Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Cyclone Idai Floods and Children’s Human Security: A Narrative Experience of Cyclone Idai Survivors in Chimanimani, Zimbabwe. []

The aim of this study was to explore the impact of cyclone Idai floods on children’s human security in Chimanimani. Being a phenomenological study of the lived experiences of individual persons living within the sphere of Cyclone Idai Flood disaster risk management interventions in Zimbabwe, the researchers adopted a qualitative study. In this study, the target population were children from Chimanimani District and Chipinge District. Some survived during this Cyclone Idai flood disaster and some did not make it. The study adopted a purposive sampling strategy to recruit ten knowledgeable key informants from Chimanimani District and ten key informants from Chimanimani District. The study triangulated three data collection methods; interviews, non-participant observation, and art based data collection. Research findings showed that flood disasters impacted children’s environmental security which vitiates all other aspects of their human security such as food security, personal security, health and education among others. This means that the natural hazard had a direct impact on the threat to human security of children as a whole. The researchers thus concluded that environmental hazards such as flood disasters have a potential of reversing and/or barricading sustainable development by increasing vulnerability of children to multiple causes of poverty such as lack of education and skills, food insecurity, decreasing human development and transmitting the same to the next generation. In conclusion, it can be noted that disaster and risk management frameworks used in Zimbabwe lack a special focus on children and do not adhere to principles of child-sensitive social protection. Key Words; Cyclone Idai Floods, Environmental Security, Right to Life, Right to Shelter, Education and Food Security


ABSTRACT Youth with disability often face obstacles and challenges in regards to exploring and exploiting their potential as sexual beings. This in turn deprives them of their human rights comprising of their sexual and reproductive health rights and may internalize various sexual assumptions and attitudes regarding their sexuality. The intent of this study was therefore to assess the level of knowledge on sexual and reproductive health rights among youths living with disability in selected disability centres in Kisii County, Kenya. The study specifically focused on socio-demographics, awareness and health system characteristics associated with level of knowledge on reproductive health rights. The study embraced a cross-section descriptive study design employing both the quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. The study aimed at a representation of 130 respondents who were randomly extracted from the study population using folded pieces of paper. The respondents selected were proportional to the number of youths with disability in Gianchere Special School, Kisii Special School and Association for the Physically Disabled in Kenya, Kisii branch. All necessary ethical and logistical considerations were sought from relevant authorities before the study was conducted. Quantitative data was gathered using structured questionnaires given to respondents through well trained research assistants. Qualitative data was collected using key informant schedules and focused group discussion guides. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22.0 was used in analyzing quantitative data. Descriptive statistics were used to present quantitative data in form of frequency tables, percentages, pie charts, and bar graphs. Qualitative data from focused group discussion sessions and key informants were triangulated with quantitative data as direct quotes or narrations from respondents. Inferential statistics were computed using Chi Square tests to establish the association between study variables at 95% confidence interval (p<0.05). The results revealed that 55.9% of respondents had low knowledge level towards reproductive health rights. It was revealed that 59.1% of youths living with disability in Kisii County were conscious of their sexual and reproductive health rights. Awareness (p=0.012) and number of reproductive health rights mentioned (p=0.018) were significantly associated with level of knowledge on sexual and reproductive health rights. Majority of socio-demographic factors such as marital status (p=0.001), degree of disability (p=0.001), having children (p=0.001), type of education involved in (p=0.030), breadwinner (p=0.001) and breadwinners’ occupation (p=0.001) were significantly associated with level of knowledge on reproductive health rights. Majority of health system factors such as attitude of healthcare providers (p=0.001), provision of information (p=0.012), unfriendly physical infrastructure (p=0.001), disability being a hindrance and ever utilized sexual and reproductive health services (p=0.019) were significantly associated with level of knowledge on reproductive health rights. The study concludes that there were low knowledge levels despite high level of awareness towards reproductive health rights among youths with disability in Kisii County. These findings would inform policy on reproductive health issues thus increase knowledge and awareness levels consequently improving the rates of utilizing reproductive health services among youths with disability. This provides room for adoption of appropriate strategies to ensure sexual and reproductive health rights among youths with impairment are protected.

Formal Education, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Performance in Oyo State, Nigeria []

This study is an examination of Formal Education, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance of SMEs in Oyo State, Nigeria. The respondents will be asked to reflect their opinions on entrepreneur development, financial literacy, strategic planning, innovativeness, pro-activeness, risk-taking, formal education and entrepreneur orientation as they predict SMEs performance. Participants of the study are selected from 6, 1313 registered small and medium enterprises in Oyo state. Through Taro Yamane (1967) model of sampling size determination, 375 respondents were arrived at for sampling. A well-structured questionnaire with a reliability study of 0.739, 0.941, 0.851, 0.842, 0.763, 0.829 and 0.814 respectively for entrepreneur development, financial literacy, strategic planning, innovativeness, pro-activeness, risk-taking and entrepreneur orientation were distributed to the 417 determined sample size of the study. Analysis of the field work was carried out using inferential statistics such as ANOVA and multiple regression analysis tests. It was concluded that there was significant composite and relative relationship of formal education (entrepreneur development, financial literacy and strategic planning) and SMEs Performance. Also, there was significant composite and relative relationship of entrepreneur orientation (innovativeness, pro-activeness and risk-taking) on SMEs Performance. The research recommended that would-be entrepreneurs see themselves as competent and psychologically prepared to confront the opportunities and threats of a global and competitive marketplace. It also supports the suggestions that business education is essential in providing the technical tools and serves to re-orientate people towards self-sufficiency, self-reliance, autonomy, creativity, and flexible thinking.


Faith healing is based entirely on scientific data, which implies that some individuals fervently think it works. Based on Psychological studies, healing by faith has good effects and can work. Psychology associates faith healing with the placebo phenomenon. A placebo effect might occur when a person anticipates recovery as a result of faith healing, that anticipation might result in a prophecy that can be self-fulfilling, and it can have a significant link between faith and healing. This article sought to demonstrate the importance of faith and prayer in healing practices. While the perspective of faith healing varies from that of medicinal science, its use is not inconsistent with normal medicinal care. It is based on the concept that all healing essentially belongs to God, who operates by spiritually set rules to invigorate the body's inherent recovery process. Healing with God is achievable via faith and prayers, culminating in spiritual flowing to the afflicted as well as the contemporary medical intervention. Empirical data backs up this notion. Healing by faith encourages the notion of curing the entire person and pushes the physician and clinician to increase their conscience of the unidentified variables which function over mainstream clinical expectations of patient rehabilitation. Having faith and believing might likely aid in the working of body immunity, which could further explain faith healing. However, not everybody has a positive encounter in faith healing. Healing by faith is nevertheless remarkable despite the lack of substantial scientific supporting evidence; therefore this article aims to explore all the aspects of faith healing as well as its theological basis. Keywords: Faith and Healing, contemporary healthcare, Placebo effect, self-fulfilling


Background: Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel the way you think and how you act. Prevalence rates of depression have been shown to be higher among women in the general population and among cardiac patients, with recent evidence suggesting that young women may be at particularly high risk for depression after AMI. Different studies were done on depression with myocardial infarction in Pakistan but this study was conducted at Bahria international hospital Lahore, before the time no such study was conducted over there. Objective: To assess depression in post myocardial infarction patients . Methodology: Study was conducted in coronary care unit at Bahria international hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Sample size was 122. Purposive nonrandom sampling was used. Population was selected only that patients who had with myocardial infarction. Data collection was done from the patients through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression. During data collection history about demographic (age, gender, family history, socio-economic status), medical history (diabetic, hypertension, smoking) were also taken. Inclusion criteria were age 25-64 years and Patients having coronary conditions admitted to coronary care unit at Bahria International Hospital Lahore. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 22. Results: Risk of depression was high in post myocardial patients with 6 months of duration after. It indicates that there was a strong co relation between depression and myocardial infarction. Mean age between 24-45 years was high. 92% population had positive family history. Smokers were more to myocardial infarction in study. According to time duration less than 6 months with the onset of myocardial infarction 49% were depressed and anxious, between 7-12 months 26.2% and more than one year percentage was 24%. According to questionnaire scoring 8-10 borderline 23.8% depressed and 19.8% were anxious and 11-21 were considered abnormal 39.3%depressed and 415 anxious respectively. P value for anxiety and depression is 0.002 in the patients who had history of myocardial infarction. Patients who had recent exposure to MI were more depressive than those who had history of more than one year. Conclusion: The current research study was conclude that the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety scoring was high in patients who had recent incident of acute myocardial infarction. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was notably increased. Most of the risk factors were controllable. In addition, Male patients were more prevalent in the group where they had recent history of AMI as compared to female. Early identification and prevention of these risk factors were reduced the further cardiac anomalies. Key words: Depression, myocardial infarction, anxiety


Background: Road Traffic increased and injuries are among the leading causes of death and infirmity in the world and a major public health concern. The burden of road traffic accidents (RTA) is a leading cause of all trauma admissions in hospitals worldwide. Objectives: Determine the prevalence of risk factors associated with Road traffic accidents among adults and identify the factors associated with road traffic accidents among adults. Methodology: This was Cross-sectional descriptive study in which a structured questionnaire of data collection form was used to collect data about factors associated. Data will be collected by a structured questionnaire comprise of close ended questions. Results: More of the applicant have no ideas about the causative factors which are the leading cause of RTA. The study finding determined those factor in which violation of traffic rules, lacking of driving skills, unlicensed driving, over-speeding was common in motor cycle and sleepiness were common car driving. These factors were mostly found in young ages (20-26). Value of the data was measured by analyzing normality test. Presents Cronbach’s alpha is a scales used in the study. Conclusion: The study findings revealed many prominent and contributing factors that linked with RTA, s is violating the traffic rules, lacking of driving skill, over speeding, sleepiness and many more. The Independent variable was road traffic accident (RTA) for this and factors were dependent variable. Key words: Road Traffic Accident, Risk Factors, lacking of driving skills,


Introduction: Pressure ulcers remain the chief complications of prolonged hospitalization, specifically in situations of poor nutrition, increased moisture on the skin (e.g., incontinence), prolonged pressure, and compromised sensory stimuli. This study assess the knowledge of nurses about pressure prevention in private hospital. Objective: To assess the knowledge of nurses regarding pressure ulcers prevention Methodology: A cross-sectional analytical study design will used to assess nurses knowledge about pressure ulcer. Sample size was 130.data was collected through questionnaire with randomize sampling technique. Questionnaire was distributed in nursing staff. Data analyzed by using the SPSS version 22. Results: This chapter focuses on to data analysis. The statistical result of the demographic data, in which classification of Gender Mean is 1.58, Median 2.00, Mode 2, Std. Deviation.496, Variance.246 and Range is 1, Classification of age group , Mean is 2.37, Median 2.00, Mode 2, Std. Deviation. .997, Variance.994 and Range is 3. Classification of Education Mean is 1.42, Median 1.00, Mode 2, and Std. Deviation. .569, Variance. 323 and Range is 2. Classification of area working Mean is 2.49, Median 3.00, Mode 3, and Std. Deviation. .990, Variance.981and Range is 3 and Classification of Job Experience, Mean is 2.50, Median 3.00, Mode 2, Std. Deviation .990, Variance. 980 and Range is 3. Conclusion: This study was conducted to assess level of nurses’ knowledge towards pressure ulcer prevention. Education can bring a change in individual behavior so change in knowledge can influence the practices. So nurses need to get continuing education and training about pressure ulcer prevention that will enhance their knowledge and practices can be improved. Further researches about pressure ulcer prevention are needed. Key Words Pressure ulcers, Good Knowledge, Good Practice,

Knowledge, Attitude and practice among Nurses regarding prevention of pressure ulcer in Allied Hospital Faisalabad. []

Introduction: The injuries to skin or blister formation is called pressure ulcer(PU) or bed sore or pressure sore, primarily due to prolong unbalanced pressure on skin. About 70% of PU in older adults age more than 65 years. Young population with neuromuscular disorders, long term bedbound problems such as spinal cord problems, lower limbs disabilities etc. may develop PU. Nurses have key role in patient care and disease management. Quality nursing care can reduce the disease morbidity and mortality rate. Knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses about bedsore prevention necessary in health care settings. Material and method: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used to assess the knowledge and practice regarding bedsore prevention. Data was collected through Questionnaire developed after search from multiple sources and literature review. The questionnaire and consent form were in English. Questionnaire had 50% knowledge based questions and 50% practice based questions, to assess the level of knowledge and practice towards Pressure Ulcer. The collected data was analyzed by using SPS software version 21. Results: There are six dimensions of pressure ulcer prevention and care, it includes risk assessment, mechanical load on bony prominence, nutritional deficiency, friction, inappropriate moisture and incontinence, nurses have a little knowledge on six dimensions and factors affecting on pressure ulcer. Only 26.3 nurses have knowledge about nutritional effects on bed ridden patients. Nurses had experience more than 10 years are found more knowledgeable and skillful in comparison nurses had knowledge less than 10 years. Conclusion: lack of knowledge, heavy work load, shortage of nurses, shortage of equipment’s are the main barriers, while highly educated, nurses with experience more than 10 years are efficient in Pressure Ulcer patient care. Key Words: Pressure ulcer patient, Decubitus Ulcer, Bedridden, Bony prominence, incontinence. Neuropathy

Critical evaluation of smart transportation system in Muscat []

The concept of a smart city is gaining popularity among politicians and academics. Despite the importance of smart cities, many of the words associated with cities can change and their meaning is still unclear. Many countries around the world have launched smart city initiatives to combat traffic congestion. This article is about the need for change in smart cities in Muscat. There is heavy traffic in the city of Muscat, especially in the morning and evening when people drive to work. Traffic congestion in Muscat is associated with congestion in the city and poor traffic management is associated with the citys population and the number of vehicles. This study examines the current state of the transportation system in the Sultanate, especially in Muscat. Appropriate mechanisms must be found to deal with congestion in the city, especially during peak hours and on weekends. Every problem has its own solution, and the development of smart transportation is seen as part of a comprehensive solution to congestion in Muscat. Research shows that most countries in the world want to develop their cities and use more technology for development projects, and Oman should benefit from the experience of other countries in this regard.

The Impact of Virtual Sports on Culture and Real Practices in Oman []

Virtual sports are a set of regulated video games that are played competitively on electronic platforms. Some virtual sports tournaments have a structure similar to conventional sports, and eSports competitors, including those with exceptional abilities and mental focus, need planning and training in order to succeed. Successful prevention and treatment cannot be established or given without sufficient detailed data about the basic characteristics of the virtual sports population (including factors such as screen time, physical activity, overuse injuries, or training environment). As a result, high-quality medical care and preventive measures are needed. The research also aimed at assessing user experience preferences in relation to the implementation of virtual reality. The technology acceptance model was updated for this analysis, and expectancy value theory was used. It was hypothesized that the frequency with which sports-related information is consumed through various media outlets, the anticipated increase in sports-related information consumption after adoption, and one's attitude toward virtual reality (VR) positively influence the probability of adoption.


Ikigai is a life philosophy referring to the purpose of life, which varies due to different factors including gender, age, status, occupation, and surrounding environment. In our study we used data on an individual's concept of ikigai, supplied from a Google form survey given to participants in Thailand. The survey contains two parts, first is the individual’s personal information. The second part is on ikigai, where the participants have to answer questions given in the Google form. The data gathered from the survey will be analyzed, as well as identify the trends from the answer, which were the most, second, and least chosen. From this survey, the question “What You Love?” most responses were the answer Traveling and Relaxing, “What The World Needs?” most responses were the answer Good Politics and Public, “What You Can Be Paid For?” was Earned Income, and last is the question “What You Are Good At?” which most responses were the answer Social Skills. The results are varied due to the differences in age, generations of people, and the region where the participants lived. From our research it can be stated that the surroundings and age have an effect on how someone sees the value of life, and how the individuals’ ikigai are varied. The participants choose to live the life that makes them happy, surrounded by people and the place they love, where they can gain a balanced life.

Putting Gender Back in the picture: Empowering Women and Domestic violence; Lessons from Patriarchal Society from Sociological viewpoint []

Domestic violence is an issue of global concern characterized by rapid social change in institutional policy and practice. The life of women is not easy in the society. Every single day she has to face lots of struggle to empower themselves. The impact of negative socialization in human life and the beginning of the unequal distribution of rights, the discrimination and the violence type of behavior. The study was designed with total 70 respondents were reached through the online questionnaire and interview to find out the negative socialization impact on domestic violence, so by both respondents, the study got the perfect data to prove the fact that;there is huge impact of negative socialization process on domestic violence. The study successfully found out the main reason reasons behind the domestic violence. The negative socialization problem not only impact on women empowerment as well as patriarchal society. What we are learning, seeing, thinking also have a great impact on this social problem and our stereotype mindset help to increasing this social problem. Keywords: Negative Socialization, Patriarchy, Domestic violence, women empowerment


Most countries strive to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) because of its acknowledged advantages as a tool of economic development. Africa – and Nigeria in particular – joined the rest of the world in seeking FDI as evidenced by the formation of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), which has the attraction of foreign direct investment to Africa as a major component. FDI is seen as an engine of growth to developing countries such as Nigeria by increasing globalization and technology transfer. This study relies on secondary data; such as journals, books; Internet materials; newspapers and official correspondences between South Africa and Nigeria. The paper attempts to empirically analyze the contribution of South African investments to the Nigeria economy, by assessing South African MTN, DSTV, SHOP RITE and STANBIC BANK. The finding of the study revealed that there was a positive relationship between GDP, economic development and employment between the period of 1999 and 2018. In order to attract more FDI and retain them in the country, it is recommended that Nigerian government should improve the standard of infrastructure and provide relevant social amenities, and provide assistance in liberalization of regulated backbone services which provide opportunities for private investment and management. Key words: Nigeria, South Africa, Foreign Direct Investment, Economy


Objective: This research study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens) on serum hormonal level in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Methodology: Twenty-five (25) male wistar rats weighing between 200-250g were purchased and acclimatized for two weeks, after which they were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each and housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A, B, C, D and E. Groups B-E were induced with diabetes using alloxan. Groups A and B served as control groups and received only distilled water; while groups C – D diabetic that served as test groups received Glucophage, 400mg/kg of M. pruriens and 800mg/kg of M. pruriens respectively for 21 days via oral route with the aid of oral intubation tube. Blood samples were then collected on day 22 through ocular puncture for hormonal assay. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Result: The was significant decrease on serum levels of testosterone, FSH, insulin, and GH in the diabetic group B when compared with the control group A (P>0.05), but on administration of variable doses of the ethanolic leaf extract of M. Pruriens, there were significant increases on the levels of testosterone, FSH, insulin, and GH in groups D – E when compared with the control group A (P>0.05). Conclusion: The leaf extracts of M. pruriens have ameliorative effect on the hormonal levels of alloxan-induced Wistar rats. Keywords: Mucuna purines, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), insulin, growth hormone (GH).

Knowledge of female condom use among sexually active residents of Isoka District in zambia []

Female condoms are used during sexual intercourse in order to reduce the chances of getting pregnant and sexually transmitted infections(STIs) by the sexually active females of Isoka district of Zambia. Sometimes these female condoms are also called femidom and others refer to it as internal condom. Usually females insert it into the vagina during sexual intercourse to prevent sperms from reaching the internal parts of the female reproductive organ. The aim of this study was assess knowledge on female condoms among the sexually active females. Social –ecological theory was used in the study because the model takes into consideration the individual and their affiliation to the people, organizations and their community at large. Data was collected using a questionnaire that had both open ended and closed ended questions and Analyzed using Microsoft excel aided by Microsoft word. Results show that 16% of the sampled population has not seen female condoms before and only about 73% have heard about female condoms. Further some of the responded indicated that they do not use female condoms because they are not available at the hospital and clinic, they feel shy to go and get them, they are not comfortable to use and the material used to them are very bad like plastic bags. This study recommends that awareness awareness, knowledge availability of these commodities should be increased. Further clients who go for family planning services should be taught about female condoms as a method of family planning so that even after delivery they may continue to share knowledge with others as per social ecological model. In this way the use of female condoms will be promoted.

Judicial Review of Administrative Discretion in Pakistan and Judicature of the Country. []

In a modern type of welfare state, the functionaries are endowed with multiplicity of discretionary powers to run the business of the state. These discretionary powers cannot be left un-controlled and unfettered. The Superior Judiciary of the country has established a set of principles to exercise the discretionary powers. This paper aims at ascertaining the powers of Superior Judiciary of the Country under Constitution and Lower/District Judiciary under The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 and the Specific Relief Act, 1877 coupled with principles to be followed in the exercise of administrative discretion lay down by the Apex Judiciary of Pakistan through its judgments and the grounds on which a Court may revisit the actions of the Administrative Authority. The other purpose of this piece of research is to substantiate that in addition to the Superior judiciary, Civil Courts of Pakistan are also empowered to review administrative actions. To accomplish these tasks, qualitative research methodology adopted and both primary and secondary sources of data have been consulted.


This study explores the influence of age and marital status has on the dress pattern of female students in universities of north-west Nigeria. The population of the study comprised of 17,116 female undergraduates from two federal universities where 375 respondents were selected through random sampling. 20 items questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. Research questions were analysed with the use of mean and standard deviations. The data collected revealed that both age and marital status have significant influence on the dress pattern of female students. It is therefore recommended that universities authorities should promote good dress sense among students through different awareness programmes on campus. Appropriate penalties should be meted out to students who default the stipulated dress code.


Adhatoda bucchulzii is a piscicidal plant introduced into inland waterways by artisanal fishers in most water bodies in Rivers State, Nigeria, to stupefy, and kill fish for easy catch. This study was aimed at evaluating the sub-lethal toxicity of aqueous extracts of A. bucchulzii on serum biochemical compositions of Periophthalmus barbarus over a 96hrs exposure period. Results showed a decreasing values of urea (Blood Urea Nitrogen) and serum albumin as serum total protein, bilirubin, creatinine and globulin values were increasing. There was a significant difference between the various treatments for urea, Total Protein, Bilirubin, Albumin, Creatine and Globulin. But there was no significant difference between T1 and T2 values for bilirubin, T3 and T4 values for Albumin, T2 and T3 values for Creatine and T1 and T2 values for Globulin. All other values were significantly different as concentrations increased. The above parameters which are indices of the functionalities of kidneys and liver organs to a high extent revealed that high concentrations of the plant extract impaired liver and kidney functions. It was concluded that Adhatoda bucchulzii is a piscicidal plant and fishers should be careful with its use given its indiscriminate devastating tendencies in water bodies against the survival of living organisms.


This study investigated parental influence on career choice of secondary school students in Bauchi Local Government Area. The rate of educational decline based on the attitude of parents, the society and school as well as the lack of coherent approach system to curb the situation of parental attitude toward our present system of education in Nigeria. Parental involvement in a child's life especially within the educational setting in the right amount and in the right area can help facilitate child's learning. The objectives is to examine the extent to which parental influence affects students educational attainment, determine parental influence on the educational attainment, and determine the influence of school environment on the educational attainment of students. The sample of schools comprises of eight secondary schools, four public schools and four private schools within the Bauchi Local Government which consist of eighty (80) students. A questionnaire was constructed for each respondent by the researcher, from the analysis of the data collected, the findings of the study show that there is significant influence of parents’ level of education on student’s career choice, there is also significant influence of parents’ socio-economic status and occupational background on the career choice of students. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made and it was concluded that parents should educate their children on how to make a career choice and not impose on them their own preferred career choice.


Radiographs of thoracic cavity are useful as a diagnostic modality to detect heart diseases and have a potential to provide information equivalent to other cardiac diagnostic modalities. Radiographic interpretation can be by gross examination or by using different measurements like, relationship with inter-costal spaces or vertebral heart score. A specification of 2.5 to 3.5 inter-costal spaces had been introduced in veterinary medicine as an indicator of normal heart size in lateral radiographic views for dogs, but due to some limitations, use of these techniques has been supplanted by another cardiac measurement technique called the vertebral heart score, in which the heart length and width on the thoracic radiograph is compared with the vertebral length. The objective of the present study was to compare the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and the intercostal space (ICS) to assess changes in the size of the cardiac silhouette of ten healthy dogs. It shows that there is no statistically significant difference between the VHS and ICS method in diagnosing the presence or absence of cardiomegaly in the evaluated radiographs. Both methods are sufficient for diagnosis however the VHS appears to be more objective and sensitive because it allows for a baseline comparison with a relatively independent structure (vertebral bodies). This study is a retrospective case review of selected thoracic radiographs of dogs from radiograph archives. It does not reflect the heart sizes of dogs’ resident in Maiduguri but would serve to assist in the selection of cardiac silhouette measurement method for daily clinical use. Findings from this study would be reflective of the heart sizes of other species of animal while comparisons are made only with the ability of each method to agree on cardiomegaly.


This study is an examination of causes of deterioration of library materials and its implication to preservation and conservation in Nigeria polytechnic. Particularly, it examined the causes and nature of deterioration, patterns and strategies used in their control, existence of preservation and conservation methods and constraints limiting effective preservation and conservation. This study adopted descriptive survey design. A 41 item questionnaire was used to extract information from 37(86%) respondents out of the 43(100%). Data was analysed using frequency and percentage as statistical tools. Findings revealed based on the following objectives (i) to identify the causes of deterioration of library materials, (ii) to identify the method of preservation and conservation of materials adopted in the library, (iii) to find out the level of degradation of materials in the library and (iv) to identify challenges associated with preservation and conservation of the materials of the library under study. Result shows that preservation and conservation techniques, though adopted in the institution library were effective in use although the library still suffer high level degradation of its materials. The study also revealed that cleaning and dusting of library materials is the most commonly used technique. The study established that there are indeed incidences of deterioration the most prominent results being books becoming torn. Other findings revealed that inadequate funding was the most severe inhibitor to effective preservation and conservation activities in the library. Based on the findings, recommendations were made towards improving preservation and conservation practices in the libraries. It was recommended among others that: Adequate funds should be allocated for preservation purposes in libraries. Lack of enough lands is a major challenge in the library under study and this has caused low desired attention by the management. Libraries should embrace the use of ICT for preservation purpose. Training and induct of the library staff, Libraries should incorporate experts and many more.

Phenology and Growth Performance of Soybean (Glycine max L.) as Influenced by Inter-row Spacing and blended NPS Fertilizer Rate in Pawe District, Metekel Zone, North Western Ethiopia. []

Soybean has the highest protein and oil content and it is important crop for balance dieted nutrition of human beings and for soil fertility improvement. Productivity of soybean is very low due to low soil fertility and unbalanced plant population. Based on the national soil database, most of North West Ethiopian soils are deficient in macronutrients (N, P and S) and micronutrients (B, Zn) affecting growth, yield and quality of lowland oil and pulse crops. Thus far, emphasis has not been given on assessing influence of inorganic fertilizer and population density on the growth and yield of soybean. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to determine the appropriate rate of blended NPS fertilizer by optimum plant population in Pawe District in the 2020 under irrigation condition. The treatments consisted of five blended NPS fertilizer rates (0, 50,100 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and four inter row spacing (40,50, 60 and 70 cm). The experiment was laid out in 5x4 factorial arrangements in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on phenological and growth performance variables were collected and analyzed using SAS version 9.4 software. The analysis of variance revealed that application of blended NPS fertilizer by different inter row spacing significantly (P<0.05) influenced days to 50% flowering, days to 80% pod formation, days to 90% maturity, plant height and primary branch number. However, stand count and days to 50% emergency were not affected by the application of blended NPS fertilizer, inter row spacing and interaction. The highest days to 50% flowering (43.67), days to 80% pod formation (60.33), days to 90% maturity (93.33), plant height (107cm) and primary branch number (22.1) were recorded from application of 200 kg ha-1 blended NPS fertilizer by 70cm inter row spacing; while the lowest values were recorded from the control. The result of this study verified that phenological and growth variables were influenced by different blended NPS fertilizer and different inter row spacing. In conclusion, the above findings indicated that the growth and productivity of soybean (Pawe 1 variety) at study area can be improved by the application of blended NPS fertilizer and using different plant population. However, further study should be conducted at different season and locations. In addition, higher application rates of blended NPS fertilizer with below 40cm inter row spacing should considered for further study.

Numerical study and the vegetated south facade in hot dry climate: Measurement of energy balance []

The integration of vegetation into the building envelope has been studied by several researchers in order to reduce the energy consumption of a building and improve the comfort conditions of the building and its surrounding environment. These studies showed a drop in indoor temperature of a room from 4 to 6°C at the height of the summer, with a slight increase in humidity, thanks to a plant screen associated with a light facade. In a hot and dry climate, the use of a plant screen on the building envelope can increase its thermal capacity and contribute to the cooling of interior spaces in summer. The results obtained vary according to climatic conditions and constructive modes. The choice of plant type is important to meet cooling needs in summer. Nevertheless, as we shall try to demonstrate this aspect in the vegetation south façade (the street of the Mohamed cherif located in district ferhat subdivision dalaa Biskra, Algeria) leads us to illustrate clearly the benefits of vegetation in buildings. The plants act as a mask to sun and wind and as a source of control the air temperature and the temperature of the surrounding surfaces. Mitigation of air temperature in the presence of plants can be explained by the decrease in surface emperature that induces a lower air temperature. To know the real impact of vegetation on air temperature, experimental work was necessary, was carried out on the south façade of house located in el alia district in Biskra city (Algeria), and spread over a typical summer day with a measuring tool called “testo 480 – infrared sensor”. We also measured the amount of CO2 on the same device changing only the sensors. In order to see the amount of CO2 variation in comparison to the climatic parameters at the same case study. Keywords : building comfort, vegetation south facade, hot and dry climate, experimental work, testo 480 – infrared sensor. amount of CO2.


The events surrounding deep-water disasters have changed the face of deep-water operations around the world. Before spudding a well in any environment, proper delineation of the reservoir and correct well plan must be made to avoid drilling problems. The following information about the environment must be known: the water and formation depths, the formation and fracture pressures, the types of fluid present in the reservoir, etc. This information will guide a drilling engineer on how to select the right type of drilling fluid, mud weights and pressures to use among other things. This research focuses on analyzing the causes of deep-water blowouts and determination of appropriate mud weights and pressures necessary to drill a well safely without caus-ing a well control failure. The data used were obtained from three wells. A mathematical approach was used to determine the appropriate mud weights, pore pressures (from pore pressure gradients), fracture pressures (from fracture pressure gradients), mud weights and hydrostatic pressures. Plots of well depths versus pore pressures, mud hydrostatic pressures and fracture pressures were obtained graphically using Microsoft Excel. The graphs showed points of kick and fracture and their possible causes. The results show that with the correct knowledge of pore pressures and fracture pressures of a formation, including the well depths, appropriate mud weights and pressures can be determined and used for safe well drilling.


With the growing complexity of today's software applications injunction combined with the increasing competitive pressure has pushed the quality assurance of developed software towards new heights. After the development of the code, it is mandatory to test the software to identify all the errors, and they must be debugged before the release of the software; the achievements of other researchers were reviewed and assessed to see if any gap found, the new researchers we have a must of contributing to that gap and provide the right and constructive feedback and solutions to them. This research is about to determine which is the best technique to be used when testing the software as defined in research objectives. The main objective of this study is to compare Manual software testing techniques with AI-based (automated) techniques, by examining their performance on software testing just to help any person interested in software testing to get an appropriate technique to use. For understanding the current situation on software testing, data extracted from www.kaggle.com was used to form a dataset with 350 instances; Matplotlib library for Python is used for data plotting to facilitate its visualization. Findings indicate that Manual testing techniques are preferred highly than Automated testing techniques by 87% of software testers and in different testing cases such as User Interface and APIs testing cases with 49% while 20% only prefer to use Automated techniques for Security and Compatibility testing cases. Keywords: Software testing, AI techniques, data analysis, Python

Economic Importance and Management of Insect Pests- A Review []

Insects are known as one of the most successful class of animals on earth, being a major player in the ecosystem. The economic importance of insects encompasses both their negative and positive importance. Often found on leaves, flowers and stems of crop plants, insects cause both direct (eat the leaves, fruits or vegetables of crop plants and many times too, do destroy the crops prior to fruiting) and indirect damage (transmit infections; viral, bacterial and fungal) to crops. The amount of damage an insect causes to a crop, which justifies the need to adopt an artificial control mechanism when valuated, is termed economic damage. Thus, most control and protection measures are initiated to stop pests from reaching the point that the least pest population can cause an economic damage, and this is known as the Economic Injury Level (EIL). Besides, the economic importance of pests is also numerous; ranging from direct to indirect benefits. However, since insect pests are in a rivalry loop, directly and indirectly with man in the agri-food system, the adoption of good pest management practices can help reduce the losses substantially. The Integrated Pest Management approach has proven an effective model since it encompasses all the primary pest control methods.

Evaluating Yield Performance and Morpho-agronomic Characters of Landraces and Released Varieties of selected Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotype at Bale Zone, Agarfa Woreda, Oromia Region, Ethiopia) []

Evaluating Yield Performance and Morpho-agronomic Characters of Landraces and Released Varieties of selected Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes. The purpose of the study was to Evaluating Yield Performance and Morpho-agronomic Characters of Landraces and Released Varieties of selected Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes at Bale Zone, Agarfa Woreda, Oromia Region,Ethiopia. Sixteen bread wheat varieties (8 of them farmers’ varieties and 8 of them improved varieties) were tested. The genotypes were grown in Randomized complete block design at Goro and Agarfa community seed bank in 2018/19. Analysis of variance revealed that there were highly significant differences among the genotypes for most of the traits at individual and across locations. From the combined analysis of variance, significant (p≤0.05) effect due to location, varieties and G×E was observed for most of the traits. The varieties showed wider variability in mean grain yield of 0.6.67--4 ton ha-1, 1.3-8.3 ton ha-1 and 0.67 – 8.33ton/ha at Goro, Agarfa and across location, respectively. PCV was higher than the genotypic coefficients of variation (GCV) in most of the traits. At Agarfa GCV ranged from 0.34% (aboveground biomass) to 689% (kernel number per spike), whereas PCV ranged from 0.4% (days to tillering) to 790% (kernel number per spike).At Goro GCV ranged from 2.23% (kernel number per spike) to 29.9% (grain yield), whereas PCV ranged from 2.6% (kernel number per spike) to 36.2% (grain yield). Phenotypic coefficient of variability ranged from 11.54% (day to emergence) to 70.28% (grain yield). Genotypic coefficient of variability ranged from 7.4% (days to emergence) to 46.13% (plant height).Highest heritability estimates were recorded (>80%) for the characters; days to heading (89.8%) and spikes length (82.9%),kernel per spike (87.2%),1000 seed weight(83.8%) and harvest index(348.9%) at Agarfa and plant height(95.7%), and spikes length (91.1%),at Goro. Similarly, the result from combined analysis indicated that Phenotypic coefficient of variability ranged from 11.54% (day to emergence) to 70.28% (grain yield). Genotypic coefficient t of variability ranged from 7.4% (days to emergence) to 46.13% (plant height). The expected genetic advance as the percent of means expressed as a percentage of the mean ranged from 0.72% for above ground biomass to 264.8% for 1000 kernel weight at Agarfa and at Goro the expected genetic advance expressed as a percentage of the mean ranged from 0.95% for spike length to 49.14% for grain yield. Grain yield showed significant (p≤0.01) positive phenotypic correlations with thousand kernels weight, above ground biomass, harvest index and plant height at each location. Similarly, significant (p≤0.01) positive and negative phenotypic and genotypic correlations between the yield components were observed at each location. The highest grain yield was recorded in Bokate variety (80.01kunt/hect and the lowest grain yield was recorded in Ayuba variety (16.67kunt/hect) from farmers varieties, while Hidase variety (61.67 kunt/hect) and Ejerso variety (35.01 kunt/hect) the highest and lowest grain yield from improved varieties at Agarfa location. In Goro the highest grain yield was recorded in Tikur goshmber variety (33.34kunt/hect and the lowest grain yield was recorded in Tate variety (11.67kunt/hect) from farmer’s varieties, while Kekeba variety (39.01kunt/hect) and Digalu variety (10.01kunt/hect) the highest and lowest grain yield from improved varieties. Generally, it has been observed the presence of variability among the genotypes, heritability and relationships in the tested traits of the genotypes studied. Hence, Selection and hybridization on farmers and released varieties based on the trait with high GCV, heritability, genetic advance, positive correlation coefficient and high grain yield can be recommended for farther yield improvement of bread wheat at respective location. Key words: Heritability, Genetic Advance, correlation, Grain yield, farmers’ varieties, improved varieties.


Vitamin D has received global attention not only because of its importance in bone health but also for its reducing risk of many diseases like heart problems, autoimmune disease, and many cancers. It’s remarkable effect on diabetes (types 1 and 2), high blood pressure, multiple sclerosis and many infectious diseases has become the talk of town worldwide. Scientists are currently working on its effects in serious and end-stage diseases. In today world, Vit-D deficiency is pandemic, due to the fact that we humans are dependent on the sun for Vit-D requirement, but high blazing heat forces us to avoid the sun, by applying sun block or by wearing sun protection for fear of skin cancer. Every 4th individual out of 10 people don’t have enough Vit-D either due to lack of exposure of sun or lack in eating enough food with vitamin D in it or might have some health-related issue which stops its absorption. Few foods contain vitamin D naturally while some have fortified with it. Every food has different content of Multivitamins, same goes with Vit-D. Adequate serum calcium and phosphorus is required from proper mineralization of strong bones, without Vit-D, only 10 to 15% of dietary calcium and about 60% of phosphorus is absorbed [8-10] making bones fragile or porous and easy to break. Keeping in mind the great role of Vitamin D, following a general literature review on its deficiencies, source of intake, and its involvement with other health problems. An overview of major meta-analyses of vitamin D is given. This systematic approach covers metaanalyses listed in Pubmed during the past 2 decades.

Ambulance Guidance System for Medical Emergency []

Overpopulation is one of the biggest problems in the world today. Speaking about facts, an increase in the number of humans means an increase in the number of cars on roads. Thus, traffic management is a critical issue faced in many metropolitan cities today. There are many problems of congestion with traffic lights in many cities especially for emergency vehicles. Lack of efficient traffic control leads to loss of lives because of ambulance delay in case of getting stuck in traffic jams. In the proposed system the optimization of traffic light controllers using Arduino is developed. The system tries to reduce the possibilities of traffic jams, caused by traffic lights, to an extent and give ease to drivers to avoid congested paths and also informs in prior to hospitals about the severity of the emergency so that they can be ready with necessary requirements.


Despite the fact that the number of people in Thailand who require blood is increasing, the amount of blood available is restricted. As a result, effective blood management is important since it can help to reduce blood shortages and improve blood quality. We make the decision to redesign the blood transportation system in order to transfer blood more swiftly and efficiently for the transporters, as well as to provide high-quality blood. In addition, we decide to unlock the problem by adding a cabinet-like device in the operating room to keep the blood bags. The device has the ability to regulate temperature and classify blood groups. This reduces the quality loss of the blood and makes it more convenient for hospital officials to use. Finally, we recommend that hospital workers be informed about the procedure, and we are testing the device at one of the hospitals. If it improves the effectiveness of the blood bag transportation, we would disseminate this device nationwide.