Volume 6, Issue 7, July 2018 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication


A polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastic was recycled into liquid fuel by thermal pyrolysis to recycle it into liquid fuel. The physiochemical properties of the fuel were determined and compared with petrol. The results of the research indicated that the fuel from the waste plastic (WPO) has flash point of 72.50°C, as against 21°C of petrol, implying that the former has less hazard than the latter. The WPO’s density is 0.804 g/cm3 while that of the petrol is 0.740 g/cm3.. WPO and petrol has heating value of 39.5MJ/Kg and 44.18MJ/Kg, respectively. The conversion of waste plastic into fuel will alleviate problems associated with depletion of conventional energy sources.


This paper identifies cycling and pedestrian facilities as essential sustainable transport infrastructures. It notes that their non-availability is hindering the shift towards sustainable urban transportation in the Lagos megacity. It first looks at the meaning of sustainable transport and then relates this to the transport situation in Lagos. Some of the problems facing Lagos transport system are highlighted. To address some of these problems, walking and cycling are identified as sustainable transport modes with immense benefits. These benefits include: contributing to healthy environment, promoting health and physical wellbeing of the citizens, promoting choice and social wellbeing, providing economic benefits, as well as promoting social inclusion, which might all accrue to Lagos if the use of the modes is promoted. The discussion closes by making recommendations on ways to promote walking and cycling in Lagos. Some of these recommendations are: promoting land use policies that favour high density, compact urban development, and jobs-housing balance, provision of pedestrian and cycling facilities such as walkways, sidewalks, cycle lanes and pedestrian bridges to promote safety of non-motorised transport (NMT), introduction of pedestrian-only streets to promote human scale urban centres, introduction of traffic management strategies and car restraint policies to discourage car use, introduction of non-obstructive development policy that mandates developers to provide access within and between buildings to reduce walking and cycling distance.


This study examined the economics and profitability of improved cassava production technologies in Kwara State. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for this study. The result shows that the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that 43.75% of the farmers made the modal age group between 41-50 years. 71.25% of the respondents were male and each of them has at least primary education, 72.50% of the farmers were married, 46% of them had an average of 6 year experience in cassava production, 68.75% of the respondents have 4.9 hectares while 23.75% has less than 1 hectare of farm size. In the area of capital source for production: 45% of the farmers sourced their capital through cooperative societies, 26.25% source for capital through personal savings, 21.25% made their source through money lenders, while only 8% obtained loans through commercial banks. The respondents reported the following as their major constraints which was rated in percentage (%), which slowed down the growth and development of their production/farming in the area of study; these were inadequate source of fund (capital) and high interest rate (23.75%), poor transportation facilities (13.75%), high cost of tractor hiring services (12.50%), inadequate access to land for farm use (11.25%), less impacts of extension services (7.50%), and poor pricing for the products i.e lack of ready market (6.25%). The Gross Margin (GM) for the farming was ₦27, 754.00 with the benefit/cost ratio at ₦2.40. This however revealed that the improved cassava farming is profitable in the study area; for every ₦1 invested there was a return of ₦2.40 kobo. The study recommended that Government should provide low micro-credits, functional extension services, provision of rural infrastructure and subsidized tractor hiring service with adequate maintenance of farm machineries.


Piston as one of the most critical components of an engine must be designed to withstand the damages caused due to extreme heat and pressure of combustion processes resulting to piston side wear, piston head cracks, etc. The temperature of a particular engine determines the performance of the engine. However, the design/analysis of the piston is based on structural and thermal considerations. In this project, we model the heat loss through an Aluminium alloy composite piston wall reinforced with Alumina and Silicon Carbide. The materials (Aluminium ingots, Silicon Carbide and Alumina) were sourced locally and the production of the composites was done by the double stir-casting method and as per ASTM Standards. The conductive and convective steady state thermal behaviour of the individual elements of the piston were modeled using Fourier’s Law and Newton’s Law of Cooling. Under steady state conditions and assuming an outside and inside engine/piston temperatures of 393K and 363K respectively, the heat loss via the piston wall of the composite was found to be 4.745KW, an information vital in computing the heat load for an automobile engine.


This study investigated the effects of guided discovery and demonstration methods against lecture method on students’ attitudes, A total of 230 senior secondary one (SS1) chemistry students were involved in the study. This number was made up of 100 males and 130 females from five secondary schools in Ahoada West Local Government Area of Rivers State of Nigeria. A non- randomized pretest- posttest control group was used for the study. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability of the Chemistry Students’ Attitude Scale (CAS). The reliability coefficient of CAS was 0.75 .To analyze the data of the study, the research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation scores. Hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From the findings, it was observed that guided discovery was the most effective in facilitating students’ attitudes. This was followed by demonstration while lecture was found to be the least facilitative method. Attitude is dependent on teaching methods. Students’ attitude mean scores in practical chemistry (acids and bases) were significant. The interaction effect of gender and teaching methods on students’ attitude mean scores in practical chemistry (acids and bases) were not significantly different. The interaction effect of gender and teaching methods on students’ attitude mean scores in practical chemistry (acids and bases) were not significantly different. The study recommended among others that guided discovery and demonstration methods should be used by teachers in teaching practical chemistry contents (acids and bases) to guarantee effective instructional delivery.


This estimation of the shelf life of sheet Nile tilapia jerky research was conducted in the Laboratory of Fishery Products Processing Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine University of Padjadjaran. The aim of this research was to determine the shelf life of sheet Nile tilapia jerky using Accelerated Shelf Life Test (ASLT) Method Arrhenius Model. Determining shelf life using ASLT method by accelerating the degradation process by increasing the storage temperature on some degrees above the room temperature, so that accelerated shelf life with the time analysis. Water content test and sensory test used as a parameter to determine the expired date. The sheet Nile tilapia jerky saved for 35 days at the storage temperature 250C, 350C, and 450C. The calculation result Arrhenius model was chosen flavor parameter as a critical parameter to determine the shelf life had the biggest R2 value (zero ordo reaction) with equation Arrhenius Ln K = 3,1517 (1/T) –1697,9 with R2 value equal to 0,997. The shelf life of sheet Nile tilapia jerky that saved at the room temperature (250C) was 76 days 12 hours 46 minutes 4 seconds.


Making decisions on financial leverage is important in small, medium or large organizations. Thus, Firm size is a most crucial determinant when discussed on financial policies. Each firmis using financial leverage on different level which may be high or low level. Every firm is giving attentions that how to manage financial leverage according to their firm size. Thus, financial leverage is influencing to the success or bankruptcy of the companies. In generally larger firms have higher debt ratio, more profitable and less volatile. Therefore, larger firms are showing favorable situation and positive link of firm size on leverage and they are leading differentiate of market and less fail their stability in the market than small firms.The purpose of this study, investigate the effect of firm size on financial leverage. The firm size is the independent variable and financial leverage is the dependent variable. Total assets and Sales Volume used to measure size of the firm and total debt ratio used to measure financial leverage in this study. Obviously, the present study investigates that are there any linkage between firm size and financial leverage and also there check whether firm size has any effect on the financial leverage. The technique of regression analysis and descriptive statistic model is used for data analysis which it is required to examine the relationship between firm size and financial leverage. There are appropriated 10 listed manufacturing companies at Colombo Stock Exchange of Sri Lanka as sample over the period of 2012 to 2016 and this research used Quantitative approach. It used secondary data from annual reports.According to previous studies most researchers indicated that positive relationship between firm size and financial leverage. As well some researchers have illustrated negative relationship. According to this study investigate Sales Volume is a positively correlate and significantly affect with Debt ratio in evaluating listed manufacturing companies at CSE in Sri Lanka. In addition to their attained that Total Assets has negatively relation with Debt ratio but it is insignificant level.

Speed of Reflected Electromagnetic Waves []

This paper demonstrates that the results analysis of Albert Abraham Michelson’s moving mirrors experiment is wrong. The conclusion that the speed of reflected light rays from the moving mirrors is not affected by the speed of the mirrors cannot be deduced from the data presented in Michelson’s paper. There are several experiments that seemingly prove the second postulate of the theory of special relativity. One of them is Albert Abraham Michelson’s 1913 moving mirrors experiment. Another is the 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment. While the objective of the Michelson-Morley experiment was to measure the ether wind speed, the failure of which left everyone surprised and led to some far reaching conclusions, the Michelson moving-mirrors experiment was designed specifically to decide whether the speed of reflected light is affected by the speed of reflecting mirrors. Michelson’s unequivocal conclusion was that the speed of light rays is not affected by the motion of the mirrors, which is seemingly an experimental verification of Einstein’s second relativity postulate. We will show that Michelson was wrong to assume that the delay between two collinear light rays could cause an interference pattern and to equate this spatial delay to the observed distance between two adjacent constructive interference lines. Therefore, the question whether the moving mirrors affect the speed of light rays reflected from them cannot be answered based on the data presented in Michelson’s paper which reviews his moving mirrors experiment. There are many arguments that invalidate (each one of them) the conclusions of the Michelson-Morley experiment. We will apply the argument used in the previous paragraph. The anticipation to observe an interference pattern was based on the premise that a spatial delay between two collinear light rays, caused by the ether wind, can produce such a pattern. Since this premise is wrong – all the conclusions of this experiment are invalid, including the refutation of the existence of ether.


English is not a big issue for placement. It is just that we should know an optimum level of fluency. If we want to get a job in a good company we need to have good technical skills, and the English will help us to explore that good technical skill. Today most of the companies have an understanding that a candidate must be able to communicate with other as we are all global now. India may have a large number of youth but most of them are inadequately skilled in English Language to the required level for jobs. It’s true in case of engineering education. IIT graduates sure have impressed the world with their strong technical and language skills but a large number of students from ordinary engineering colleges are not even employable. A study shows that Russians & Chinese engineering students are better than those in India. The blame doesn’t lie with the students but the large number of engineering colleges mushrooming in the country in the past decades. These colleges often lack in infrastructure, faculty, old syllabus, out-dated curriculum etc., Therefore I strongly believe that improving these things is not something where we see sudden results rather it needs a gradual growth in the priority of learning the globalized language 'English'.


This thesis describes in complete detail all phases of the Software Development Lifecycle of an application for students that will allow them to buy and sell books on campus at their university to other students. The goal was to provide a solution, to students, that is more secured, economical and time saving compared to the present alternative websites such as Amazon, craigslist and other such similar websites. Further, an analysis and comparison of the Three-Tier software architecture, used in this project, is made with other types of software architectures to justify its benefits and suitability for this application. Additionally, the thesis also provides an insight into the Test Driven Development software methodology, MSTest Microsoft Testing framework, and Forms Authentication.

Back to Galilean Transformation and Newtonian Physics; Refuting the Theory of Relativity []

This paper refutes the theory of relativity. Previous attempts by others were based on pointing at contradictions between corollaries of the theory of relativity and reality, often called paradoxes. The main point of this article is to indicate and correct the error that led scientists at the turn of the twentieth century to formulate the faulty theory of relativity.In one of his lectures the late Professor Itzhak Bar Itzhak Z”L (Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa Israel) compared physicists and engineers by means of an equation.Engineer = Physicist + common sense Wherefrom it follows that: Physicist = Engineer - common sense.As we shall demonstrate below, the theory of special relativity was born out of an error and some lack of common sense.Many attempts have been made to refute the theory of relativity. I assume that all of them have dealt with contradictions between corollaries of the theory of relativity and reality, often called “paradoxes”. The wrong rejection of two of these paradoxes, the twin paradox and the apparent instability of planetary trajectories due to gravitational acceleration delay (also termed “retardation”), based on pseudo-scientific arguments led me to realize that the only practical way to refute the theory of relativity is by displaying the error on which it is based. This error is associated with Maxwell’s equations.Maxwell’s equations are a brilliant formulation of the laws of electromagnetism. However, they were derived for static systems, i.e.; where there was no motion relative to the relevant coordinate system (RCS). At the turn of the twentieth century some scientists assumed that these equations pertain also to dynamic systems, wherefrom it follows that the speed of light is constant in all inertial coordinate systems.This in turn led to the Lorentz transformation and to Einstein’s theory of relativity.This article shows that Maxwell’s equations do not apply to dynamic systems where there is motion relative to the RCS. As a consequence of the correction of these equations it is proven below that the Galilean transformation and Newtonian laws of mechanics are universally valid, not just as low speed approximations.The theory of relativity was born out of the attempt to force an incorrect form of Maxwell’s equations on all electromagnetic phenomena. The formulation of the corrected Maxwell equations finally refutes the theory of relativity.


MALARIA: Malaria is a prevalent disease in tropical and subtropical areas affecting about 300 - 500 million people a year (Hoffman et al., 2002). It is estimated that one to three million deaths occurs worldwide, involving children under the age of five. Malaria in human is caused by protozoa of the genus plasmodium. It has 4 subspecies viz: P. Falciparum, P. Vivax, Malariae and Ovale. P. falciparum causes the greatest illness and death in Africa (WHO, 1996).

The impact of Exterior and interior design on customer re-purchase intention: Emperical Evidence from Supermarkets in Sri Lanka []

This study is focused on measure the impact of exterior and interior designs in the super market on customer repurchase intention in Sri Lanka due to inconsistency of the findings in the existing literature and lack of substantial studies relevant to the study area. Such as there are very few studies in Sri Lankan context for this topic. Also there is lack of research studies by combining these two variables. Such as exterior and interior design on repurchase intention. Here researcher was concerned specially three super market in the Matara area. Such as Cargeels food city, Keels super and Arpico super center.Here researcher was used six dimensions to measure the independent variable. Such Parking lot, Color of building and Displayed name boards used as the exterior elements and lightning, scent/ smell and temperature used for interior elements. Hence dependent variable repurchase intention is measured by plan to buy in future, word of mouth and loyalty. Primary data were collected from 100 customers living in Matara district by using a survey based questionnaire through the visit of three super market and collected data by researcher herself. Using SPSS data was analyzed and the result were revealed that there was an impact of exterior design and interior design in the super market such as Parking lot, Color of building, Displayed name board, lightning, scent/ smell and temperature on customer repurchase intention. Finally researcher was concluded that there is a significant impact from exterior and interior design in the super market on customer repurchase intention.

Predictive Hr Analytics And Human Resource Management Amongst Human Resource Management Practitioners In Port Harcourt, Nigeria []

The research examined and analyzed the impact of the use of Predictive Analytics (PHRA) on Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices (recruitment & selection, performance management and succession planning) amongst HR Practitioners in Port Harcourt. A cross sectional study with the use of questionnaire survey was adopted, and the questionnaires were distributed through self-administered procedure. Data was generated from 159 respondents comprising of all levels of HR practitioners in Port Harcourt. The generated data was analysed with a version 20, SPSS statistical tool. Mean scores and standard deviation were calculated from these data to assess the performances of PHRA, recruitment & selection, performance management and succession planning processes amongst the studied HR practitioners. A correlation analysis was done to determine the nature of relationship that existed between PHRA and the HRM practice. Also to predict the significance of the relationship between PHRA and the outcomes HRM practices (recruitment & selection, performance management and succession planning). The outcome from the correlation analyses showed that there is a significant positive relationship between PHRA and the HRM practices used for the study. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that PHRA is an important factor in enhancing the HRM practice outcomes. Therefore, the study recommends that HRM practitioners should embrace the use of PHRA in their practices. It further emphasizes that practitioners should not just stop at mere data presentation but strive to move a step further to predictive analytics in their practices in order to effectively and efficiently improve the human resource practice outcomes in their organization. The study provides additional insight by showing that most practitioners in Port Harcourt stop their analytics at the descriptive stage. A limitation of lack of capability in the identification and application of appropriate metrics amongst the respondents was also identified. It also highlighted general contributions while making suggestions for future study.

Characteristics of Flavor Powder of Liquid Waste Mackarel Tuna with Wheat Flour Filler []

This research aim to decide correct consentration of flour materials for the characteristic of the most liked liquid waste mackarel tuna flavor powder by the people. The reaserch was held in February-Maret 2018 in TPHP Laboratory Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Unpad Central Laboratory, the center of mackarel tuna factory in Cirebon, and BPPMHP Cirebon. The method which used is experimental research, which consist three treatments adding wheat flour 10%, 15% and 20% (b/v). The parameter is monitored is the degree of the flavouritness filt wheat for sensory characteristic (physically, smell, texture and taste). The data obtained were analyzed using non-parametric statistic. Physical parameter (rendement, bulk density, and solubility), proximate parameter (ash, water, protein, fat and carbohydrate). The result of the research shows that liquid mackerel tuna flavor powder which focused on wheat flour in 15% which is the favorite of panelist has the average 7,3; 7,0; 7,4; and 5,8, then it has high alternative value, it is 6,53. Wheat flour consentrate 15% which result to rendement value 19,34%, bulk density 0,42 g/ml and solubility 44%. Proximate analysis of ash content 26,71%, water 4,90%, protein 30,90%, fat 6,59% and carbohydrate 30,90%.

Educational Rights in Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 []

India signed and ratified to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Person with Disabilities (UNCRPD). In complying UNCRPD, process of enacting a new legislation in place of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995(PWD Act, 1995) began which eventually led to the Rights of PWD Act, 2016 (RPWD Act, 2016) and was notified on December 28, 2016 after receiving the presidential assent. The principles stated to be implemented for empowering persons with disabilities (PWD) are respect for inherent dignity, autonomy of individuals including the freedom to make one’s own choices, and independence of persons. The Act emphasizes on providing inclusive education to the children with disabilities. The main focus of the education chapter of the Rights of PWD Act, 2016 (RPWD Act, 2016) is duties of the educational institutions, the specific measures to promote and facilitate inclusive education and Adult Education. The PWD Act, 2016 had a paradigm shift in its focus from social welfare to human rights issues.


There are three pillars of Indian democracy namely, executive, legislature and judiciary. Judiciary as a pillar of democracy upholds the law. This paper aims to trace the roots of judiciary as a public good. Justice is an indicator of well-being of the economy. The judicial system has seen radical changes. The supply and demand side of judiciary has been on a rise in the last few decades.In the paper key characteristics of a public good have been examined and it is seen that judiciary does categories as a public good. The provision of a well-functioning and efficient judicial system acts as a pedestal for smooth and continuous growth of a country.The paper builds its findings on a primary survey where in responses show that as per public opinion efficiency was reducing in judicial system of India. The primary data is further supported by the secondary data which has been sourced from the judicial institutes itself. There are several factors which have been identified to be the leading cause of reducing efficiency in judiciary.The paper examines these factors in detail and tries to draw a link between these factors and judicial efficiency based on secondary data. The findings of the paper reveal that judiciary is indeed a public good whose efficiency has been decreasing. It sheds light on judiciary which needs funding and attention from the government so to ensure social equality and justice in the country.


This study aims to determine the description of the blood of nilem padjadjaran strain against the Aeromonas hydrophila infection.The research was conducted on February 2 - March 31, 2018 at Aquaculture Laboratory and Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology Faculty of Fishery and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran. The treatment are common carp, nilem and nilem padjadjaran strain infected by A. hydrophila with 108cfu/ml intraperitoneally. Parameters observed included white blood cells, red blood cells, hematocrit and water quality. The number of white blood cells and red blood cells of nilem padjadjaran strain not tend to differ significantly with common carp as its male parent. The number of white blood cells of common carp, nilem and nilem padjadjaran strain before the challenge test is 63.467, 71.733 and 64.800 cells/mm3, but after the tenth hour challenge becomes 124.267, 126.133, 119.733 cells/mm3. The number of red blood cells of common carp, nilem and nilem padjadjaran strain before the challenge test is 2.133.333, 2.466.667 and 2.126.667 cells/mm3, after the tenth hour challenge becomes 1.096.667, 1.410.000 and 1.096.667 cells/mm3. Hematocrit common carp, nilem and nilem padjadjaran strain before the challenge test is 31%, 33% and 31%, while hematocrit post-challenge test turned into 19%, 20% and 20%.


The objective of this research is to sort the kind of fresh water fish by the likeness level of panelist on Marinade Processing. The research was started from February until March of 2018 in Laboratory of Fishery Processing, Faculty of Fishery and Marine, Padjadjaran University. The method which used in this research was Experimental Method by four ways, A) Salting of Golden Fish Fillet on 5% Saline Solution, B) Salting of Carp Fillet on 5% Saline Solution, C) Salting of Iridescent Shark Fillet on 5% Saline Solution, and D) Salting of Nile Fish Fillet on 5% Saline Solution. With Parameter based on Organoleptic Sense, which includes Sight (Visibility), Smell (Aroma), Touch (Texture), and Taste (Taste). The result showed that Marinated Fresh Water Fish was categorized to be liked by Panelist, but the most like one was The Marinated Nile Fish Product, based on the parameter such as Sight, Smell, Touch, and Taste. Marinated Nile Fish had white light, Solid and Tough Touch, Specific Smell without Putrid, lastly Salty and Crisp Taste. With all Median Value, 7 point of Sight, 7 point of Smell, 7 point of Touch, and 7 point of Taste.

On the Complete Stability Set of the First Kind for Parametric Multi-objective Linear Programming Problems []

This paper uses parametric study for providing essential information about the problem's behavior to the decision maker. Two novel algorithms are presented in this work. The first algorithm is obtained to find the complete stability set of the first kind for parametric multi- objective linear programming problems. It is based on the weighting method for scalarizing the multi- objective linear programming problems and Kuhn- Tucker conditions for mathematical programming in general. The second algorithm presents a technique to decompose of the parametric space in parametric linear programming problem according to the complete stability set of the first kind. Two numerical examples are introduced to clarify the obtained results.


The significance of talk-in interaction as the basis of language learning cannot be fabricated. In learning and teaching discourse, there is a need to establish structures to guide the learners and teachers in discovering the talk-in interaction. Among the approaches to discourse analysis in speaking is CA an effective tool used to deeply understand the communication occurred in learning English in an online classroom setting.


Rewards always play an important role in organizational performance and employee satisfaction. Job Satisfaction is a major discussion term in modern business world and employers focus to increase employee job satisfaction using numerous strategies. Rewards can be identified as one of the major drives for employee job satisfaction.This study aims to measure the impact of financial and non-financial rewards on Executive level eployees of Southern province Banks in Sri Lanka. It has used survey method where data were collected through self-administered structured questionnaire from sample of 110 bankers employed in four leading banks in Southern Province, Sri Lanka. Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of the variables and collected primary data was analyzed using correlation and multiple linear regression techniques by taking Financial and Non-Financial rewards as independent variables and Job Satisfaction as the dependent variable.Bonuses, Salary Level, Pension Schemes were used as Financial Rewards. , and Recognition, Promotions, Empowerment were used as Non-Financial Rewards. Correlation Analysis revealed that Financial Rewards has a strong relationship with the Job Satisfaction than Non Financial Rewards. But more interestingly, there isn’t a major deviation between the correlation statistics of financial and non financial rewards. The results of the Regression analysis revealed that all 2 variables have a significant impact on employee job satisfaction and financial rewards have the greater impact on job satisfaction than non financial rewards for the bankers in Southern province.


Parents are major partners in helping students prepare for a career choice. Although several studies have examined links between general aspects of the parent–adolescent relationship and students’ career development, little research has addressed the mechanisms involved. This study aimed to validate a three-dimensional instrument for the assessment of parental career-related behaviours and to examine their associations with career decision. We examined the relationship between parents’ behaviours and students’ career development by using data from 193Pakistani students who reported the amount of perceived parental career-related behaviours and their career decision-making. The results of correlations analysis confirmed the hypothesized dimensional structure (support, interference, lack of engagement). While parental support and interference associated positively with career selection, while lack of engagement associated with career decision negatively. Parental support has moderated impact and interference a lower one. In contrast lack of engagement has also lower impact. Some limitations and futuristic research perspectives have also been mentioned.


This study is designed to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial proactiveness and employee satisfaction of small and medium enterprises in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria. Due to globalization, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) face increasing pressure from competition from across the world which has rendered the less viable ones to liquidate before five years of startup. When compounded with the changing sophistication of customers worldwide it becomes apparent that SMEs face increasing difficulty in maintaining and improving business performance in time which hindered expansion of such SMEs, unless they can actively manage these pressures strategically. No firm can be sustained without being proactive, innovative and be prepared to venture into untested risk.


Public procurement in public Senior High School has been faced with a number of challenges. This study examined the factors inhibiting the enforcement of public procurement requirements in the Senior High Schools in Nadowli/Kaleo District, it identified measures that can be adopted to ensure efficient and effective public procurement in Senior High Schools. The study was a social survey. A population of 100 with a sample size of seventy-six (76) respondents from the public Senior High Schools within the District and their suppliers were used for the study. Questionnaires and personal observation guide were used to gather the data. Statistical Package for Social Scientists especially descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) are the techniques adopted for the analysis. Lack of procurement units, delay in the release of funds by government, limited thresholds, lack of sufficient training, inadequate procurement professionals, corruption, poor monitoring, and ineffective sanctioning of offenders of the procurement rules were identified as the challenges of the public procurement in public Senior High Schools. The study suggested measures such as regular review of the thresholds and regular monitoring of procurement in public Senior High Schools to ensure efficient and effective public procurement in the schools. It is recommended that procurement units be created in all public Senior High Schools and maned by qualified professionals, regular training be organized for procurement personnel, funds be released to the schools on time and the thresholds be reviewed.


The objectives of this study was to identify fresh and steamed tiger grouper fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) volatile flavor compounds. Grouper fish was taken from Indramayu West Java, then sample preparation was conducted at The Laboratory of Fishery Processing Technology, Faculty of Marine Science, University of Padjadjaran. Volatile components were analyzed at Flavor Laboratory, Indonesian Centre for Rice Research, Sukamandi, Subang in February to April 2018. The methods used in this study was to detected volatile compounds using Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectometry (GC/MS) with sample extraction temperature were 40˚C for fresh and 80˚C for steamed grouper fish. The proximate analysis was also done on those two samples. The volatile compound analysis successfully detected 11 compounds in fresh grouper fish and 19 volatile compounds were detected in steamed grouper fish. These could occurred as a result of the forming of more volatile compounds in account of heating process, thermal oxidation and fatty acids decomposition. The volatile compounds that were detected came from hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones groups. The proximate analysis showed differences between two treatments in fresh grouper fish had 77,77% water content, 1,97% ash, 18,21% protein, 0,66% fat and steamed grouper fish had 70,76% water content, 2,04% ash, 25,56% protein, 1,64% fat.


In this paper, we studied the fuzzy metric space as defined by Z.Q.Xia, and F.F.Guo. Defined in different way in the sense of fuzzy scalars instead of fuzzy numbers or real numbers are used to define fuzzy metric. We further define open and closed fuzzy sets in the sense of open sphere and established the basic properties of open and closed fuzzy sets. We also define continuous fuzzy mapping and established the properties of continuous mappings, as per new definition, which is more similar to classic metric space.

Combined Effects of Molasses-Lime Treatment on Poor Quality Natural Gravel Materials Used for Sub-Base and Base Course Construction []

At the time of industrial development, production of large amounts of wastage required proper disposal. To reduce the disposal problem, utilization of wastage in construction works is a very important aspect. Reuse of industrial waste had gained high momentum for achieving sustainable waste management locally and globally. Keeping this in mind, a research carried out to assess the utilization of molasses, lime and molasses-lime for improving natural gravel for sub-base and base course construction from Jimma Jiren quarry site. The natural gravel from this quarry site is known to have a poor quality, since it did not satisfy the ERA standard specification for sub-base and base course construction. To use Jiren natural gravel as a sub-base or base course construction material, it is necessary to improve its engineering properties. The laboratory test matrix in each test plan included variations in additive type, additive content, and curing period. It was established 8% cane molasses by weight of dry soil as the maximum for effective stabilization of natural gravel for sub-base construction, but not suitable for a base course layer. Results indicated that the natural gravel specimens from Jiren quarry site stabilized with lime, provided higher CBR values than a molasses used alone. On the other hand, replacing 50% of lime content by molasses indicated better results than the performance of either individual additive. Therefore, the natural gravel blended with molasses-lime combination is much better when it used for sub-base and base course construction to treat such an inferior quality of natural aggregates.


The paper examined the mediating effect of the Internal Environment (IE) on the relationship between Top Management Team International Orientation (TMTIO) and Internationalization of Universities (IUs) in Uganda. The study used the sample of 36 universities of which only 30 universities responded. Data was collected from members of Top Management Team (TMT) and about 133 questionnaires were collected and used for analysis. Correlation results indicated that TMTIO was significantly related associated with IE and IUs. The regression analysis also indicated that TMTIO affects IE and in turn IE affects IUs. However, IE had no mediation effect on the relationship between TMTIO and IUs as the Sobel and Medigraph tests showed that, there was a null mediation effect of the IE on the relationship between TMTIO and IUs in Uganda. This meant the effect of the IE on the relationship between TMTIO and IUs was not strong enough to affect the basic relationship between the independent and the dependent variable. The study, therefore, establishes that both TMTIO and IE have both a direct effects on the internationalization of universities in Uganda. It recommends, that universities need to recruit top managers who are internationally oriented with international negotiation and communication skills who are willing to communicate the global vision to the rest of the staff. The IE in most universities should be improved to facilitate staff to carry out international activities. Universities are more likely to internationalize if top managers who are internationally oriented are employed to run universities.

Role of schools in inculcating awareness on counselling and mental health -with reference to achieving SDG target 4 []

Education in every sense is one of the fundamental factors of development and schools are an integral part of development, socialization, and growth of children. Although the government has guaranteed right to education for all children and also introduced many schemes to increase access to education like Sarva Shikhsa Abhiyan, Mid-day Meal, vocational training and skill development etc., but mental well-being of children and their families for long has been out of the purview of all the schemes.


Cognitive deficits are perhaps the most devastating residual problems following brain pathology. They have been significantly related to the eventual affectation of independence in self care.Memory is one of the basic components of cognition. A defective memory affects all the other higher cognitive functions, which include: orientation, judgement, problem solving, etc 5. We as individuals, have the ability to draw on our past experiences and learn new information through the process of memory. This provides us with the sense of continuity in the environment and frees us from dependency in the here-and-now situations.Memory normally deteriorates as age advances, a condition called as ‘Senile Dementia’. It also deteriorates due to various pathological changes in the brain. One of the most severe pathological changes occurs in the condition termed as ‘Alzheimer’s disease’.


Diabetes considered as one of the world’s biggest health problem, and it’s one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, Also its complications lead to increase in disability, reduced life expectancy and many health care costs to the community. Diabetic patients must take care of the feet because there are many problems accompanied with diabetes. Patient with diabetes are vulnerable to neurovascular damage which can result in loss of protective sensation in the feet, poor circulation, and poor healing of foot sore. All of these situations participate to increase amputation rate. Objectives of the study to order to assess patients knowledge toward foot care for patients with diabetes mellitus and to find out the relationship between patients knowledge toward foot care and their demographic and clinical data. Descriptive Cross-Sectional Design is adopted in the current study to achieve the early stated objectives. The study started from October 1st, 2016 until May, 6th, 2017. A Non-Probability (Accidental Sample) of (80) Diabetes Mellitus patients, those who visit Al-Sadder Medical City / Al-Najaf Center for Diabetes and Endocrine, are included in the study sample. Data collected through using of a well-designed questionnaire consist of three parts: part I consists of demographic data contain (7) items, and part II consists of clinical data contain (5) items, and part III consists of (11) items about knowledge toward foot care. Data collected by direct interview method with diabetic patients’. The data are described statistically and analyzed through the use of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis procedures. The findings of the present study indicate that the overall patients’ knowledge about foot care are poor . In addition, there is not found relationship between knowledge about foot care and other demographic data . also there is a non-significant relationship between the patients knowledge about foot care and clinical data except with their Foot problem at p-value 0.041. The study concludes there is diabetic patients’ knowledge about foot care are insufficient. The study recommends An education program should be designed and implemented to increase people's information about self-care regimen for diabetes mellitus in order to reduce or prevent complications. And create a unit to provide health care services like educating patients with diabetes in the diabetic center for providing instruction about self-care activities.


Objective: aimed to determine anginal patient functional status, to determine myocardial infraction patient's functional status, to find out the impact of Angina on patients functional status, to find out the impact of myocardial infraction on patient functional status and finally to find a correlation of impact of ( angina and myocardial infraction) on patient functional status.Methodology: a descriptive study was carried out through the present study in order to achieve the early stated objectives. The study was begun from January , 1st , 2018 to April, 10th , 2018. The study is conducted in Al-Najaf City/Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Health Directorate / Al-Sadder Medical City in cardiac units (CCU, Medical ward and Al-Najaf Center for Heart Disease and Surgery). A non-probability (Convenience) sample of forty (40) patients with Ischemic Heart Disease, were included in the present study. The data was collected on structured questionnaire designed specifically for this study, and it is consist of two parts: Part 1 Included Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical data, and Part 2 Include (Functional status). Validity of the study instrument is conducted through a panel of experts who have years of experience in nursing field. Data analysis by using descriptive statistics (percentage, frequency & mean of score) and inferential statistics (Chi-Square and Standard deviation).Results: the study show that the myocardial infarction and angina has affect on patient physical activity and no significant statistical difference (p value = 0.9) was recorded between MI and angina according to the mean of the overall assessment of functional status.Conclusion: The researcher can conclude that the MI is more effective than Angina on patient physical activity and patients who are live in residential urban area are more likely to be affected by IHD than rural area.Recommendation: The study recommends that Instructional program to the patients with IHD care to improve quality of health and health oriented mass media approach should be employed to increase population knowledge and awareness toward ischemic heart disease.


The banking industry is a vibrant one, which provide a lot of resources to both public, and the private entities. The existence of the banking industry primarily facilitate the movement of fund from companies, and individuals who patronize the activities of banking. In the aim of meeting this primary requirement, the banking institution make money from the charges levied on client who demand their services. Notwithstanding the importance of the banking activities, the change in technology has brought a lot of competition to the industry. The challenges faced by the industry has resulted in many banking institutions folding up, as a result of non-compliance to rules set by regulators. For this reason the research investigate into the causes of the inability to meet the require regulation laid down by the regulators. The study indicates that the banking industry is often slow in the adaptation of new process due to the peculiar culture of the institution. However, the inability to quickly adopt to changes in the fast pace of changing technology is impacting negatively on the operations of the traditional banking industry. The study identify some of the current changes such as cryptocurrency, and mobile money, and the impact this has on the banking industry. The study recommends the need for the banking industry to quickly adopt to the current changes so as to be competitive in the industry.


Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference. These advantages make it a viable system to be used in various high data rate systems including data communication in intra satellite systems. An optical transceiver converts digital signal to optical data which will be transmitted over the optical fibre and vice versa. To send data as light, it makes use of a light source (LASER or LED) and to receive light pulses, it makes use of a photodiode semiconductor. A PCB consisting of optical transceivers, FPGA, LVDS transmitter, receiver and buffers is designed to establish and characterize optical fiber communication between different subsystems in satellite.


This study aims at exploring the interaction between the indigenous and biomedical healing systems as well as the professionals working in both healing systems. Drawing on qualitative research approach, the study employed primary and secondary data collection methods. Primary data were gathered through informal conversation, in- depth interviewing of indigenous herbalists and, health extension workers and health officer, focus group discussion with selected community members and herbalists, and systematic observation. Secondary data were collected through critical review of related literature and documents. Both primary and secondary data were organized thematically and were analyzed through systematic interpretation and cross- checking of the different data sources through the use of triangulation to increase the validity and reliability of the findings.The study found that the Shinasha consider their knowledge of herbal medicine to be the gift of God for them. In the study area, herbal medicinal practitioners are males. The medical ethics of the Shinasha is based on non- commercial (at least in principle) use of medicines which is one point of departure with biomedicine, where treatment is usually exchanged for money. So, herbal medicinal knowledge and healing is considered as a moral profession to help and serve people. The study findings also indicated that the Shinasha practice healthcare and healing for illnesses of natural, supernatural, and personal etiology through popular healthcare practices, the indigenous healing system, and the biomedical healing system. Shifts from one healthcare option to the other and resorts are common among the Shinasha. In the study area, the indigenous and the biomedical healing systems are existing dualistically, but have fewer informal professional interactions, which is more competitive and less cooperative. The coexistence of the indigenous and the biomedical healing systems in the study area generally has a positive contribution in addressing and improving the health of the people.


Mobile baking along with the time span becoming the face of E-commerce. Researchers are getting interested in Mobile banking to explore the recent trends in E-Commerce. Most recent interest in M-banking is user satisfaction, Performance, use. This study proposes the models of DeLone & McLean IS success model and the Task-Technology Fit (TTF) to illustrate the actual impact upon individual performance. Online survey through a developed questionnaire used. 404 valid responses become the base to conduct the analysis. The study reveals that Use, User satisfaction and the moderating effect of TTF along with usage to individual performance remained effective. Study entails the particle and theoretical implications.


This research aims to identification the efficiency of the feed and the growth on Siamese Catfish (Pangasius sp), through combination of mackerel tuna canning waste and soybean meal as sources of feed. This research is conducted in March to June 2017 in the Floating Net Cage (FNC) of Office for General Water Fisheries and Ornamental Fish Conservation or Balai Pelestarian Perikanan Perairan Umum dan Ikan Hias (BPPPUIH) of Cirata Reservoir – West Java. The method used for this research is economic analysis randomized design factorial experiment that includes six treatments and three repeats. The combinations of mackerel tuna canning waste and soybean meal respectively are: feeds A (100%, 0%), B (87.5%, 12.5%), C (75%, 25%), D (62.5%, 37.5%), E (50%, 50%), and F (Commercial Feed). The Siamese catfish seed’s size is 5.57 ± 0.23 g which is kept in 18 net cage units at a density level of 40 fish/net for 60 days. Production cost efficiency is calculated using value of benefit and cost with Daily Growth Rate as testing parameters. The influence of each treatment on parameters is analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The research results indicate that the test feeds with varied combinations of mackerel tuna waste and soybean meal as the protein sources give significant influence (P>0.05) on Daily Growth Rate. Combination of 75% mackerel tuna canning waste and 25% soybean meal in the feed of Siamese Catfish juvenile seeds delivers the best result on Daily Growth Rate at 3.34% and the most efficient treatment is treatment A with economic efficiency of 1.13.


The construction industry, as a whole, has proven to be durable and able to withstand external influences after the initially lagging recovery following the economic downturn of 2009. Both residential and non-residential building sectors have experienced growth since 2011, creating essential jobs and noticeably contributing to GDP. Green construction represents a portion of building activity as a whole and its growth rate has outpaced general construction over the past few years. The green construction market is expected to continue its Growth in the coming years due to sustained investment in green technologies, manageable inflation rates, increased government infrastructure spending, declines in long--‐term interest rates, and a steady market signal for green construction and resale value. Local and national policy has continued to support green construction and renovation due to multiple drivers such as changes in code, and regional, state and national emphasis on energy efficiency, greenhouse gas reduction, and creating more jobs domestically. Green building has received increased attention over the past decade from both environmental economists and policymakers. This article presents an overview of green building economics and policies through a survey of the theoretical and empirical evidence concerning green buildings. This study aims to provide a methodical analysis of the economic value of green Building constructions at the national and state levels


Nursing undergraduates are essential to practice clinical procedures during their training at teaching hospitals. While improving hands-on skills, the students carry a risk of sharps injuries exposing them to blood-borne infections.Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate on needle stick injuries and Hepatitis B vaccination status among B.Sc. Nursing undergraduates in General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University.Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among all nursing undergraduates in the Faculty of Allied Health Sceinces to find out the incidence of needle stick injuries, associated factors, prac¬tices and perceptions regarding standard precautions. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to 294 undergraduates. Data was collected at the faculty premises.Results: A total of 235 nursing undergraduates consented in the study. Ninety five percent of the participants had obtained at least one dose of Hepatitis B vaccination. Only 16% had vaccinated with all three doses. Among the participants, one or more needle stick injury was experienced by 36% (n = 84). Most (51%) of the injuries were reported by 3rd year nursing students. Majority (51%) of injuries occurred during injection procedure and 27% during blood drawing. Most of the incidents (61%) had occurred at the medical wards. Eighty two percent of the incidents were due to hollow bore needles and 49% were cutting injuries with glass or ampules.Forty one percent injuries had occurred due to distraction, whereas 29% due to incompetent skills and 22% with inadequate preparation. Following the injury, 96% students had washed the injured site, 40% had informed the ward sister regarding the incident, 22% had checked own blood sample whereas 24% had checked patient’s blood.There was no association (p=0.6) between the frequency of injury and gender. However, the duration of clinical training and the frequency of injuries was statistically significant (p=0.000). The knowledge on prevention of needle stick injuries was found at a satisfactory level.Conclusions: Needle stick injuries are preventable. The incidence of injuries was relatively low in this group of students. The practice of standard precautions and post-injury management should be taught before the clinical training. The availability of personal protective equipment at the clinical settings need to be increased while encouraging the students to get adhered to the universal precautions.


Ecological systems based models are very important where they are used in many climate models to predict the precipitation in coming years. Agent-based model is used to support such prediction. On other hand, the agent is considered a vital element in the ecological models, where it is working autonomously that means actions and internal state of it can be controlled to achieve the predictable goals. Also, the agent can share with other agents an environment through interactions and communication interface. Moreover, it can make decisions that bind behavior to the environment. This research will focus on symbiosis interaction type where we apply three processes starting from developing a computational model, then making it agent based adaptive model to finally use for a Decision Support System (DSS) in a controlled environment.


Mammography is the x-ray examination of the breast tissues and it’s helpful in the early detection of breast diseases. The radiation dose absorbed during mammography is a risk factor since it can trigger carcinogenesis.OBJECTIVES:To determine the mean glandular dose in the hospitals studied.METHOD: This study was a prospective cross-sectional study. Sixty-seven Women who volunteered were involved in the study. 4 hospitals in Lagos State were selected. Thermoluminiscent dosimeter (TLD) chips were placed on the breast and exposed for both the Cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique views (MLO) of the breast. The TLD chips were then read with a TLD reader.RESULT: The result showed an average mean glandular dose of 0.74mGy and the calculated mean glandular dose for CC and MLO views were 0.33-6.41mGy and 0.28-8.59mGy respectively.CONCLUSION: The average mean glandular doses are below the recommended published guidance level of 3mGy for mammography.


Analytical Business Development on Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi) Ornamental Fish Cultivation Research had executed from February 2016 to June 2016. The purpose of this research is to assess factual condition, build conceptual models and decide development strategies. Soft System Methodology (SSM) is used to analyze data. In some parts, factual conditions of the Neon Tetra cultivation business in Bojongsari were not suitable on CBIB rules, Pokdakan had not maximized group’s agenda, cultivators’ income could be optimized, and lack of promotion action. As results of CATWOE analysis, cultivation in Bojongsari District is suggested to make study, policy, and systems about product’s standard, strengthen the function of pokdakan and create an effective and sustainable marketing strategy to attract new customers.


Nilem in West Java has not been developed, and maintenance is still byproduct so that its production is still low. To produce a high production can be done with the addition of stocking density. Solid dispersion has a significant effect on water quality degradation, requiring better water quality management. Handling that can be done on this cultivation is with the addition of aeration. Aeration added to cultivation container in this research is diffuser aerator. The purpose of this research is to see the consistency of ammonia and nitrate content which is non toxic compound for nilem by comparing from some stocking density. The treatments were A treatment (50 fish/m3), B (75 fish/m3), C (100 fish/m3) and D (125 fish/m3). This research was conducted in February - March 2018 in Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Universitas Padjadjaran. Diffuser Aerator has an influence on ammonia and nitrate, all treatments tended to decrease in ammonia levels with treatment A having the lowest ammonia of 0.004 mg/L. While for the greatest nitrate content found in treatment C that is 1.096 mg/L. Stocking of 100 fish is the best number during the study with 86% survival rate with fish population of 86 fish.

Design and Implementation of Mobile Patient Monitoring System []

The development in the mobile technology and in the parallel of this, the development in the NFC technologies generalize usage of these technologies and allow that awareness and usability in teletype systems, bill payment systems, patient monitoring systems. Smartphones can get data from their close environment and also they have the ability that get and process data from sensors in the distance of between 4cm-100m through Bluetooth NFC technologies. Mobile Patient Monitoring Systems (MPMS) grow up every day because of the having these features that reducing cost, attainability, accessibility to patient clinical data. In this research MPMS allows that taking measurement of diabetes, body temperature, heart rhythm of elderly people and children who require follow-up in their school, workplace and cottage hospitals. Then we have transferred to the main server and the relevant departments by categorizing the instant measurement values in two groups as normal and critical measurements.


The study undertaken by Spierdijk & Jacob (2012) it is to be said in economics what goes up, must come down .Regarding of stock prices this idea transforms into the concept of (long-run) mean reversion, which affirms that a decline in stock prices is most likely to be followed by an upward price movement, and vice versa.According to Ahmad & Sara (2012) in buying and selling of gold the investors evaluate the risk such as hedging, prevailing economic conditions, currency fluctutions, social and political crises. In general the speculation for the investment in gold is depend upon the efficient market hypothesis including future informations ,derivatives and stochastic volatility models i.e Heston model, the SABR model, the Chen model and the GARCH model.


The purpose of this study was to obtain an effective concentration of commercial probiotics to achieve the highest optimum survival and growth rate of red tilapia fingerlings. This research was conducted from February to May 2018 at Ciparanje Hatchery, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Padjadjaran University, while water quality test was conducted at Aquatic Resource Management Laboratory Faculty of Fishery and Marine Sciences, University Padjadjaran. Method with complete randomized design with 7 treatments and 3 replicates, namely treatment A (probiotic treatment with concentration of 3 ml/L-1, 5 ml/L-1 and 7 ml/L-1), B (probiotic concentration 3 ml/L-1, 5 ml/L-1 and 7 ml/L-1), C (Control without treatment). The results showed that probiotics A with 5 ml/L-1 dose has a better environmental conditions for the culture of tilapia. probiotic A with 5 ml/L-1 dose resulting 0.030 ml/L-1 of ammonia concentration, so that resulting the lowest ammonia concentration at the end of the observation and has the highest survival rate of 72% and the highest growth rate of 5.50%.


Wood has originally and primarily been the source of energy for many industrial and domestic processes. Certain properties of wood such as moisture content, density, ash content, fuel value index and calorific value determine the fuel value of each wood tree species. In this research , fuel wood properties for six selected Nigerian wood trees were determined; Peltophorum pterocarpum, Terminalia catappa, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, Gmelina arborea and Mangifera indica. Standard empirical procedures were used to determine the moisture content, density, ash content and volatile content while net calorific value and fuel value index were determined by using analytical calculations. The results obtained for moisture content, density, volatile content, ash content, net calorific value and Fuel value index are as follows: Peltophorum pterocarpum 66.97%, 0.4108 g/cm3, 67 %, 4.5 %, 4.4765 KJ/g and 40.86 , Terminalia catappa, 69.37%, 0.3263 g/cm3, 65%, 4%, 3.9739 KJ/g and 32.41, I Psidium guajava, 42.21%, 0.6491g/cm3, 69%, 7%, 9.6612KJ/g and 89.59, Azadirachta indica, 40.99%, 0.6813g/cm3, 52%, 10.5%, 9.9167KJ/g and 64.35, Gmelina arborea, 36.62%, 0.44 g/cm3, 68%, 2.5%, 10.8318 KJ/g and 190.64 and Mangifera indica ,36.02%, 0.6652g/cm3, 59%, 5.5%, 10.9574KJ/g and 132.53 respectively. Gmelina arborea produces the best fuel value index irrespective of its low density because of its low ash content and moisture content while Peltophorum pterocarpum has the least. Kendall tau shows strong similarity in rank between net calorific value and the fuel value index (Kendall tau = 0.7333, p-value = 0.0388 ).


Urbanization is the process in which green space (fields, trees, wetlands, etc.) is converted into black space (concrete and asphalt). Urbanization occurs because people move from rural areas to urban areas. This usually occurs when a country is still developing. Slums and its consequences of overcrowding lack of sanitation, global warming, air pollution, water pollution and loss of forest cover, agriculture land and depletion of wildlife are the major outcome of urbanization. This present study is a quantitative research entitled “People Perception Regarding possible impact of Urbanization on Environmental Degradation in Islamabad”. The environmental challenges are primarily associated with rapid urbanization and this urbanization is mostly unplanned and haphazard and rises to environmental issues such as; pollution, poor drainage system, poor quality of drinking water and hygienic conditions. Researcher collected the data from three different sectors of Islamabad city though multistage sampling technique. A self-administrated questionnaire was used as a tool of data collection. From the investigation of the data it was found that there is a strong relationship between the urbanization and increasing environmental issues in the cities, such as poor sanitation and drainage system, hygienic problems, air pollution and deforestation etc. The results of the research show that there is a critical linkage between urbanization, environment, pollution growth and pollution. Provision of basic facilities in rural areas, awareness campaigns, education, health, food and employment can reduce this problem.

The impact of the sand table on achievement and the skills of information processing among middle school students in mathematics []

The aim of the research was to identify the effect of the sand table in the achievement and the skills of orphaned research in primary education, which was prepared in primary education, January 14 for girls. The research classification consisted of (60) female students, divided into two groups. The experimental group reached (30) Control group (30) students. The researchers found the equivalence between them in contrasting intelligence, previous achievement, the time-life calculated in months, tribal information processing skills. The researchers prepared a test of the desalination of the number of paragraphs (20) paragraph of the type of completion of the statement and then was presented to a group of arbitrators has been verified. Using the recalculation method, the researchers verified their stability. The stability coefficient (0.87).The researchers also prepared the measure of information processing consisting of (20) paragraphs and extracted the apparent honesty by presenting it to a group of arbitrators and extracted the stability in the manner of retesting (0.88).The researchers reached the following results:1-There are statistically significant differences in favor of the experimental group that was studied using the sand table on control group members who studied using the usual method of collection.2-There are differences of statistical significance for the experimental group that studied using the sand table on members of the control group, which was studied using the usual method of processing information.


Environmental change is a vital issue for human being which is indeed linked with agricultural activities due to its impact on food production. Irrigated agriculture is important to the national economy of a country as it contributes significantly to the production of food. Most irrigation schemes are faced with problem of soil deterioration resulting from increased level of soil salinity and rise in water table. Therefore, mapping of saline soils are essential and important for understanding resource for sustainable soil management and uses. The study presents the mapping out of soil salinity level in Kampe-Omi irrigation scheme as at 2015. Kampe-Omi irrigation scheme, being an irrigated agricultural land was used as pilot study area. Soil samples in OL 18 and OL 20 were collected on 3/11/2015 and analyzed for Electrical Conductivity (ECe). ECe samples were tagged S1 to S30 with their respective coordinates obtained using handheld Garmin GPS, the readings were imported into ArcGIS 9.0 for analysis. Maps of the study area showing areas covered by salts in percentage were generated. The results showed that 0.04 - 0.126 Ds/m occupies 3 %, 0.126 – 0.202 Ds/m occupies 14 %, 0.202 – 0.288 Ds/m occupies 46 %, 0.288 – 0.387 Ds/m occupies 30 %, and 0.387 – 0.500 Ds/m occupies 7 % of the study area. The presence of salt in the soils and its variation expressed in percentage may be as a result of rise in water table and the difference in elevation of the study area. The study confirms that electrical conductivity of extracted soil paste ECe is a good indicator for mapping soil salinity level.

Digital mode with Single-Electron Transistor (DSET) []

Today’s world is in a constant state of growth.VLSI technology is no exception to the above statement. Recent Evolution of electronics is now in the research area of single electronics. Single electron transistor is a device of the above kind. It enjoys the advantages of nanometer scale devices. But it has many constraints as for as in the action of implementation. In this paper, we discuss the constraints and propose a fault-tolerant architecture for an efficient and robust design of a system using the SET. In this, some digital circuits are with design and this design improves the response to avoid faults to transient and permanent faults existing at the transistor level.


Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are macromolecules synthesized by bacteria. They are inclusion bodies accumulated as reserve materials when the bacteria grow under different stress conditions. Because of their fast degradability under natural environmental conditions, PHBs are selected as alternatives for production of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this work was to isolate potential PHB producing bacteria and evaluate PHB production using agro residues as carbon sources. Among three bacterial strains isolated from different localities, only one PHB accumulating strain was selected and compared for its ability to accumulate PHB granules inside its cell. Isolate from Kalina Campus was identified as Bacillus spp and was found to be the best producer. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation period for best PHB production by the isolate were 7, 37 °C, and 48 h respectively at 120 rpm. PHB production was best with glucose as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source. The isolated Bacillus subtilis can be used for feasible production of PHB using agro-residues especially sugarcane bagasse which can reduce the production cost in addition to reducing the disposal problem of these substrates.


Background Parenting the children with Down syndrome is considered to be a life changing experience for parents and requires them to analyze their personal belief systems. Often when parents are unable to accept the diagnosis of Down syndrome of their child, they react to this disability with anger and fear. PurposeThe purpose of this study was to explore initial reactions of parents receiving their child’s diagnosis of Down syndrome.MethodsA qualitative study was conducted in the pediatric outpatient units of a private hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. In total, 89 children with DS were identified and telephone numbers of the parents of these children were collected from the medical record office from January 2013-December 2014. Forty parents were contacted by telephonic calls for the first time on different days. Of the 40 parents, 15 parents refused to participate, one couple was not available, two telephone calls were left unattended, and two parents left the city and moved to another place. Finally, 15 parents agreed to participate in the study therefore written informed consents were obtained and appointments were scheduled for face to face in-depth interviews.FindingsIt was found that the news concerning Down syndrome was often shared with the father alone of the children. Nearly all fathers found the news a shock.The common initial reactions were : lack of acceptance of the diagnosis and denial (to the extent that even a few mothers of children aged 5 years with Down syndrome still had hope that one day their child would be free from this disability); delay in seeking assistance pertaining to the diagnosis of DS and visiting different doctors to deal with the common problems from which DS children suffer, e.g. nose blockage, sneezing, not eating properly, slow growth, etc.ConclusionThe results indicate that improving communication with the parents, listening to their concerns, and facilitating active participation in treatment should all be central to the care that is provided at the time of diagnosis. The vast majority of the parents were not satisfied with the amount of information and support that been provided to them, and they perceived it as too negative.


The main purpose of the study was to find out the individual and collective (to bring the novelty in study) impact of organizational culture, organizational structure and knowledge management system on employee performance. A sample of 500 SMEs working in Pakistan was taken which provided 222 usable responses. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s coefficient of correlation and regression models were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS 20 version. It was concluded that organizational culture and KMS positively affect the employee performance and organizational structure has negative relationship with employee performance in the sampled SMEs. Moreover, all three variables have positive impact on the employee performance. It is recommended for future research perspective to enlarge sample size, target population i.e. sectors/clusters of SMEs in Pakistan and t measure the affects on other variables like organizational performance, turnover ratio etc.


This study aimed at assessing the effect of soil pH variation on the physical and chemical properties of the soil and the root growth and development of maize. To achieve this, samples were collected from the University of Abuja teaching and research farm. The pH values for specific pH classes was gotten after several trials and mixing; 1 ml of hydrochloric acid was diluted in 12,000 ml (12 Litres) of water to get a pH of 3.56 - 4.0 (strongly acidic), 0.1ml of hydrochloric acid was diluted in 10,000ml (10 Litres) of water to get a pH of 5.86 - 6.5 (slightly acidic), 0.5g of Calcium hydro oxide Ca(OH)2 was diluted in 10,000ml (10 Litres) of water to get a pH of 7.5 - 8.5 (Slightly alkaline), 2g of Calcium hydro oxide Ca(OH)2 was diluted in 10,000ml (10 Litres) of water to get a pH of 9.8 - 1.0 (Strongly alkaline) and the ‘neutral class’ (7.0) of pH was gotten by the use of pure distilled water. The rate of germination in each treatment was noted and after sometime, the maize seedlings were uprooted and the root growth and development was observed. The pre-treatment sample and post- treated samples were analysed in the laboratory to determine their physical and chemical properties. The pre-treatment sample had a pH(H2O) of 7.5, very low nitrogen ;0.03gkg-1 and high sodium; 0.62Cmolkg-1. Soil pH variation influenced the ECEC, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the soil.


This review examined the effects of poverty on land use practices and environmental degradation among arable crop farmers in Plateau, Benue, Kogi, and Niger states in North Central Nigeria. The Foster Greer Thorbecke (FGT) index revealed poverty head count of 64%, 42%, and 36.67% for Kogi, Plateau and Niger States respectively. For the separate study in Plateau state, the probit regression result revealed that the quantity of wood collected, number of animals allowed to graze and length of time they graze were significant (P< 0.01). A unit increase in any of these variables would lead to the probability of an increase in the poverty depth of the farmers. But knowledge of natural resource conservation was significant (P< 0.05) as well as farm size (P < 0.10) and negatively correlated to poverty. In the case of Kogi State, the variables with significant negative relationship with poverty were farm size (P < 0.01), organic manure (P< 0.10), cover-cropping (P< 0.10), and labour use intensity (P < 0.10). On the other hand, the coefficient of household size was found to be 0.331948, significant (p< 0.01), while mulching had a coefficient 0.827755 (p< 0.10). These latter set of variables therefore contribute to the poverty of farmers in the area. The study recommends the improvement of arable farmers’ capacity by way of more training on the use of sustainable land use management practices so as achieve environmental sustainability, increase in yield and productivity and reduce the high poverty incidence among farmers in the zone.


This review examined the effects of poverty on land use practices and environmental degradation among arable crop farmers in Plateau, Benue, Kogi, and Niger states in North Central Nigeria. The Foster Greer Thorbecke (FGT) index revealed poverty head count of 64%, 42%, and 36.67% for Kogi, Plateau and Niger States respectively. For the separate study in Plateau state, the probit regression result revealed that the quantity of wood collected, number of animals allowed to graze and length of time they graze were significant (P< 0.01). A unit increase in any of these variables would lead to the probability of an increase in the poverty depth of the farmers. But knowledge of natural resource conservation was significant (P< 0.05) as well as farm size (P < 0.10) and negatively correlated to poverty. In the case of Kogi State, the variables with significant negative relationship with poverty were farm size (P < 0.01), organic manure (P< 0.10), cover-cropping (P< 0.10), and labour use intensity (P < 0.10). On the other hand, the coefficient of household size was found to be 0.331948, significant (p< 0.01), while mulching had a coefficient 0.827755 (p< 0.10). These latter set of variables therefore contribute to the poverty of farmers in the area. The study recommends the improvement of arable farmers’ capacity by way of more training on the use of sustainable land use management practices so as achieve environmental sustainability, increase in yield and productivity and reduce the high poverty incidence among farmers in the zone.


MapReduce is a processing technique and programming model done in lateral and scattered manner is the core component of BigData. It is an associated implementation for processing and generating large data sets. MapReduce is used to perform the task of filtering, aggregation and to maintain the efficient storage structure. In order to manage the huge volume of data, the proposed method will process the data in parallel as small chunks in distributed clusters.


This study aims to look into the implementation of the 4Ps in the Municipality of Magsingal, Ilocos Sur. Specifically, it determined the profile of the 4 Ps beneficiaries, their level of compliance to the conditionalities of 4Ps, issues/problems relative to its implementation, and aspirations of the members for better implementation. It used the descriptive method of research, convenience sampling, checklist questionnaire and open-ended questions, frequency, percentage, and mean. The findings show that the 4Ps members in Magsingal are among the poor; have a very good compliance on the conditionalities of the program especially on school attendance of their children and getting regular preventive vaccines, availing pre-natal care by pregnant women and having attended by a skilled birth attendant/midwife/nurse/doctor during child delivery. Problems relative to the 4Ps include some members who developed laziness and indulged in gambling, many do not attend regular meetings/seminars, not bring their children for regular medical check-up; some pawn their ATMs; late release of grants with many deductions such as fines, mortuary aid and snacks; and having unqualified members while some obviously indigent households are not members. It is recommended that the program implementers should look into the issues raised, strictly monitor the compliance of the members to the terms and conditions and remove those who are otherwise not qualified including members who frequently violate the conditions; 4Ps should be institutionalized; and livelihood projects with initial capital should be provided by the government to increase the chance of the members in alleviating their poverty situations.