Volume 9, Issue 9, September 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Automatic Detection of Learning Styles Based on Classical Set Theories in Adaptive Personalised e-Learning System []

Learning management system focus on supporting lecturers and/or instructors in creating, administrating and managing online courses; even as witnessed in this COVID-19 era. Meanwhile, there as been less focus on adaptivity and personalisation through automatic detection of learning styles of learners. İt is a general believe that a learner's ability to learn relies to a large extent on what the learner already knows and understands, and the acquisition of knowledge should be an individually tailored process (preferences) of construction devoid of location and time. The learning style provided by Felder-Silverman learning style model (FSLSM) provided some level of determining learners’ learning style. However, its deficient in the dynamism requires for automatically detecting learners’ learning style. The paper, therefore expoits the classical set theories on the FSLSM for automatic detection of learning styles for Learners. Self-reported Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire was administered to 31 randomly selected students of National Diploma level II of the department of Computer Science, Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji. Four courses were used as a pilot study. The students were further made to interact with our designed adaptive and personalised learning management software with the automatic detection scheme embedded. Both the ILS questionnaire and learning style extracted from the software were analysed. The result shows that automatic detection of learning styles based classical set theories scheme performs better than the traditional FSLSM.

“It’s not what you say; it’s how you say it”. An Analysis of Framing Theory in relation to Anti-FGM Content Delivery at a Local Community Radio in Kenya []

This study sought to examine framing theory in relation to anti-FGM content delivery at a community radio station in Migori County, Kenya. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through the mixed methods approach, using a questionnaire, focus group discussions, interviews and a content analysis of radio programs. The study shows that framing has an important role to play in content delivery, and influences the conceptualization and acceptance of the message by the audience.


This research investigate the effects of bacterial isolates Pseudomonas species from soil sample of Marshall paint effluent and their effects on the decolorization of paint. After Gram staining series of biochemical test and spectrophotometer reading showing the absorbance rate of the carbon source (lactose) and nitrogen source (urea) on the decolourization of paint. The result here indicates that for bacteria isolate Pseudomonas cruciviae carbon source (lactose) is optimal at 0hr and 48hr while at 24hrs and 72hrs urea is optimal. For bacteria isolate Pseudomonas putida, carbon source (lactose) is optimal at 0hr while nitrogen source (urea) is optimal at 24hrs, 48hrs, and 72hrs. it can therefore be concluded that nitrogen source (urea) is more favourable to the decolourization of paint for Pseudomonas putida while in bacteria isolate Pseudomonas cruciviae, lactose and urea as carbon and nitrogen sources have equal decolorization rate respectively.

Forecasting wheat production using time series model: a case study of Punjab []

This study was conducted to forecast the production potential of wheat crop in Punjab province of Pakistan up to the year 2025-26. Production projections were worked out by the application of time series analysis “Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average” (ARIMA model) on the secondary dataset of past 30 years i.e. from 1990-91 to 2020-21, taking area, yield and production of wheat into account. The results indicated a nominal increasing trend and no significant break-through has been projected in wheat crop production. The diminishing trend of minimum production potential of wheat would probably be due to the cropping pattern changes, uneconomic size of land holding, subsistence traditional farming and lack of high yielding varieties. At maximum probability of 95% confidence interval; the wheat production of Punjab is projected at 24199.30 thousand tons in 2025-26 against actual 20900 thousand tons in 2020-21. The probability of occurrence of an expected increase in production of wheat appears to be directly related to the expansion in area and rise in average yield. Better support price, high yielding varieties and pure fertilizer at subsidized rates may be the factors to increase the wheat production.

Human Duality Principle []

Human Duality Principle : The Dual nature of Human Being

Digital economy and tax administration in Nigeria []

With the advancement of the fourth industrial revolution which is marked by digitalization of processes, there is a need to ensure that methods of collecting government revenue is maintained in order to ensure that public goods and services are provided for the welfare of the citizens this study therefore examined the effect of a digitalized economy on tax administration in Nigeria. The study employed a quantitative research method and an expost factor research design. The study covered a time frame ranging from 2010 to 2017 which sums up to eight years. Linear regression was used to analyze the secondary data gotten on the independent variable (ICT) on the dependent variables (tax revenue and tax evasion). The result of the analysis reveals the adjusted R square as -0.028 and a computed p-value of 0.406 which indicates that ICT has non-significant low adverse effect on tax revenue in Nigeria. It also reveals the adjusted R square of 0.38 and the computed p-value of 0.061 in respect of the second hypothesis which indicates that ICT has a non-significant low positive effect on the level of tax evasion in Nigeria. It is therefore concluded that the digital economy does not have a significant effect on tax administration in Nigeria. It is recommended from the study that laws and processes be set in place to ensure that the tax revenue authorities across all levels in Nigeria are not left behind in the transition to the digital economy.

Team Motivational Factors Influencing The Performance Of Government Projects In Rwanda. A Case Of Electricity Access Rollout Project (EARP). []

Doing a formal business is a culture that Rwandans are currently adopting. However, the lack of project team’s motivation leads to poor performance of the same project and stimulates staff turnover in the organization and delay in providing reports, low productivity, poor performance of employee, delay in service delivery, and long waiting line for services which led to employees’ dissatisfaction. Thus the aim of this study was to assess the influence of staff motivation on project performance by drawing a case from Electricity Access Rollout Project (EARP). The qualitative and quantitative prospective studies were done, where instruments including questionnaires and documentary were used. The first specific objective was to assess influence of salaries and fringe benefits on EARP performance, the second one was to find out influence of employee promotion on EARP performance as well as finding out influence of working environment on EARP performance. In order to assess whether the aforesaid objectives were achieved, correlation analysis was performed to test whether there’s a significant relationship between team motivation and project performance with reference to EARP as a case study whereby a sample of 78 staff was used representing total 345 staff of EARP. The study found that there is a highly significant relationship between staff motivation and project performance. After the analysis and interpretations, it is noted that there is a positive and strong correlation between team motivation and project performance whereby r=0.961. Therefore, the specific objectives set by the researcher were all achieved during this study.


Eczema prevalence is very high in countries developed rather than agricultural economies.The etiopathological study revealsthe factors of psychosomatic nature of the disease with epidermal barrier dysfunction,genetic determination,allergy and impaired innate immunity play an important role in pathogenesis of eczema,The eczema treatment in ayurveda is very effective as per evidence based clinical trial


eGovernment is a new mode to improve the activities of the public sector. The eGovernment projects are basically software development projects. They provide multiple services to its users, such as increased efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency at a reduced cost. A major critical factor for eGovernment project development is to establish and maintain robust Software Development Process. A number of eGovernment projects have failed due to use of inappropriate software processes, especially in developing countries. The awareness, definition and visibility, regarding the use of the appropriate development process remains limited. eGovernment projects are ongoing, therefore, there is a need to better define its software development process. Personnel, who develop the eGovernment project(s) need to be able to identify challenges, apply effective strategies that support the development, as well as helps to define the appropriate development process. To address the issue, we propose a framework consisting of a set of guidelines for guiding adaptation and instantiation of a project-oriented software development process for eGovernment projects. Our approach is based on the thematic analysis method. The framework consists of thirteen major milestones, along with activities in each milestone. The framework is validated using quality assessment of the activities. In addition, empirical evidence has been provided to underline its significance. This framework is important to eGovernment sector given it helps to analyze the major elements of defining software development process, and to construct effective approaches for identification, definition and management of project-oriented software development process for eGovernment project(s).

Predicting Employee attrition using Decision tree algorithm []

Decision-making in an Organization is a necessity for the Human resource team in terms of predicting employee attrition. There are many complex, interrelated variables that impact the likelihood of employees quitting, which makes it extremely difficult—if not impossible—to manually predict which employees will quit, when they’ll quit, and why they’ll quit, especially at scale. This is where machine learning comes in, which finds statistical patterns in vast amounts of historical data, to uncover what humans would miss. In this case, machine learning can be used to find patterns in employee attrition, and create a model for predicting attrition. While much research focused on analyzing the IBM Dataset analytics based on the attrition feature as the subject given other features for prediction, this research seeks to contribute to knowledge by building a scalable decision tree model for employee attrition that can be used on any application which domain concern is for the employee for new prediction. Research science design method was carried out in this research. Secondary data source collection was used where we collected the IBM dataset for this research from Kaggle. The decision tree model was built using R and Transact SQL code in Microsoft SQL Server 2019 and then saved as a SQL procedure.ASP.NET which comprises HTML, CSS, and JavaScript was used to show how the model works and how it can be used to predict new employee data. C# was used to call the SQL procedure stored on the Microsoft SQL Server for prediction. Microsoft SQL Server 2019 was built with a lot of advanced features for big data analysis. Microsoft SQL Server 2019 big data cluster enables intelligence overall data and helps remove data silos by combining both structured and unstructured data across the entire data estate. Big Data Clusters integrates Microsoft SQL Server and the best of big data open-source solutions.


Concrete is a material which is weak in tension and fails in brittle manner when subjected to tension and flexure. When steel scrap is added to concrete, the behavior of composite material is superior to plane concrete. In this paper an experimental investigation was carried out to study the feasibility of using steel scrap obtained from lathe machine in concrete by checking the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete. Properties at fresh and hardened were found out by varying proportions of lathe machine waste such as 0%, 0.5%, 1 %, 1.5% and 2% by weight of cement. All the tests were conducted on the basis of the guidelines set by ASTM standards. It was observed that the workability of the mixtures decreased with an increase in the percentage of lathe waste as fiber reinforcement, i.e. higher lathe waste, so little workability. Compressive, flexure and split tensile strength increases as the waste fiber content increases to a certain extent and then decreases as the fiber content increases further. 1.5 % of the waste fiber content is the optimum resistance content. The experimental results were verified by the images provided by SEM. It is recommended that for strength enhancement, the lathe waste can be used as steel fiber reinforcement up to 1.5% (by weight of cement)

Antenna for Lung Cancer Detection Using Electric Properties of Lung Tissues []

The paper is devoted to analysis, design and implementation of patch antenna for lung cancer detection. It presents the patch antenna of overall dimension of 3.5×3.5𝒄𝒎𝟐. The antenna is fabricated on Roger material of relative permittivity and thickness of 3.66 and 1.524mm respectively. The loss tangent of the dielectric is 0.004. A lung model is presented comprising the lung tissues and the pleura. Dielectric properties of the lung tissues are, relative permittivity, ɛr of 20.4768 and conductivity, σ of 0.804 S/m, while those for the pleura are 42.035 and 1.67 S/m respectively. The return loss are simulated on CST microwave studio for the antenna located on the lung structure. It is shown that there is a resonance frequency shift between the simulated return loss of the normal lung tissues and those of the infected lung tissues by tumor cells for different stages.

Knowledge attitude and practices of nurses regarding hospital discharge education for cardiovascular patients in Faisalabad institute of cardiology. []

Background: Cardiovascular disease is a global public health problem contributing to30% of global mortality and 10% of global disease burden. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in the low-income countries the number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on steady rise Eighty percent of the deaths due to CVD and 86% of the global burden of CVD are in the developing countries including Pakistan. Pakistani population has one of the highest risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the world. In Pakistan, 30 to 40 % of all deaths are due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Objective: To assess the nurses’ knowledge about cardiovascular diseases and risk factors. To assess the nurses’ role and practices to educate the patients after cardiac event before hospital discharge. Methodology: This research was descriptive and cross sectional in nature which is a quantitative study design. Fifty (50) out of all nurses from Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology Faisalabad were selected as the sample size. Results: It was discovered that the majority of nurses, 52.0 percent, strongly feel that discharge planning is critical in cardiac wards. It was also discovered that the majority of nurses agreed that staff nurses should provide discharge education to patients, with 58percent agreeing. Conclusion: There is need to educate nurses about hospital discharge education of cardiovascular patients at FIC. Keywords: Cardiovascular, Knowledge, Attitude, Prac


The poor supply of electricity to different settlements in Nigeria, continuing over the years now, has forced building occupants to shift to dependence on generators. This study assesses the impact of carbon monoxide emissions from power generating plants on both residential and commercial buildings residents of Niger- Delta. The study was carried out in the three States of Niger-Delta, Nigeria, which included Akwa-Ibom, Delta and Rivers. Consequently, five (5) Points of both residential and commercial buildings were purposively selected in each of the sampled State of the study area. The HT-1000 digital LCD carbon monoxide meter was used to take measurements of the emissions of carbon monoxide with conformity to NESREA and OSHA standards. The population of the study consists of all the households of the sampled States. A total of four hundred (400) copies of the questionnaire were administered with three hundred and seventy-seven (377) returned well filled, giving a percentage response of 94%. The result of the analysis the outdoor emission levels of carbon monoxide before or during the use of generators were taken at 0, 2 and 4m, respectively, from the external walls of the buildings sampled and the corresponding indoor measurements were taken internally at 1.2-1.5m above floor area. The data collected were analysed with the use of statistical methods, such as t-test, ANOVA, trend analysis and Kolmogorov Smirnov test. The results show that the values of outdoor and indoor measurements of carbon monoxide emissions levels were the highest in buildings in the sampled points of each State either before or during the use of generating sets. Reduced carbon monoxide levels during the use of generators were obtained at distance limits beyond 2m from the external walls of buildings across the zones of the study area. In view of the measurements taken and the obtained results ranging above the limits set by statutory bodies, as well as the attendant effects on the environment and building occupants, it is recommended that users of the generators should be forced to position them in enclosures located away from external walls of buildings and that the government should license only sales of generating sets with emission control mechanisms.

Hydraulic Performance Assessment of Storm Water Drainage Systems of Dejen Town Using Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), Ethiopia []

ABSTRACT: Stormwater drainage problem is a major challenge facing most of the Cities and Towns in Ethiopia including Dejen Town. This study was conducted to assess the current drainage performance of Dejen Town, to develop IDF curve, to estimate and predict flood amount, and to redesign drainage structures of the Town. Most of the existing drainage structures were inadequate to dispose runoff to the outfall area and most drainage structures in study area were poor. For instance the drainage condition 52% around CBE, 68% around Demis Hotel, 59% around Seble hotel, 46% around new bus station, 53% around Andinet College and 36% around St. George church were poor. The output from rational method and storm water management model (SWMM) also indicated that the discharge resulted from the sub-catchments was greater than the existing capacity. This implies in most of the canals, Junctions, and outfalls the flood level was greater than the designed water level, and over-flooding occurs at drainage canals and the junctions. Construction of additional drainage structures with proper dimension especially for secondary roadsides with no drainage structures, design and construction of well-connected structures, adopting the culture of clearing sediment and periodic repairing of drainage structures before total failure were the remedial measures to be taken to solve the problem.


The term “Quasi” means resembling experimental research, but does not imply that the quasi-experimental method is true experimental research. King et al. define a quasi-experiment as “an observational study with an exogenous explanatory variable [or treatment, or exposure] that the investigator does not control” , which is consistent with other definitions published in the past two decades . Exogeneity of exposure means that the exposure is not influenced by the outcome of interest or any variable that is associated with the outcome. Exogeneity of exposure implies that selection bias and confounding is controlled for, without needing to observe and explicitly control for any confounding factors in the analysis (Bärnighausen, et al., 2017).

Book Review How Countries Compete: Strategy, Structure, and Government in the Global Economy Richard H. K. Vietor United State of America Harvard Business School Press, Jan 25, 2007. []

In this book Professor Richard Vietor looks at the economic, political, and structural strengths and weaknesses of ten countries and enlightens readers how to analyze the development of these areas in the future. He presents the thesis that the government’s role is the key driving force in competition among countries as they facilitate growth by providing security, managing macro economy, shaping industrial policy, liberal work rules through strong institutions and educated skilled work force. He examines the economic, political, social, and structural dimensions of 10 countries. Based on these analyses, Vietor selects Singapore, China, India and Russia as good prospect for future investors. Countries competes for FDI, managerial skills technology, distribution channels, all these are for development which contributes reduction in poverty, better living standards and job creation. At the same time Vietor argues that strategy alone is not sufficient, organizational structure for effective implementation is equally important. Richard has distributed the book in three parts: Pathways to High Growth (Japan, Singapore, China & India), The Difficulties of Structural Adjustment (Mexico, South Africa, Saudi Arabia & Russia) Deficits Debt and Stagnation (Europe, Japan & America). As the world is becoming borderless and globalization is emerging, countries compete for the new and potential markets, technologies, and skills needed to raise their standards of living. These strategies can make the decisive role in the make or break of the government's efforts to drive and sustain growth in the long run. Vietor provides concentrated assessments of different approaches to government facilitation of development. Individual chapters focus on the unique social, economic, cultural, and historical forces that shape governments' approach to economic growth. Key Words: Growth, Strategy, Structure, Government, Policy

Systematic review []

In the last twenty years, DNA profiling has become an obligatory technology that has brought scientists towards forensic identification. Thousands of STR markers are present in the human genome but an only a core set of loci are selected for forensic DNA and human identification. STRs have become famous in forensic labs because even low amounts and degraded forms can be easily typed. STRs are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including humans. They appear scattered almost evenly throughout the human genome, resulting in about 3% of the genome. However, their distribution in chromosomes is not quite uniform. Usually, STRs occur in the noncoding regions, only about 8% are located in the coding regions. In humans, chromosome 19 has the highest density of STRs. On average, one STR occurs per 2,000 bp in the human genome. On the basis of repeat units, STRs can be differentiated into different types. The repeats of STR markers are highly variable in the human population. STR marker evaluation very precisely figures out individual humans at the molecular level even from very small quantities. STR locus in the identification selected is D7S820 from NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Conditions for STR with the changes in temperature, magnesium ion concentration, primer and setting up, PCR of the marker used to carry out. PCR product is inspected of agarose gel. The results showed that the STR locus being investigated is detectable by PCR. PCR showed that the detection of primer and temperature conditions measured by using the fixed amount of magnesium, D7S820 locus bands are weaker than expected. Using a buffer and setting magnesium condition towards changes in primer and temperature, the addition of Taq polymerase at a temperature of 94°C, bands become visible desirably.

Third-party market markers of Nepal []

Third-party market makers are websites which provide space for seller to put advertisement and information of their products and services. Lots of customers are engaged with the third-party market makers. Most of sellers and business organizations are affiliating with these market makers to grow their business. Nepal has few online market makers and are providing online services in unstructured cities to sellers and buyers in whatever possible way; point of views and perspectives of customers about these market makers are necessary factor for the growth and success of these market makers.

Critical Success Factors of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Structural Model []

The purpose of this study is to identify the critical success factors (CSFs) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was developed using 54 factors identified from the previous researches. From 430 respondents, a total of 410 questionnaires were returned. By conducting exploratory factors analysis, these indicators were categorized into six factors, namely: Individual factors, management factors, business characteristics, business support, capital, and firm factors. Using IBM SPSS and AMOS, 17 the most affecting factors were identified and the results indicated that firm factors were the most critical factors that significantly affects the success of SMEs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, followed by individual factors and business characteristics. Management factors were the least critical factor that significantly affect the success of SMEs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Hello Sir/Madam I hereby submit my Academic research paper for your approval and publication Regards James BASOMINGERA MBAPM,student basojames@gmail.com Tel:+250788859984


ASSESSMENT OF Pb MOBILITY FROM SPENT BULLETS IN THREE DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES: APPLICATION OF LEACHABILITY TEST TO THE SPENT BULLETS ABSTRACT Leaching of lead (Pb) from environmen t at large spent bullets in soil, especially around shooting range is a threat to the which could be as a result of soil condition. Available Pb in soil could bio accumulat e in the food web through phyto-- extraction by crops, which could be consumed by animals and humans. The Pb could also contaminate surface water through and percolate into underground water, causing risk to human health when the source of water is exploited for domestic use such as borehole and well. The study therefore investigated the mobility potential of Pb from spent bullet fragments obtained within a military shooting range, on three different soil types (Loamy, Sandy, & Clay). Similarly, a leachability test was applied to the spent bullets to determine their leaching pattern of th e spent bullets. Three soil types; Loamy25kg, Sandy25kg, Clay25kg, were each obtained from locations of less likely Pb contamination, within the Ibadan metropolis. Specimen of spent bullet fragments were also collected from a military shooting range and separated into corroded and less corroded fragments. For the mobility study; 80g of each soil types were weighed into 250ml container respectively and 8g of corroded bullet fragments were added to each. Conditions were simulated within the sample to natur al environment. This process was repeated for less corroded bullets in all soil types. The sample was digested after a week and taken for Pb analysis using FAAS. Replicate samples were prepared for 24 weeks’ subsequent analysis. A total of 144 samples were prepared for the study. For the leachability test; three types of leachate solutions were prepared in a 250ml container; ASTM(100ml), SPLP(40ml) and TCLP(40ml). 10g of corroded bullet fragments were added into each leachate solution and the samples were t aken for Pb analysis after a week using FAAS. The same procedure was repeated for less corroded bullets. Replicate samples were prepared to cover up for 24 weeks’ subsequent analysis making a total of 144 samples. Preliminary studies were carried out on th (Tessier et. al. e different soil types such as heavy metal speciation ), mechanical properties, phosphates, nitrates, sulphate, TOC, pH and moisture content. Analar grade reagents and deionised water were used for the analysis. Also sample blanks were prep ared. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVA. The results showed an elevated concentration of lead (Pb) in the soil samples and leachate solutions. The total concentration of heavy metals in the soil samples gave a sequence of Loamy>Sandy>Clay, w hile the total heavy metal concentration in the leachate solution gave a sequence of TCLP>SPLP>ASTM. The study was objectified towards the development of a model which shows the trend of available Pb in different soil types at elevated concentrations. Thu s, the toxicity potential of Pb on human health and environment is of high significance

The Development of SMEs in Singapore and how Sri Lanka can Learn Lessons out of it []

Singapore is one of the countries where the Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs) are in highly developed level in the world. SMEs contribute almost to half of the per capita GDP in Singapore. Sri Lankan SMEs are not developed and the per capita GDP of Sri Lanka is very much lower compared to Singapore. The reason for the high development of SMEs is due to the good framework for SMEs in Singapore. The Singaporean government shows much concern for the SMEs through many supporting schemes. If Sri Lanka also could introduce a good framework, SMEs can be developed to a high level like Singapore. This article reviews the supporting systems for SME development in Singapore. Also it explains the effective support through the centralized institution SPRING, Singapore which is responsible for the support system for SMEs.

Sample PhD Thesis Proposal on the Management of Publish Sector Records in Enhancing Good Governance, in Sierra Leone []

ABSTRACT The study proposes to investigate the effective management of records at MoFED concerning good governance, accountability and transparency. The proposed objectives of this study will be to identify the types of records generated and received , the records structures, procedures and regulatory requirements, life cycle concept, staff training and competency and challenges staff faced in managing records at MoFED. The study will employ questionnaire, interview, observation and documentary analysis as methods/tools to collect data, from one hundred (100) participants using simple random sampling method. Data will be analysed using SPSS( version16.0) package to compute frequencies, percentages and construct pie and bar charts. The hypothesis will be tested using Z-Score and Probability value to test variables against the stipulated probability level of significance at five percent (5%). The proposed findings will be that MoFED has insufficient trained and qualified staff in managing both paper and electronic records, and also insufficient equipment and supplies in preserving records. Also, the study proposes that MoFED has laws regulating the management of paper and electronic records but lacks the enforcement. The proposed recommendation will be that MoFED shall employ more trained and qualified middle level staff for the management of both paper and electronic records in order to enhance good governance, accountability and transparency. Key Words: PhD thesis proposal, Records management; Qualitative method, Quantitative method; Public sector; Sierra Leone

Retrospective Study on Chest Assessment using Plain Radiographs []

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Nigeria, chest injury constitutes about 40% of the workload of most thoracic surgery units and accounts for about 20% of deaths in thoracic surgery units. The present study was conducted to observe the patterns of plain radiographic finding amongst chest radiographs in Warri Central Hospital, Delta state. METHODS: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, two hundred and ninety six (296) subjects (males = 147, females = 149) took part in the study. The plain radiographs (x-rays) of patients with thoracic injuries and diseases was traced through the accident and emergency ward and the cardio-thoracic unit. Information on the biosocial data, etiology, clinical symptoms and sign, and diagnosis was also obtained and documented. Ethical clearance was sought for from the Research and Ethics Committee in Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University and data were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and presented in frequency charts and tables via the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22). FINDINGS: The pathology that was observed the most was hypertension (55.1%) while the least observed were cardiomyopathy, congestive hypertensive cardiac, diasphyseal clavicular malunited fracture, bronchopneumonea, pleuritis, congential diaphragmatic hernaia, pericardial effusion, and combination of two or more (0.3% each). CONCLUSION: The study suggests that plain chest radiograph can be used where there are no other imaging modalities with higher sensitivity and specificity for picking slight pathological signs of hypertension and where a patient cannot afford the use of other modalities such as echocardiogram, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. KEY WORDS: Plain Radiographs, Chest Radiographs, Warri, Delta State


Proximate and some selected mineral composition of cotton seed, and leave were determined using standard methods. AOAC (2012) method. the result of the seed revealed the presence of 23.18% crude protein, 9.85% moisture content, 21.91% carbohydrate content, 19.01% crude fibre, 5.55% crude ash and 21.91% crude lipid. The proximate composition of the leaf showed the presence of 48.49% of carbohydrate, 19.68% crude protein, 3.40% ash content, 10.04% moisture content, 5.66% lipid and 12.73% crude fibre. Minerals analysis revealed that the seed and leaf contained iron (Fe) 2.34 mg/100g and 1.68mg/100g, calcium (Ca) 61.64mg/100g and 410.89mg/100g, sodium (Na) 2.17mg/100g and 2.94mg/100g potassium (K) 308,24mg/100g and 289.45mg/100g. The results of proximate and mineral analysis obtained confirms that cotton seed and leaf contains essential nutrients needed by both humans and animals.


Concrete, the most significant and commonly utilized element, is expected to have very high strength and adequate workability properties and efforts in the field of concrete technology are made to improve the properties of concrete utilizing up to some amounts of fibers. The term hybrid generally refers to the combination of composites, and consists of multi-property material. Therefore, the matrix is named with hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. The aim of this research work was to test the viability of concrete on the Hybrid fiber by testing the concrete behavior at fresh and hardened state, i.e. workability, compressive, split tensile, flexural strength by varying proportions of steel and polypropylene fibers respectively and to compare with control concrete specimen with no addition. All the tests were carried out in accordance with the guidelines set by ASTM standards. It was observed that the workability of the mixtures decreased by increasing the percentage of hybrid fibers more bonding effect thus decreases the workability. Compressive, flexure and split tensile strength increases as the Steel fiber content in hybrid fiber increases to a certain extent and then decreases as the fiber content increases further. It is recommended that for strength enhancement, the Hybrid fiber can be used as steel fiber reinforcement up to Steel 0.85 and Polypropylene 0.15 respectively.

Socioeconomic impact of the chronic hepatitis-B virus and HIV co-infection among young adult female pregnancy in Rwanda (CSS) []

Background: Worldwide, Hepatitis-B virus and HIV count for 370 million and 40 million infections respectively. 2-4 million people infected with HIV are estimated to have chronic Hepatitis-B co-infection. Purpose: The study aimed at providing the socioeconomic impact of chronic Hepatitis-B virus and HIV co-infection among young adult female pregnancy in Rwanda by using a cross-sectional study. Methods: Hepatitis-B surveillance through antibody screening test among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were performed in 30 HIV sentinel surveillance districts in Rwanda. Some literature published from 2000 to 2021 focuses on low- and middle-income countries. Search engines used were Google Scholar and Research-Gate which were also available for this study. Results: Among 12,829 pregnant women tested at antenatal clinics, 335 (2.6% [95% Confidence Interval 2.32–2.87]) tested positive for Hepatitis-B Anti-bodies. The prevalence of Hepatitis-B Ab in women aged 25–49 years was 2.8% compared to 2.4% in women aged 15–24 years (aOR = 1.3; [1.05–1.59]); Hepatitis-B Virus infection in non-salaried employment proportion was 2.7% [2.37–2.94] in pregnant women in engaged in compared to Pregnancy woman HB infection proportion with 1.2% [0.24–2.14] in those engaged in salaried employment (aOR = 3.2; [1.60–6.58]). The proportion of Hepatitis-B Ab-positive co-infected with HIV was estimated at 3.9% (13 cases). Women in urban residences were more likely to be associated with Hepatitis-B-infection (OR = 1.3; 95%CI [1.0–1.6]) compared to those living in the rural sites. Conclusion: Hepatitis-B and HIV co-infection still remain public health issues with concern on pregnant women in Rwanda urbanization. Few pregnant young women were co-infected with Hepatitis-B and HIV in the sub-urban. There might be an association with young female adult pregnant women living in the urban with Hepatitis-B and HIV Co-infection. Recommendation: This study recommends health system strengthen and awareness on preventive measures among young adult females living in urban sites on the prevalence of HIV or Hepatitis-B virus infectious. Keywords: HIV, Hepatitis-B, Pregnant female, Rwanda.

Bacterial Succession in Ten Diesel Polluted Soil in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. []

Bacterial Succession in ten Diesel polluted soil was carried out. Ten different Diesel polluted soil within Gwagwalada were selected and soil samples were collected from each site. Streaking method involving the use of serial dilutions was employed for the isolation of the bacteria. The number of viable bacterial count were determined. The bacterial species isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. On the whole the data suggests that of the isolates gotten, gram negative bacteria are most adapted to conditions present in soils polluted with Diesel and hence could be exploited.


Conflicts as a natural and inevitable aspect of human interaction may cause functional or dysfunctional consequences according to the management style. Hence, management of conflict is extremely important for organizational effectiveness and efficiency. This review article intends to expose the agents of organizational conflict and reveals its resolution to aid an effective and productive management conflict in the organization. Nevertheless, the components of emotionality, acceptability, importance and resolution potential can provide insight into the potential harm of conflict. Keywords: Conflict, Conflict Management, Organizational Conflict, Affective Conflict, Procedural Conflict, Task Conflict


Poverty in Nigeria has been a serious challenge and a contentious issue to the government, it affects the general population of the country. The problem is so endemic to the extent that Nigeria became one of the poorest nation in the world despite the implementation of several poverty reduction programs by the government to address the issue and improve the life of the populace. The poverty reduction programme in Nigeria, which aimed at reducing poverty, have not been successful. Therefore, the study assesses the Effect of the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals on poverty reduction in Idah and Ibaji LGAs Areas of Kogi State (2007-2013). The major objective of the study is to assess the contribution of Millennium Development Goal I on poverty reduction. The data for this study is generated through the secondary sources of data collection from journals, textbooks, materials from the internet. The study reveal that poverty cannot be totally stem out, but can be reduce with genuine effort of the stakeholders. The finding of the study indicate that, insufficient funding, crises, corruption, and mismanagement of funds, political instability and a discontinuity in planned programs are the major challenges of MDGs. The study recommends that government should try by all means to create conducive atmospheres that will reduce conflict and social crisis, mismanagement of funds, there should be transparency by the government and the coordinator of MDGs and other poverty reduction programs.The government should ensure adequate political stability and adequate coordination of efforts by parties that contributed to poverty reduction programs.

A study of the god Upulvan and Vishnu []

The most oldest recorded character of god had inter link with the incipient stage of Sri Lankan Buddhism signified as Upulvan described firstly in Deepavamsa then Mahavamsa later on Vamsatthppakasini ales Teeka for Mahavamsa, these chronicles were including to the period of 4th to 6th century AC. The god Saman was another character has been recorded in the above chronicles, was given a position in the pantheon of Buddhist gods with Upulvan, has maintained the inter links with the Lord Buddha’s earliest visits to Sri Lanka. Nevertheless god Vishnu’s name hitherto has not mentioned in connection with the occurrence as for pre and post Buddhist period in any of foregone chronicles. Even though some scholars who were annoying to introduce as the Vishnu alias Upulvan, due to speculate reason for that suggestion of dominate Hindu –Buddhist intermingles religious and cultural relationship has been triggered within the Sinhala Buddhist society science the pre Buddhist era. As well as we put forward the historical and archaeological factors in this paper for discussed with conjectural justifications based on the hypothesis of Upulvan and Vishnu were two different characters of gods. Ipso facto we try to recognize here that by analyzing the placement pattern of the gods Upulvan and Vishnu within the space of Buddha image house with their own devalas have been dedicated to them and related other factors available in Buddhist archaeological sites from the allocated period in 7th to 19th century.

Overview of indigenous water conservation among dry season farmers in Northern Ghana []

Water plays a key role in the agricultural sector for sustainable food in Ghana. Climatically, a northern region like the rest of the regions in Ghana has uncertainty with rainfall, food security for households and poverty alleviation. There is the need to create innovative ways to access and develop limited water resources for agricultural sector advancement in developing countries especially Ghana. Water conservation has an impact on groundwater and surface water interaction. Generally, small dams, earth dams, reservoirs and dug out are created across the regions in northern Ghana. These enable dry season farming, animals’ consumption and household uses. The study identified mulching, mixed cropping, furrow irrigation, flood irrigation and others as a way of water conservation in northern Ghana. The study demonstrated various water conservation practices by indigenous farmers in the dry season. It was observed that farmers adapted these practices due to the limited water access for irrigation. The study shows that farmers have witnessed a sharp decline of both surface water and groundwater as result of climate variability. The study revealed different materials used for irrigation in the region include tomatoes tins, buckets and calabash. The study indicated that farmers use manure to conserve soil moisture. The study employed a mixed method to gather information and a descriptive-qualitative method was used for the analysis.

Textural analysis of soil and sediment samples & estimation of total organic carbon in and around Central university of Jammu campus in Bagla village, district –Samba (Jammu),Jammu and Kashmir []

Soil is a normally unconsolidated and loose mixture of mineral and organic particles, which occurs naturally and covers the outer surface of the earth. Soil is formed as a result of mutual and interactive impacts of pedogenic processes. The present study deals with textural analysis of soil and sediment samples & estimation of total organic carbon in and around campus of Central University of Jammu located in Bagla village district Samba. The study was carried out with the objective to determine the textural properties of the most weathered sediment in the weathering profile exposed along the road cut section in the upcoming campus of Central University of Jammu and to study the influence of weathering processes in generating fertile sediments. The soil and sediment samples were collected in and around Vijaypur block of district Samba in the locality Bagla (Rahya suchani). With the given latitude- 34.09˚N & longitude-74.79˚E are the geo- coordinates of the Bagla (Rahya Suchani). The soil and sediment samples were collected from five different locations which were analysed for six different parameters i.e. soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, soil moisture, soil pH, soil conductivity, textural analysis. The Grain size distribution pattern of the sediments indicates that the most weathered sample are derived from transportation action where Aeolian processes is not playing a key role, texturally the most weathered sediments of the weathering profile(coarse sand) classified into coarser sand deposits and generally sediments are poorly sorted in nature not making rich in fertility status. However, high level of organic activity leading to high biological diversity in the soil. The soil pH indicates the alkaline nature of soil. The soil pH which was reported above 7 for the entire sample indicates alkaline nature of soil. The study area is classified in a lower rainfall regime which was supported with the results of soil moisture recorded to be less than 20% for all the sampling location.


Abstract The general objective of this study was to assess forest cover change and analysis of the rate of deforestation in Ellen community forest area from 1985 to 2015 due to land tenure impact. Specific objectives are:-to assess the perception of local community toward community forest management, to investigate the spatial and temporal forest cover change in the study area and detect forest cover change in Ellen community forest area from 1985 to 2015 years and to assess the role of land tenure on community forest management. Land tenure system in the current constitution shows positive impact to the community forest management. For this study mixed research design was employed. For the identification of land use/ land cover change Landsat imagery of 1985TM, 2000 ETM+ and 2015 OLI/TIRS were used to determine the change in forest / land use/land cover using object based classification. Data collected from respondents resulted in positive impacts of land tenure in community forest management and also the object based classification result revealed that in 1985TM Landsat imagery, forest land (13.6%), grass land (22.16%), bush land (27.38%) and degraded land (2.14%) were identified with their respective percentage. The change result showed a rapid increase in forest cover by +10.91% between the first study periods (1985-2000) and also shows increment by 7.57% between the third (1985-2015) study periods. Similarly farm land decreased by -14.814% during the first and also by -3.686% during the second period. This study generally has shown that improving land tenure has positive impacts on community forest management which shows the increase in the area of forest cover from the study period.