Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Exploring Challenges of Women Labor Workers: In Ayehu Farm Enterprise, Amhara region, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study []

Abstract Women constitute half of humankind and 40% of the global workforce. Many gender issues which are very important to well being of millions of women and girls around the world got public attention. The participation of women in agricultural work, especially in private farm enterprises has been growing from time to time. However, the study about the challenges of women labor workers in the private farm enterprise is not well studied. From this gap, the study attempted to explore the challenges of women labor workers by taking Ayehu farm enterprise as a case. To meet the objective of the study, qualitative research method with case study research design was employed. In this study, eight semi structured interviewees, five key informant interviewees and twelve focus group discussants were participated. In this study, non probability purposive sampling and availability sampling was employed to select the participants of the study. This study was employed both primary and secondary data sources. Semi structured interview, key informant interview and focus group discussion were used as a tools for collecting primary data and labor agreement document review for secondary data. The data collected were analyzed through thematic analysis methods. The findings of the study revealed that women labor workers of the farm faced different challenges concerning administrative, economic and social aspects. In terms of administration (bureaucratic despot, lack of follow up, lack of facilities and job insecurity); economic (lower payment and labor exploitation); social challenges (psychological trauma, gender based violence, and low respect from community). The study has concluded that women labor workers of the farm have faced several challenges. Based on the conclusion, recommendations are forwarded in line with the major findings of the study. Such as; the farm managers should give credit to their workers particularly to women's and provide different facilities, the farm and workers labor union should work to prevent labor exploitation, the labor and social affairs office should follow up their working conditions. Key words: women workers, farm enterprise, challenges and opportunities.

Impact of Improved Maize Technology Package on Maize Yield Growth: Disparity among Agro-ecological Zones of Ethiopia []

This study examines the differential impact of adoption of improved maize technology package (including improved maize varieties, fertilizer of any kind as well as row planting) on maize yield growth using 778 sample farm households in three maize growing agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. Propensity score matching (PSM) technique was employed since it is an increasingly utilized standard approach for evaluating impacts using observational data. It is found that adoption of improved maize technology package doesn't have the desired positive and significant impact on yield growth in all the agro-ecological zones considered. Thus, the study recommends that the agricultural research and extension system of the country should further consider the various differences that exist among different regions and areas of the country so as to generate and disseminate appropriate and suitable improved agricultural technologies and information.

The Dynamics of Security Dilemma and Outer Space Militarization []

The adopted legal regime for regulating space activities remain vague and incapable of addressing modern advanced technological developments. Besides, the number of space actors and deployed dual purposes satellites in the earth orbit critically elevated the national security concerns and threats which turned the space orbit into a playground arena for an arms race between the big space players for preserving their national interests on earth and ensuring their survival (2017). Adding to, a past event like China's ASAT (Anti- Satellite Missile Technology) test, U.S aggressive developed Missile Defense project and North Korean development in space programs highlights the inevitability of future space militarization and weaponization which could lead to catastrophic consequences (Taft,2017). Therefore, the researcher will try to understand why thus far there is an absence of full prohibition of space militarization and what could be the most potential explanations behind the reluctant approach of the major space power on forming updated legal regime that could effectively address the different dimensions of space militarization and ban the deployment of recently developed advanced weapons.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The use of medicinal plants has been in existence for a long period of time as mankind and medicine. The ethanolic leaf extract of J. curcas has been reported for various medicinal purposes. AIM: This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and bioactive components present in the ethanolic leaf extract of Jatropha curcas collected from Akungba Akoko in Ondo State . METHODOLOGY: The analysis of Jatropha curcas ethanolic leaf extract was performed using a gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS QP2010 PLUS Shimadzu, Japan) techniques. RESULTS: Numerically, seventy-five phytochemicals compounds were detected in J. curcas ethanolic leaf extracts. Some of which include; Hexadecanoic acid, phytol, 9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid, dimethyl sulfone, thunbergol, tiglic acid, 2-Imidazolidinone, 1, 3-dimethyl, alpha-guaiene, pyrogallol, and globulol. CONCLUSION: The richness of Jatropha curcas ethanolic leaf extract in phytochemical compounds probably accounts for the wide application of the plant leaf for medicinal purposes. Although, further research is encouraged for their specific medicinal function. KEYWORDS: Jatropha curcas, GC-MS, Medicinal plants and Phytochemicals

Cigarette smoking and hypertension among adult outpatients: An explanatory evidence model from a rural District Hospital, Rwanda []

Cigarette smoking is one of the main risk factors of hypertension .The association between tobacco smoking and hypertension in current published studies remains unclear with many controversies despite experimental evidence confirming that smoking elevates blood pressure in different settings globally. Many studies on this topic are conducted at national level by focusing on a community-based approach. There is limited information on the association between cigarette smoking and hypertension at hospital level in many countries, including rural Rwanda. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hypertension, the smoking prevalence and to investigate the association between smoking and hypertension among adult outpatients attending Ruli District hospital. This cross-sectional analytical study used a quantitative approach. Systematic sampling was used to select 404 participants among adult patients attending the Ruli District hospital’s outpatient department, located in the Gakenke District in the Northern Province, from 23rd April to 24th July 2020. A questionnaire was used to gather information on behavioral risk factors from the participants. Measurements of blood pressure was performed according to internationally standardized protocols. A written consent was sought from the participants. Research clearance was provided by the Institutional Research Review Committee of the Mount Kenya University in Rwanda, and the Ruli Higher Institute of Health Saint Rose de Lima (RHIH). Confidentiality was considered during the research process. Data entry and processing used the 21st version of the IBM ® Numerical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics were used to generate frequency tables, while a bivariate logistic regression model allowed to identify the factors associated with hypertension, which were finally adjusted into a multivariate analysis by using a ‘backward condition’ method. A p-value ≤ 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI), was considered significant. Our research found that the overall prevalence of hypertension was 43.3%.The mean age (SD) of respondents was 45.6 years. Among participants, 7.7% were current smokers of any type of tobacco products, while 28.2% had a history of smoking. In bivariate analysis, current smoking of any type of tobacco product and history of smoking were found significantly associated with the development of hypertension (p-value ≤ 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, history of smoking remained independently associated with hypertension; and study participants with a history of smoking were 3.15 more likely to develop hypertension compared to those who had never smoked (AOR=3.15; 95%CI= [1.44-6.85]).This research concluded that there is a high prevalence of hypertension in this study setting. The identified determinants of this public health problem included past history of smoking, which was found to be independently associated with hypertension. There is therefore a need for setting a public health intervention for health education and a systematic screening program among the population who stopped or current smoking for early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension.

Interest rate and portfolio investment in Nigeria []

The research explores the effect of interest rate on portfolio investment in Nigeria from 1984 to 2018, using time series data from CBN and WDI. The study was motivated by the fact that portfolio investment has not yield the needed returns in Nigeria despites government’s effort at different times to improve the capital market where portfolios are traded, the capital market is still grossly under developed. Also, before and after the deregulation of interest rate which is perceived to be a major determinate of portfolio investment, portfolio investment has not reached its peak in Nigeria. The broad objective of the study therefore was to examine the effect of interest rate on portfolio investment in Nigeria, while the specific objectives included to determine the effect of interest rate on portfolio investment, to investigate the speed of response of portfolio investment to changes in interest rate and exchange rate, and to determine the nature of causal relationship between interest rate and portfolio investment. The study employed the technique of Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL). The Findings showed that interest rate has a positive and significant effect on portfolio investment in the short run but no effect in the long run. It was concluded that apart from interest rate, factors affecting portfolio investment in Nigeria is multi-dimensional. It was recommended that the CBN should consider an interest rate threshold that applies to both lenders and borrowers so that none get worse off, so as to promote positive portfolio investment and growth.


Ruminants are the most important reservoir of zoonotic E. coli which is transmitted to humans through the ingestion of food or water contaminated with animal feces or through contact with infected animals or their environment. This study was carried out to isolates and and carried out antimicrobial susceptibility studies of Escherichia coli from gastro intestinal content sample from cattle in Maiduguri abattoir, Nigeria. A periodic visits were made to the Maiduguri abattoir where animals (cattle) slaughtered were randomly sampled. A total of eighty (80) rectal swab samples were collected. All the samples were collected aseptically by sterile swab stick and transported in an ice-pack to the Veterinary Microbiology Research Laboratory of the University of Maiduguri immediately and been inoculated into the peptone water and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C for bacteriological assay. The result show that 13 (68%) E. coli were isolated from young male cattle, 15 (83%) from young female cattle, 19 (86%) from adult male cattle, and 16 (76%) from adult female cattles. The result showed that the isolates from young male cattle were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (38.7%), Ofloxacin (23%), Gentamicin (15.4%), and Nitrofurantion (7.7%), whereas, intermediate to Ceftazidime (15.4%) and Cefuroxime (7.7%) but were resistant to Cefixime (7.7%) and Augmentin (7.7%). Ciprofloxacin in which Ofloxacin having the widest zone of inhibition (23mm). Isolates from young female cattle showed Susceptibility towards Ciprofloxacin (26.7%), Ofloxacin (20%), Gentamicin (40%), Nitrofurantion (20%), Ceftazidime (6.7%) and were intermediate to Augmentin (6.7%) but were resistance to Cefixime (13.3%) and Cefuroxime (6.7%). Gentamicin had the widest zone of inhibition of (17mm). Isolates from adult male cattle were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (31.6%), Ofloxacin (21.0%), Gentamicin (26.3%), and Nitrofurantion (10.5%) but were intermediate to Cefuroxime (5.3%) and Cefixime (5.3%), and were resistant to Ceftazidime (10.5%). Ciprofloxacin had the widest zone of inhibition of (21mm). Equally, isolates from adult female cattle were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (25%), Ofloxacin (18.8%), Gentamicin (12.5%), Nitrofurantion (6.3%), and those isolates were Intermediate to Ceftazidime (6.3%) and Cefuroxime (12.5%) but were resistant to Cefixime (6.3%) with Ciprofloxacin having the widest zone of inhibition of (21mm). it can be concluded that there is a high distribution of the bacteria (E. coli) among cattle slaughtered for meat in Maiduguri abattoir which may serve as a reservoirs of E. coli for transmission through their meat and by-products especially when slaughter conditions are not hygienic enough.

Characterizing Climate Variability and Its Interconnection on Major Crop Production In South Gonderr Zone Ethiopia. []

Characterizing historical climate variability and its interconnection with major crops production in the south Gondar zone, Amhara, Ethiopia ABSTRACT Understanding seasonal climate variability in terms of rainfall and temperature variables, associated trends, and impacts is important for planning productivity and adaptation. On basis of this, a study was conducted in the south Gondar Zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia to investigate variability and trends in weather stations (Debre Tabor, Nefas Mewcha, and Werota) observed (1985-2014) rainfall and temperature variable and correlation of climate variables with major crops" teff", barley, and wheat ) production, productivity and area of production. Accordingly 9 rainfall and 12 temperature variables were analyzed for variability measures (coefficient of variation, standard deviation, standardized anomaly) and trend test (Mann-Kendall’s test). The results revealed that spatial and temporal variability and non-significant trends for the observed rainfall and most of the temperature variables studied- the majority showing increasing trends, but significant only for few which were spatially non-systematic. TRF and NRD, was increasing more at Werota than other stations over the base period indicating more floods at Werota. Over the observed study period, zonal level areas devoted to production of the three crops, production and productivity were highly variable and showed significant increasing trends, and also varied correlation with the studied temperature and rainfall variables. Among others, the degree of associations was high for increased late end of season, raising maximum of the daily minimum temperatures and increase in number of warm nights. The increase of warming may result in crop area relocation and yield reduction. Hence it can be concluded that the climate of south Gondar Zone is characterized by spatial and temporal variability and trend with strong effect on crop production, and there is a need to develop and diversify heat stress tolerant and moisture efficient crop varieties to combat anticipated changes in crop production and productivity. Keywords: climate variability, crop production, south Gondar Zone, trends

Saudi Arabia’s and Iran’s Regional Rivalry over Syria []

Many media channels and writers have argued that the ongoing Syrian civil war since 2011 is purely sectarian oriented nature and that Sunni-Shi’a divisions are the main driver behind it. Nevertheless, global power and vital regional players have abused the instability, insecurity, and the vacuum of power for their involvement in Syria. The objective of their strategic involvement centered on securing their national interests. On the regional scale, Saudi Arabia and Iran have been highly involved in the regional rivalry in Syria and have deceived the international arena for their real motivations. The study will examine through realist lens how both Saudi Arabia and Iran are competing over Syria for their interests under sectarian excuses. The study suggests that their goal is to preserve their regional position, to secure their political regimes, and to enhance their political sphere of influence.

Application of an Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Unit Commitment of the Nigerian Power System. []

A new approach applying an improved artificial bee colony algorithm (iABC) was used for determining the optimal cost for a formulated unit commitment problem. The Unit Commitment Problem (UCP) is well known in the power industry and has the potential to save millions of Naira/Dollars per year in fuel and related costs. It is an area of production scheduling relates to the determination of the ON/OFF status of the generating units during each interval of the scheduling period to minimizing cost objective function subject to meeting system load and reserves requirements as well as variety of equipment operational limits and environmental constraints. The improved ABC technique was developed and implemented with respect to 25 generating stations feeding the Nigerian national grid as of 2016. The Nigeria generation system comprises of the existing generation stations of privatized power holding company of Nigeria (PPHCN), generating stations built by national integrated power projects (NIPP) and the generating stations belonging to independent power producers (IPP) resulting into 25 generating stations available and used to find the optimal commitment schedule. Simulation results was obtained for 25 Nigerian generating system which was presented and comprehensively discussed. The outcome of the results obtained for the Nigerian Power system applying ABC and iABC to solve the unit commitment problem during weekdays and weekends shows that iABC returned the lowest cost of N7,776,665 as compared with N9,988,767 for conventional ABC during weekdays and also that iABC returned the lowest cost of N6,770,112 as compared with N8,839, 001 for conventional ABC during weekends respectively. Therefore, the improved artificial bee colony performed better than the conventional ABC in terms of fuel cost minimization.


Soil erosion is a severe environmental problem in many parts of the world. Efforts should be concentrated to decrease hazards of high erosion rates. This requires erosion hotspot areas assessment to identify critical areas where urgent conservation needed. The revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) model with GIS and suspended sediment concentration measurement used to estimate the soil loss rate and to spatially identify high erosion areas in shar watershed with a size 8211 ha, Beles (main Belese) Sub Basin that is part of upper Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia, to prioritize areas for conservation planning. Monthly precipitation, soil map, 30 m DEM (Digital Elevation model) and satellite image were used to determine the USLE (universal soil loss equation) values and combined on a cell-by-cell grid modeling procedure to predict soil loss. The total sediment yield was 41082.2 ton/year; mean annual sediment yield was 5.00 ton/ha/year. From this model, the total soil loss estimated at 92749 ton/yr. The mean annual soil loss for the watershed was 11.28 ton/ha/yr. The east, central and southwest parts of the watershed constitutes 38 % of the total area and its soil erosion estimated greater than 10 ton/ha/year. The lowest soil erosion rate (<10 ton/ha/year) was observed from 62% of the area in the southwestern, western and northwestern parts of the watershed. From digitalized gully, area 89 % found between Stream power index 2.16 to 6.15 gully and total area of 472 Ha and from sample measurement of gully average width 3 m average depth of 1.3 m which is clustered at areas of high-population, high slope, river crosses specially by cattle’s, and mining sites. RUSLE (Revised universal soil loss equation) could not locate gully hotspot area so it should be modified. The sediment delivery ratio of the watershed estimated at 44 %. The sediments transported from the watershed are already affecting reservoirs and irrigation canals in the downstream catchment of the sub basin. Using the estimated soil erosion rates, the watershed was divided into priority categories for conservation intervention. Micro watershed prone to severe soil erosion risks are Lower Tsunts (18.5 t/h/y), Right Tsunts (17.23 t/h/y), Meti and shar (14.66 t/h/y), Upper Gich mindi and Dawi (13.43 t/h/y), Upper Tsunts (10.80 t/h/y) and Endeg(10.34 t/h/y) these need immediate attention for soil conservation and watershed management planning.

Production of Monomethylol urea for coating application: effect of Temperature on synthesis []

This work proposes Monomethylol urea (MMU) resin as a binder. MMU was synthesized using the one step process, was subjected to FTIR analysis to confirm chemical reaction, and later investigated to determine the suitable temperature and its effect on the properties of MMU. Properties also determined include, gel time, elongation at break, moisture uptake, refractive index, formaldehyde emission, density, turbidity and solubility in water. All the properties investigated displayed its optimum at 60oC. What this implies to the paint manufacturer is that the synthesis of MMU should be carried at 60oC for optimum result, because it is also, at this temperature value that resin is soluble, the formaldehyde emission and moisture uptake is low, density and viscosity is high.


Abstract The study investigated the home related science activities, its enhancement in of students’ academic performance in Basic science concepts. The concepts considered were heat energy, ecology and mixtures. The sample consisted of two hundred and forty (240) Basic Junior Secondary School Two (JSS 2) students drawn from a population of five thousand and seventy-six (5,076) students in two Local Government Areas of Rivers State. A quasi-experimental design with a pretest, post-test and control group design were adopted. The data was analyzed using means, standard deviations, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that home related science activities enhanced students' academic performance in Basic Science concepts better than utilizing only school science or classroom activities. It was also revealed that gender and the interaction between gender and approach were not significant. It was recommended among others that teachers while teaching science should domesticate their teaching of science by citing relevant examples from the home background of the students to enhance performance. Keywords: Home Related Science activities, enhancement, academic performance, Basic Science.

The Comparative study on the effects of Contextual and Structural methods of teaching vocabulary at Preparatory level: The case of grade 11 Jimma Zone ,Gomma Woreda , Oromia []

Abstract: The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative study on the effects of contextual and structural methods of vocabulary teaching at Preparatory level: The case of Gembe preparatory school, focusing on grade 11. To achieve the objectives of this study the Quasi-experimental research design was used. The students that had been taught with contextual methods had been named as Group A and the students that had been taught with structural methods had been named as Group B. The researcher had developed 20 lesson plans for contextual and structural methods of vocabulary teaching (10 for each group). The lessons had been validated by getting the opinions of the experts. On the basis of the above analysis, the findings of this study were identified. The finding of this study was the students that have been taught in the contextual (experimental) group test scores show significant differences from the students that have been taught by the structural method in the post-test. However, the scores of pretest there was no significant differences, the test scores of the students those who have been taught by the contextual vocabulary greater than the test scores of students those who have been taught by the structural vocabulary teaching method, the structural vocabulary has very small significance on Learner’s academic achievement and the Contextual method of teaching vocabulary more effective than structural vocabulary teaching method. Key Words: contextual and structural vocabulary teaching, case processing summary, inter-item correlations, , and inter-Item Correlation Matrix Person product-moment correlation, and Vocabulary instruction


This study focuses on the relationship between internal marketing and service quality/customer preference in fastt food industry. Succinctly, the purpose of this paper is to examine empirical model of the correlations of internal marketing and service quality/customer preference in fast food industry in Enugu State, Nigeria and the associated attributes cum variables. The core objectives of this study have been directed towards enhancing the fast food service quality impact on customer satisfaction with internal marketing as the basic factor and element.


Abstract The study investigated the caretaker committee system and administration of Local Government in Nigeria: A study of Enugu State (2003-2017). In order to achieve the objectives of the study, three research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Data were sourced through secondary sources like text books, Journals, Government official documents, magazine, Newspapers etc. Literature that is relevant to the study was reviewed. A case study method was adopted for the research study. The study utilized simple table and Content Analysis to present and analyze data generated from source, and generalization was made through the hypotheses. The study adopted theory of Structural Functionalism as a framework of analysis. The empirical Literature was stated. Based on the data obtained, it was founded thus: that caretaker committee system did not impact significantly on the service delivery at the grass root level, that the State government activities affected the caretaker committee system in the management of its finances, that Corruption and State/Local government Joint Account are the major challenges that militated against the caretaker committee system in the administration of local government. Based on the background and findings of the study, it was recommended thus: that the caretaker committee in the local government system should be allowed to enjoy some degree of autonomy from State Government and exercise adequate powers for effective management of its affairs in Nigeria; that local government Councils should be given adequate freedom to manage their monthly allocations without State government interference; that Federal government should abolish the use of Joint Account and Allocation Committees, that is being headed by the State Government representatives since it deprives the Local government the power to control their funds; that the use of caretaker committee in the administration of local Government should be completely discouraged so as to enable the local government councils achieve proper service delivery at the grass root levels.

Biology of mRNA vaccine, advantages and drawbacks []

Nowadays, there are several new emerging and ongoing diseases which still lack an effective vaccine. The current situation of the COVID-19 pandemic is a great example indicating that a vaccine is urgently required in order to control the disease spreading and transmission. mRNA vaccine is a new technology that allows a rapid manufacturing and cost-effective process suitable to manage the pandemic. Various delivery systems are studied and developed for efficient mRNA protection and penetration into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Delivery of mRNA by Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) provides good results as clearly shown in mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV2.In this article, we aim to review the 2 main types of mRNA vaccine, mode of action, major manufacturing process, delivery systems, advantages, and drawbacks of the mRNA vaccine to increase understanding about mRNA vaccine.

A significant role in the selection of applicants in an organization in the UK: Case study: London School of Science & Technology(LSST) []

The recruitment and selection process in an organization is important in order to attract an effective workforce. Even though tests and interviews may be suitable as screening tools for organizations, the candidates need to possess the essential knowledge, competencies, and abilities. In implementing these functions, there are various factors that need to be taken into consideration. These include educational qualifications, competencies, aptitude, personality traits, experience, job requirements, and so forth. The candidates are required to go through various rounds of interviews and in some cases, may even have to undertake other methods such as, written tests, group discussions etc. before, they are finally selected. When the candidates are selected, one of the important factors that need to be taken into consideration is, they are able to carry out their job duties in accordance with the expectations of their employers. The main areas that have been taken into account in this research paper are characteristics of recruitment and selection, recruitment and selection process, sources of recruitment, and principles of recruitment and selection.


Abstract: This work was aimed at ascertaining the implications of differential age distribution of workers in the public and private educational institutions in Nigeria, by specifically finding out which sector has more aging workforce; and the relationship between aging and performance. The work was explorative in nature and cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The main instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. Data collected were presented and subjected to statistical analysis using Spearman’s Rank Correlation (rs) while applying the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). One hypothesis was formulated in order to test the identified variable. The research found that the public educational sector has a more aging workforce than the private educational sector’ and thus with a more energetic workforce, productivity is higher in the private educational sector. The study recommended that the public educational sector should emulate the private sector in sourcing for younger workforce with more energy and technology compliance; and that the public educational institutions should reserve about 70 percent of its workforce strength to younger workers who are more flexible, faster, and tend to work longer hours. Keywords: Public sector, Private sector, Age Distribution, Performance, Workforce, Younger Workers, Older workers.


Crossopteryx febrifuga is known for its ethno-medicinal value for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. This study investigates the antioxidant property and antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanol extract of this plant’s stem bark on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. The effect on the liver and pancreatic cells of the diabetic rats was also studied. Thirty rats were used in the antidiabetic study. The rats were divided into six groups (I-VI) of five rats each. A single interpreitoneal (i.p) injection of 150mg/kg alloxan monohydrate constituted in normal saline induced diabetes in Groups II-VI rats. Group I was however not induced and used as positive control. Group II served as negative control/diabetic control while Groups III, IV and V were treated with C. febrifuga extract in the doses of 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 1500mg/kg body weight respectively, Group VI served as standard group and was treated with 5mg/kg glibenclamide (a standard antidiabetic drug). Treatment of the diabetic rats was done for seven days through orogastric procedure. The extract showed a significant (p ˂ 0.05) hypoglycemic effects in all the doses compared to the diabetic control and standard antidiabetic drug, glibecamide. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the stem bark extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenols and sterols. Quantitative, phytochemical screening revealed alkaloids (4.13±0.23%), flavonoids (6.27±2.05%), saponnins (22.67±2.31%), Phenols (3.50±0.32 mg/g) and tannins (0.35±1.02 mg/100g). The extracts showed good antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its rich phytochemicals. Histological examination of the liver and pancreatic tissues of the extract treated diabetic rats showed signs of protection, recovery and regeneration of cells when compared to the diabetic non treated rats. Above all, this investigation suggests that the ethanol stem bark of C. febrifuga possesses antioxidant, antidiabetic and hepatoprotective effect.


Emails are the easiest, and most popular form of communication in modern times where smart phone usage is prevalent. This popularity has also attracted spammers who have used it for unsolicited messages, and illegal marketing activities as well as to perform different forms of atrocities. Different attempts have been made to stem the operations of the spammers, and to separate spam mails from normal (ham) mails. In this paper, a spam filtering approach was proposed. This approach consists of two stages; feature selection, and email classification. In the first stage, the feature selection was done based on a fitness function. The best fit individuals were then selected to crossover, and mutate, and thereafter the fittest ones are moved to the next generation so as to continue from there. In the second stage, genetic algorithm was used to classify the emails into ham, and spam. The results of experiments carried out showed that genetic algorithm can effectively classify emails. In furtherance to this, the accuracy of the system was calculated to be 98%. This shows that the percentage accuracy of using genetic algorithm for email classification is considerably high. Keywords: Spam, Ham, Fitness Function, Genetic Algorithm, Feature Selection.


Abstract: The scope of this study includes the design, fabrication, and testing of an equipment for structural creep monitoring of beams. Various equipment for creep monitoring was studied, the basic requirements for creep monitoring equipment were also studied, this facilitated the choice of this design, which is simple, functional, and economical for the study of creep on beams. After careful study of various engineering materials, steel was selected as the appropriate material for the fabrication of the equipment, this is because steel met the material basic requirement (strength and stiffness, good yield and tensile strength, low thermal coefficient, high fracture toughness, economics, and availability) for the construction. Fabrication processes included surface cleaning, cutting and machining, punching and drilling, straightening, bending and rolling, fitting and reaming, fastening (bolting and welding), finishes, quality control, and surface treatment. The testing procedure for the equipment included batching of concrete of mix ratio 1:2:4, the concrete mix was workable with a true slump value of 10mm. The compressive test result of the batch was over 25N/mm2 for all samples at 28days. Shrinkage and Creep were monitored on a short beam of 750mm x 150mm x 150mm for 90 days (samples were waxed). Zero strain readings were recorded at the bottom of the beam, all other strain readings followed the usual pattern except for strain on the right-hand side of the beam. This was attributed to the kind of support (roller support) at the right-hand side of the beam. The study concluded that the mode of occurrence of creep on beams and columns is not similar. Also, the type of support (such as simple support, roller support, or fixed support) affects the measure of creep on beams. Keywords: Shrinkage, creep, temperature and humidity.


This article addressed a Brazilian government contract bidding negotiation between a governmental institution and a private company. The objective was to deploy a new electrical substation through a two-party, one-issue role-play simulation. The teaching material is helpful to scholars, decision-makers, and practitioners. Key findings pointed out the necessity of improving negotiating skills when dealing with the bidders in cases of Force Majeure—also, designing solutions to complex issues to achieve mutual benefit agreements; (iii) understanding the other party's underlying interests avoid a new bidding process. Further implications suggest the case replication to other scenarios such as private, buyer-seller negotiations—a complete set of instructions complete the present study.

Analysis of the Effect of Competence, Affective Commitment and Placement of Employees on The Performance of Civil Servants at The Office of The Regional Service Agency of Southeast Sulawesi Province []

The objectives of this study are: (1) To determine and analyze the effect of competence, affec-tive commitment, and employee placement on the performance of Civil Servants; (2) To find out and analyze the influence of competence on the performance of Civil Servants; (3) To de-termine and analyze the effect of affective commitment on the performance of Civil Servants; (4) To find out and analyze the effect of employee placement on the performance of Civil Servants. Respondents in this study were all civil servants of the Regional Personnel Agency Of-fice of Southeast Sulawesi Province totaling 111 employees. The data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression. The results of the study stated that: (1) Competence, affective com-mitment, and employee placement had a positive and significant effect on the performance of Civil Servants; (2) Competence has a positive and significant effect on the performance of Civil Servants; (3) Affective commitment has a positive and significant effect on the performance of Civil Servants; (4) Employee placement has a positive and significant impact on the perfor-mance of Civil Servants.

Microplastic Accumulation in Gastrointestinal Tract of Sea Fish Landed at TPI Gaung Padang, west Sumatera []

The study aim to determine microplastic accumulation found in the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) of fish, including stomach and intestine of fish landed at TPI Gaung Padang. The research method was used by survey method. Primary data were obtained by sampling in the form of sea fish catches at TPI Gaung Padang (in situ). Sample analysis to microplastics identification of the stomach and intestines fish in FPIK Biogeoekonomi Laboratory, Universitas Padjadjaran. Research parameters include: the types of microplastic that accumulates in the stomach and intestines of fish and the polymers of microplastic. Research results show that microplastics are more commonly found in long jawed mackerel fish (Rastrelliger kanagurta), with fragments found more in Rastrelliger kanagurta and pepetek (Leiognathus sp.). In the digestive tract of fish, microplastics accumulate more in the stomach of fish than in the intestines of fish. Black colour microplastic is the most commonly microplastic found, and the dominante size of microplastic was in range 100 - 500 µm. Microplastic polymers were found to be derived from the type of Polyethylene (PE) with 91.53% similarity.

The effect of Dividend Policy on Performance of Nigerian Manufacturing Companies: A case of Dangote Cement Plc. []

The study tempted to analyze the effect of dividend policy on the performance of Nigerian manufacturing companies a case of Dangote Cement Company. The data used for analysis was extracted from the annual report and account of Dangote Cement Company. The methods used for data analysis were descriptive statics, correlation and regression analysis. The result of the study revealed that the independent or explanatory variables (dividend payout ratio, earnings per share and dividend yield) have significant and are positively effect on the dependent variable (net profit).