthy profile and antimicrobial mechanisms of bacteriocin are much superior to antibiotics that differentiate them from conventional broad-spectrum antibiotics, allowing them to be candidates for potential antibiotic substitution. In the crisis of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria, bacteriocins have the ability to become the next generation of antibiotics for use.