Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Exploration of physical properties of brick waste and stone dust and its utilization as aggregates in concrete []

Concrete is a blend of aggregates, cement and water and plays a dynamic role on development of infrastructure. Now a days we face the problem of growing need and more consumption of aggregate due to industrial production which quickly leading to decrease or shortage of aggregates. This condition pinched the attention of researcher to discover new replacements for concrete. Stone powder/dust produced from stone crushing zones appears as a problem for effective disposal. Also the quantities of clay bricks in our nation have been on the increase significantly without consideration for potential reuse or recycling increasing the risk to public health due to the scarcity of waste landfill. In this research the performance of stone dust and brick waste as partial replacement of sand and gravel in concrete mix is studied. Concrete samples and beams having partial replacement of fine and coarse aggregate with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of stone dust and brick waste were casted and then cured for 3, 7 and 28 days. After completion of the curing period, concrete specimens were tested for compressive strength. While flexure test was done on concrete beam specimen having no and 20% replacement of fine and coarse aggregate by stone dust and brick waste after 28 days curing period. Results shows that y adding stone dust and brick waste in concrete decrease the workability. Maximum compressive strength after 3 days curing was achieved at 10% replacement level. The increase in strength compared to strength of control mix was 14.13% and the maximum compressive strength after 7 and 28 days strength were 2.34% and 4.93% respectively. Similarly the increase in flexure strength at 28 days was found as 1.27% at 20% replacement level. Hence it is recommended that stone dust and brick waste can be replaced up to 20 % with fine and coarse aggregate in concrete mix.

Permission Analysis of Mobile Apps []

Security Analysis is the process of evaluating an application’s vulnerabilities against a given set of exploits. It gives an insight of the application’s working, requisite permissions, third-party dependencies, external API calls etc. In our perspective, security analysis is used to find vulnerable points and possible abnormal behavior based on a given random / fuzzy input which may aid in preparing possible attack vector for cracking the application. Purpose of the study is to have an insight of the applications’ behavior in terms of code de-obfuscation, grant of access for changing the application’s code and assessing the permissions as ample or beyond the needs of the mobile application under study.


The experiments were conducted at Taraba State Water and Sewerage Corporation, Environmental Laboratory, Jalingo, Headquarters Nigeria, where the water samples were brought from bore wells in (A1, A2 and B) wards in Zing metropolis, for analysis. It was found that only Temperature (A1=34, A2=35 and B=34) were outside the acceptable limit of WHO/NSDWQ. The results of the water parameters were entered into Microsoft excel, 2016 to determine the water quality index of each of the three locations. The results of the water quality index show that all the sources of the water are rated good. WQI model was developed and its coefficients were obtained when the values of calculated WQI were inputted into IBM (SPSS) regression model. The result show that the reliability of the model is 99.37% and an error of 0.00157. when the developed Equation values were compared with those from experiments it was found that there was a good agreement between them with errors ranging from 0.14 to 1.66%. Hence the established model could be employed to monitor the water quality rating within the confine of this research.


This paper identifies an attractive process as a Pre-Digitization for collecting and generating valid information in order to facilitate digitization. Further, proposes the process as a Roadmap for content development which is demonstrated by means of a real case study “Mobile Guide Application”.


The concept of decentralization has been very much crucial in both developed and developing countries serving as a stimulant in finding solutions to the numerous problems of governance especially in local council communities. Decentralization is not only a administrative value, but also a civic dimension purposely to increase the opportunities for citizens to take interest in public affairs. For far too long, the Sierra Leone Local Government at independence was in a deplorable state and badly in need of reforms that necessitated this research study. The aim of this study is ”To Assess the Effect of Decentralization of Education Functions to Local Councils in the Tonkolili District with special attention to the Yoni Chiefdom”. The research methodology adopted was a Case Study design.


This article addressed a Brazilian negotiation on a failed Federal government acquisition. The contract objective was to deploy a facility. After the bidding process, the winning company discovered a calculation error in the civil engineering work. The teaching material is helpful to scholars, decision-makers, and practitioners. Key findings pointed out the necessity of improving the project scope management and developing best efforts to solve joint problems. Further implications suggest the case replication to other scenarios such as non-governmental negotiations—a complete set of teaching notes complete the present work.

Evaluation of Urban Drainage System by SWMM : A Case Study At Alaba Kulito Town, SNNPRS, Ethiopia []

ABSTRACT: The general objective of the study is Evaluation of Urban Drainage System of Alaba Kulito Town by Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). The study employed the collection of primary data like measuring the existing drainage size of the flood-prone region and asking stakeholders and secondary data which was obtained from National Meteorology Agency (NMA) of Ethiopian (33 years meteorological data), Ethiopian Map Agency (topographic map and soil map data), Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy (soil data) and Alaba Town Municipality (historical data of flood and organizational structure of city administration). 3.7% of Missed RF data of Alaba Kulito station was filled by Normal Ratio Method (NRM). The Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) method which was followed by Peak Over Threshold (POT) extreme value determination method was used to predict the probability of flood occurrence due to the best fit and approach of study. For analysis of hydrology and hydraulics done by the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN)/rational method and Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) are used. It has been found that Alaba-Kulito town is geographically nearly plain which was between class 1 and class 4 slope classification and located in foothill which contributes much amount of runoff to the town and some of the drainage lines are incapable to convey runoff generated from rural catchment. In addition to this, limited landscape based mitigation strategies in the study area with insufficiency of drainage canals, limited collector and feeder drainage lines, lack of awareness of community while disposing of household wastes together have worsened the impacts of flooding. The overall result of the study is terminated by distinguishing and pointing both structural methods: diverting the upper catchment(which shares more than 64% runoff load ), providing collector and feeder drainage lines through the flood-prone section of town and constructing a lined canal at the common outlet to Bilate river which is about 1.5km from ST.Gabriel church ; and non-structural managing systems depending on the degree of the flood. The peak runoff load of each junction and nodes are obtained by summing up the runoff magnitude of all upper contributing catchments and accordingly the outlet point received about 49.45m3/s and 29.1m3/s without divertion work and if diversion work was provided for 10 years return period respectively. The coefficient of correlation between simulated and estimated peak discharge becomes greater than 0.99. Keywords: Alaba Kulito Town, Urban Drainage, POT, GPD, IDF, SWMM

Estimation of Sustainable Potential and Utilization Level of Penaeus merguiensis in Pangandaran Waters, West Java []

Banana prawn is one of the penaeid shrimp commodities whose market demand is high in Pangandaran Regency. The high market demand for shrimp will encourage the interest of fishers to catch shrimp as much as possible so that it threatens the sustainability of banana prawn resources. The purpose this research is to know determine the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY), the optimum fishing efforts and the utilization level of banana prawn in Pangandaran Waters. The research was conducted at TPI Minasari Pangandaran and TPI Bojongsalawe in March – June. The method used in this research is a descriptive survey method that is case study of banana prawn fishery in Pangandaran Waters. The data collected was primary data and secondary data related to catching banana prawn. The data were analyzed presented in the form of Catching Per Unit Effort (CPUE), Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY), optimum fishing efforts and utilization level of banana prawn. The result showed that Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) of banana prawn was 74.05 tons per year with an optimum effort of 10,286 trips per year. The utilization level of banana prawn in Pangandaran Waters was 96%, which in a fully exploited status.

An analysis of government policy consistencies in relation to the performance of public sector institutions in Zimbabwe. []

The performance of public institutions is determined by the policies implemented by the government. The consistency of these policies influence stakeholder perceptions towards the public entities. The paper is based on a study that sought to examine how consistencies in policies pertaining to civil and voter registration in Zimbabwe affect the performance and reputation of the relevant institutions. The study adopted a pragmatic approach that triangulated data collection and analysis methods. A stratified sample of 278 respondents responded to personal interviews conducted through both structured and semi-structured questionnaires. The statistical data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS) Version 2.0 and AMOS. Qualitative data were analysed using theatrics analysis using the NVivo software package. Findings of the study established that Policy Consistencies (PC) positively influence the performance (PERF) of public sector institutions. Furthermore, Policy Consistencies (PC) have a positive influence on the reputation (REP) of public institutions. The results also revealed that Policy Implementation (PI) positively affects the reputation (REP) of public institutions. The study concluded that policy consistencies (PC) in the implementation of government policies affect the performance (PERF) of institutions responsible for the implemented policy’s administration. It further concluded that the implementation of policies (PI) affect the reputation (REP) of public sector institutions. The current study expanded understanding of the topic by providing findings from Zimbabwean institutions to describe the dynamics of policy consistencies on the performance and reputation of public institutions. The study contributed to public sector reputation methodology in that new construct measures were developed and validated for policy consistency (PC), policy implementation (PI), reputation (REP) and performance (PERF). The study recommended the need for scholars to undertake efforts to develop reputation theoretical frameworks that encompass government policies. Key Words: Policy consistency; policy implementation; public sector; performance; reputation.

A Case Study To Determine the Effectiveness of the Management of the PMTCT Program at Remera Health Center in June 2021, Kigali City, Rwanda []

Background: PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission) is a key component in HIV prevention programs for mothers and their children (WHO,2007).More than 2.8 million babies have been born HIV-free because to a successful PMTCT program (UNICEF, UNAIDS 2020). HIV continues to infect and affect children, despite major changes in HIV response (UNICEF, UNAIDS 2020).In 2019, over 2.8 million children and adolescents were infected with HIV, with 84%t of them living in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNICEF, UNAIDS 2020).I was interested in evaluating the efficiency of the PMTCT program management at the health center and compare with the national protocol and international standards. This was intended to identify the gaps as well as the strengths in the management of PMTCT service at the Remera health Center,Kigali City. Purpose: The main purpose of the case study was to evaluate the effective the PMTCT Program's management strategy was at Remera Health Center and compare with the national protocol in Rwanda. Literature review of this study is also available Methods: The methods used to conduct the case study were self-prepared questionnaire to ask PMTCT service providers and facility HMIS report for analysis in accordance with national protocol and International Standards. Results: According to my findings, PMTCT services are provided in accordance with the national protocol at this health center. Exposed infants who were at 6weeks of age were at 100%, while those started CPT were 100% and those exposed infants tested at 6weeks of age were also 100% and those tested positive of HIV were 0%.I saw that, HIV Exposed infants at 9 (nine) months of age were at 100%, those tested for HIV were 90.9% while those tested positive were at 0%.HIV exposed infants who were at 18 months of age during the period, outcomes were at 100%, those who tested for HIV at 24 months were at 88.9% and those tested positive were at 0%.Exposed infants who were lost and retraced during the period reporting month were 100%.There was no death and positive HIV exposed infants recorded in this case. Conclusion: This indicated that there was a success story of the PMTCT program at this health center and with other empirical studies conducted for PMTCT in Rwanda. I believe that I should have the opportunity to conduct similar case study in my country, Liberia so as to see what is happening about the PMTCT program and get the best practice from Rwanda.

Government Policies and Right of Disabilities and Its Understanding and Practices in Nepal []

This study has described the government policies on disabilities and their understandings and practices among the implementing agencies and disabled people. The method of this study is to review all government policies and programs related to disabilities and concerns about the related stakeholders. The major respondents of this study are the authorities of implementing agencies and the disabled people. The study found that there are sufficient policies and rights of programs for disabled people but the implementation is very weak.


The study aimed at determinants of customer patronage preference of shopping mall over retail stores in Ibadan. The study objective analyse the effect of economic factors on the patronage of shopping malls over small retail stores in Ibadan and determine the effect of cognitive factors on the patronage of shopping malls over small retail stores in Ibadan. The Study utilizes survey method for data collection. Population of the study consist all customers of shopping malls in Ibadan with sample size of 385 respondents using Cochran (1977) formula. Analysis was done using multiple regression. The results of the study revealed that there is significant influence of economic factor and cognitive factor on the patronage of shopping malls over retail stores in Ibadan. The survey findings shows that consumers derive more level of satisfaction on multiple counts like wider choice of products and well-known brands, one stop shopping, new market arrivals, festive offers, huge discounts, and other benefits. The survey results revealed that almost all income groups get benefited through shopping mall purchases. In other words, the research reveals a significant relationship between shopping malls and customers patronage. The study recommend that shopping malls should improve and maintain their standard in ambiance related variables such as recreation places, lighting, air condition, hall way and shopping space among others as it attract customers to patronize shopping malls over retail stores. Key words: Shopping malls Marketing, Customer, Product, Patronage.

Urban Transport: Tricycling as a Means of Transportation in Ho and Employment for the Youth []

The use of tricycle (commonly referred to as cando in the study area) in the Ho municipal area has recently become part of transport available to the residents aiding in meeting their daily travel needs and filling the shortage gap in public transport. The cando business is a novel and relevant form of employment for the youth in the study area. The researcher randomly chose five (5) cando picking joints on market days in the Ho township, in all 75% cando riders and also five (5) focus group discussions were organised with the patrons. Features of the tricycle mode have had implications, as such an assessment of this transport mode has become necessary which has led to this study. The information gathered from the field covers data ownership, rider qualification and license, services, convenience, affordability and others. The study discovered that tricycle is an accepted mode of transport in Ho municipal area which forms about 21% total traffic composition in the Ho municipal area. Vulnerability of the mode regarding the fact that the operators are not trained for the job before engaging the business. The study recommends enforcement to improve safety by controlling the activities of the riders to ensure effectiveness and efficiency.

Math Paper 1 (Difficult High-Level Math Questions) []

In this document I describe fifteen high level math problems. I explain how to break apart the questions and fully solve each problem. This concept of practicing with complex problems helps us learn how to solve problems in a more intelligent manner, rather than brute forcing.


Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and a growing public health problem in many developed and developing countries. Epidemiological data in Rwanda, based on WHO estimates, suggest markedly high prevalence of hypertension as one of the main causes of deaths caused by non-communicable diseases. This study seeks to determine the prevalence and determinants of hypertension among outpatient adults in Rwanda


Objective: This research study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens) on the histology of the testes of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Methodology: Twenty-five (25) male wistar rats weighing 200-250g were procured and acclimatized for two weeks, after which they were divided into seven (7) groups of five (5) rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A, B, C, D and E. Groups B-E were induced with diabetes using alloxan. Groups A and B served as control groups and received only distilled water; while groups C – D diabetic served as the experimental groups and were given Glucophage, 400mg/kg of M. pruriens and 800mg/kg of M. pruriens respectively for 21 days through oral route with the aid of oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation, and testes were harvested for histological studies. Result: There were severe testicular damage with severe spermatogenic arrest, severe apoptosis of the interstitial cell of leydig and severe fatty change within the lumen of the animals in group B when compared with the control group A and group C that received water and glucophage respectively. These effects were ameliorated in Groups C - D which received variable doses of the ethanolic leaf extracts M. prurines.Conclusion: The leaf extracts of M. pruriens have ameliorative effect on the testes alloxan-induced Wistar rats.Keywords: Mucuna purines, diabetes, testes.

The Effect of Different Leadership Style []

The term leadership is more valuable for management. Leadership contains high qualities behavior such as directing, motivating, guiding, and managing a group of people. They can also motivate others to perform, create, and innovate. The factors influencing the leadership to get profitable in business are implementing the vision and values, increase morale, ensure effective communication, motivates Employees, provide appropriate resources. The interaction of the leadership style and the human resource management strategy significantly contributes to organizational performance. The study helps to understand the effect of different leadership styles autocratic, democratic, and participative style- on employee performance. The objectives that guided the study were; to investigate the effect of autocratic leadership styles affect employee performance, to investigate the effect of democratic leadership styles on performance, and to analyze the effect of participative leadership styles on employee performance in an organization. The result of this study focuses on revenue from effective different leadership style in business.

Bioactive compounds derived from AGARICUS Species and Bioactivity for type 2 diabetes mellitus []

Mushrooms are obtained from fungi that produce spores. Mushrooms from the Basidiomycota phylum contain almost 33,000 species. Consumption of mushrooms has improved, and the 2016 cultivation rate was about 10,378,163 metric tonnes. All species of mushrooms produce spores for reproduction. The most valuable edible species is Agaricus bisporus. Mushrooms are part of the diet to stimulate the strength of the immune system. Mushrooms function as antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, as well as Anticholesteremic. Agaricus bisporus mainly lowers glucose levels and stimulates the production of glycogen in pancreatic cells with the help of glucokinase (GK). The occurrence of diabetes exceeds 592million up to 2035. Mushrooms contain vitamins B and D, phenolic compounds, and bioactive compounds that are non-toxic, so they have positive effects on human consumption. Reactive oxygen species get altered and lead to a risk of type 2 diabetes. B-glucan, polysaccharides, galactose, chitin, non-dietary carbohydrates, hemicellulose, etc. are utilized for the prevention of various diseases and also improve the defensive mechanism of the body. Humans and rats were examined with adipocyte-resultant proteins that regulate cardiovascular functions. Mushrooms like A. bisporus, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes, Fomes fomentarius, and many others are involved in medications for various life-threatening diseases. Mushrooms are used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency reverse transcriptase type-1, herpes simplex virus type 1, and hepatitis B. Freezing is the most important method for the better preservation of mushrooms at 12 degrees centigrade. Mushrooms' contents can also be preserved in the microwave rather than by boiling. Mushrooms can be baked, cooked, and pickled. So, the consumption of mushrooms is beneficial for human health.


Self-confidence is an important factor for adolescents who are deaf. Self-confidence is a form of feeling confident about the ability that an individual has to be able to achieve life goals. To get confidence, parental support is needed. Parental support causes teenagers to feel comfortable, feel loved and cared for. This study aims to determine the relationship between parental support and self-confidence of adolescents with hearing impairment at SLB-B Pangudi Luhur. The research method is quantitative. Data obtained through questionnaires that have been tested first. The number of samples in this study were 63 subjects, who were Pangudi Luhur SMPLB and SMALB students aged 13-18 years. Based on the results of data analysis, it is known that the correlation coefficient between parental support and self-confidence is 0. 609 with a significance level of 0.000. This means that there is a relationship between parental support and the confidence of adolescents with hearing impairment at the SLB-B Pangudi Luhur. This means that the higher parental support, the higher the confidence of adolescents with hearing impairment in the SLB-B Pangudi Luhur.


Human Resources policies are increasingly recognized as drivers that leads the organization enhancing their effectiveness. Policies define the organizational values and philosophies conferred to staff and define the obligatory roles to be played by the various stakeholders in the employment relationship. Generally, the study aimed to investigate the influence of human resources policies on employee performance in Rwanda. This study was based on CIMERWA with four specific objectives which were to assess the effects of reward policy on employee’s performance at CIMERWA; to establish the effects of promotion policy on employee’s performance at CIMERWA; to determine the influence of training and development policy on employee performance at CIMERWA and to examine effects of the recruitment policy on employee performance at CIMERWA. The study used mixed approach and both quantitative and qualitative data were used to interrogate the research questions through interviews, questionnaire and documentary reviews. Secondary and primary data were also applied. The target population was 140 employees of CIMERWA and 104 respondents were selected through solvin’s sample formula. Data collection was done by requesting permission to the respondents to participate in the survey. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. The data of this study was also analyzed by using correlation and regression analysis, and It indicated the high positive correlation between HR policies and Employee performance at CIMERWA at r= 0.798*, p-value=0.000<0.05). Since the findings revealed that HR policies influence Employee performance at CIMERWA, The researcher recommended that proper reward policy and systems should be designed to address equitable and adequate reward for the employees. The promotional policy and opportunities should be in place to maximize employee job satisfaction and efficiency at work. The recruitment policy should be fair to attract and retain competent personnel without any form of discrimination. The training and development policy should be designed to assess training need and fill the gap that can be resulted from lack of certain skills in area that need improvement.

Using Classification Model for Information Extraction []

As the size of unstructured document containing relevant information become increase more and more, manually seeking for specific relevant information in this document is a difficult, tedious and time-consuming task. An information extraction system is a method that solves such difficulty by automatically extracting specific relevant information from such unstructured text documents and putting this information as structured pattern. In this study, an automated Afaan Oromoo Information Extraction System (AOIES) has been developed using supervised machine learning approach to extract the most relevant football news information from a collection of unstructured Afaan Oromoo sport news document. The Afaan Oromoo sport news documents used in this study was collected from Radio Fana Share Company Afaan Oromoo Department. To implement the AOIES, the tokenization, normalization, stop word removal language specific methods, the machine learning Naïve Bayes classification algorithm and various programming language tools are applied. The standard precision, recall and F-score evaluation metrics are used to evaluate the text classification and IE model accuracy of the developed system prototype. While experimenting the proposed model with training and testing dataset, the 10-fold cross validation method is applied. The developed system classification module achieved 91.7% and the IE model 94.6% F-scores performance by correctly predicting the instances. The above result indicates the developed system prototype has scored good performance by correctly predicting the instances using the Naïve Bayes algorithm. Generally, the evaluation result demonstrates that the machine learning classification algorithm can be adopted as information extraction method for the Afaan Oromoo text document. Key Words:, Machine Learning, Naive Bayes, Afaan Oromoo , Information Extraction