Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

Investigating the Corrosion Inhibition Effects of Tagetes Erecta L. Leaf Extract on Aluminium in Acidic Medium []

ABSTRACT The corrosion inhibitive effect of Tagetes erecta L as an eco-friendly inhibitor for the corrosion control of Aluminium in 0.5 Molar solution of HCl acid have been investigated using the weight loss method which is considered best informative than other laboratory methods. The study was carried out using 0.5m - 4.8ml of the Tagetes erecta L leaf extract respectively. Aluminum sheets of purity 97.9% were used in this study. Each sheet was 0.14cm thick and was mechanically cut into rectangular coupons of dimension 3 cm x 2 cm. The total surface area of the coupon used was 20 cm2. These coupons were used without further polishing. However, surface treatment of the coupon involved degreasing in absolute ethanol and drying in acetone. The test coupons were totally immersed in the corroding 0.5M HCl containing various concentration of the inhibitor African marigold (Tagetes erecta L) at the time intervals of 5 - 25 hours. Maximum inhibition efficiency of 72.2% was obtained at the concentration of 4.8ml .The corrosion effect was investigated thoroughly and the corrosion rate was found to decrease while the inhibitive efficiency increases as the inhibitor concentration was increased. The study showed that Tagetes erecta L possesses inhibiting properties for reducing the corrosion rate of aluminium in 0.5M HCl acid.


The strategy of developing a live lobster trading business is carried out to determine the internal and external factors of the company and formulate the right alternative strategy for PT. ASI Pudjiastuti Marine Product. This research was conducted at PT. ASI Pudjiastuti Marine Product, Pananjung Village, Pangandaran District, Pangandaran Regency. The implementation starts from March 16, 2018 to December 21, 2018. The method used in this research is the case study method at PT ASI Pudjiastuti Marine Product by collecting primary data and secondary data. The sampling method used was purposive sampling and data processing through descriptive analysis using SWOT analysis. The results of the research show that the best strategy for developing a live lobster trading business at PT ASI Pudjiastuti Marine Product is by implementing a SO strategy or an aggressive growth strategy with coordinates 0.43; 0.11, which is to exert internal power to fight the opportunities that exist.


This study aims to analyze the value of tuna production, analyze the factors that influence the value of tuna production and the value of tuna export production landed at PPS Nizam Zachman Jakarta. The method used is the survey method and production value index analysis. The results showed that in the last five years in 2015 a value of less than 1 was obtained, that is 0.04, which means that the value of tuna production in Nizam Zachman PPS Jakarta was lower than the value of all fish produced at PPS Nizam Zachman Jakarta. Factors that influence the value of tuna production landed at Nizam Zachman PPS Jakarta, namely the frequency of tuna longline vessels that land tuna, tuna quality and fishing gear are used, while the factors that influence the value of tuna production at PPS Nizam Zachman in export to Japan, namely the exchange rate of the rupiah against the importing country's currency, used fishing gear, the quality of tuna exported, Indonesian government policies and government policies applied by importing countries.


The aim of this study was performed to assess in silico inhibition effect of the ligand 2-[(1E)-N-{2-[(2-{(Z)-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethylidene] amino}ethyl) amino]ethyl}ethanimidoyl] phenol on coagulation factor VIIa and IXa. Results indicate the moderate effect of this ligand.

Mineralogical Characterization of the gold-bearing rocks around Okemesi-Ijero Area, Southwestern Nigeria. []

The mineralogical characterization of the gold bearing rocks around Okemesi-Ijero, South Western Nigeria was carried out using Petrographic and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies to determine the mineralogical phase of the gold showings. Various researchers have worked in the studied area most especially Ayodele et al., (2017), who carried out geochemical analysis (XRF) on the bedrocks, indicating showings of gold mineralization in Okemesi (Ajindo) with concentration values of 10-0.05ppm. This prompted the investigation for confirmation of gold mineralization on the bedrocks of Okemesi area (Ajindo). The method of investigation included systematic geologic mapping of the various lithologies, sampling of the various lithologic units at a density of one sample per 100sqkm, followed by petrographic studies using light transmitting Petrological Microscope and mineralogical characterization of the various rocks using X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). Twenty-six (26) rock samples were collected from the studied area, and were prepared for thin section using the standard procedures. However, seven (7) out of the samples majorly schistose and massive quartzites were selected and prepared for XRD analysis. The results of the petrographic studies revealed the dominance of the following minerals from four major rock types (schistose and massive quartzites, granites and pegmatites) such that quartz has the highest percentage (62.29%), followed by the feldspars such as microcline (18.59%), plagioclase (6.89%), Orthoclase (0.82%), muscovite (15.71%), biotite (14.85%), opaque (3.47%), hornblende (1.12%), and mymakite (0.36%).The X-ray diffractograms confirmed the presence of gold (Petrovskaite) in the Ajindo schistose quartzites. The schistose quartzites exhibited poor foliation which prevented the flow of auriferous hydrothermal fluid into the host rock. Further studies can be carried out by using Micro X-ray Spectral Analysis to determine the concentration of the gold (petrovskaite) present in the host rock. Keywords: Okemesi, Lithologies, XRD, Photomicrographs, Minerals


The aim of this research was to determine the rate of nutrient absorption of N-NO3 and P-PO4 and growth from the two plants studied. The research was held in July - August 2018. The research was carried out and divided into two, namely ex situ and in situ. Sampling, water quality testing, and observation of lemnaceae plants were carried out in situ at LIPI Limnologi, Cibinong, Bogor. Furthermore, the analysis of nitrate, phosphate, TSS, and VSS was carried out ex situ in the Testing Laboratory of the Limnology Research Center, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong, Bogor, West Java. The method used was an experimental method. The results showed that L. perpusilla is more effective at absorbing nitrate and phosphate by 0,79 mg / L / day and 0,37 mg / L / day compared to L. punctata plants absorbing nitrate and phosphate by 0,71 mg / L / day and 0,35 mg / L / day.

The Effects Of Mergers & Acquisitions On Financial Performance In Banking Sector Of Pakistan []

The main objective of this study is to measure the banks performance after to merger and acquisition in Pakistan. This be taught has the significance for the worried associations, shoppers, shareholders, traders, opponents and inner management. In Pakistan, nevertheless, the phenomenon of Mergers and acquisitions is fairly new and is practiced from the last two many years. This is a quantitative research that is based on secondary data collected form annual reports of banks for calculate the financial indicators. These banks are listed on KSE (Karachi Stock Exchange). The sample size of the data is nine M&A (merger and acquisition) banks listed in KSE OF Pakistan from 2002 to 2015. Population of all merger and acquisitions have been made during the period of 2002 to 2018 in the banking sector of Pakistan. Mostly previous studies focused on developing countries that are less work done on merger and acquisition as compared to developed countries. This study used four types of ratios such as liquidity ratios, solvency ratios, profitability ratios and investment ratios for two previous years and two next years that show the positive impact of merger and acquisition on banks performance. This study conclude that merger and acquisition have a positive impact on banks performance but the negative performance of some banks due to overconfidence in utilization of resources.

Prospective Analysis Strategy For Reducing Floating Net Cages At Cirata Reservoir (Case Study Of Maniis Sub-District Purwakarta Regency, West Java) []

This reseach is carried out from July until November 2018 in the Cirata Reservoir, Maniis Subdistrict, Purwakarta Regency. The purpose of research is determining prospective analysis strategies for reducing the number of floating net cages in the Cirata Reservoir without causing conflict. The method of the research is descriptive qualitative with a prospective analysis approach then the data are obtained from primary data, namely interviews and secondary data or literature by using purposive sampling technique. The respondents are selected based on data requirement and the background of the research. Interview results are analyzed using MICMAC software to find out which stakeholders affected all activities in reducing the number of KJA. The research result show that the stakeholders who influence the socialization activities are BPWC, DKPP, TNI, MPC, Villagers and Community Leaders which are TNI, KJA Owners, Village Officer and BPWC have the influence for implementation activities. This research will provide scenarios and operational recommendations for activities in reducing the number of KJA at the Cirata Reservoir Maniis Subdistrict, Purwakarta Regency.

The association between physical testing and training output across an 8-week training cycle amongst elite Champions League level soccer players. Association between testing and training data in professional soccer []

The aim of the present investigation was to analyse the association between physical fitness profiles, playing positions and the profile relationships between training output amongst elite professional soccer players. Twenty professional players (height: 182.0 ± 3.2 cm, body mass:77.4 ± 6.1 kg, 25.7 ± 3.4 years) competing at UEFA Champions League level were involved in the present investigation. Players assessments included speed (5m and 20m), agility (T-test), jump performance (SJ and CMJ) and aerobic power (VO2max) at the start of pre-season. Players training outputs were recorded with global positioning systems (Statsports, Viper Pod, Newry, Northern Ireland) across 5 micro-cycles at the start of competitive period. Total distance (TDC; m), relative distance (m.min-1), high-speed running (HSR; m), explosive distance (m), total accelerations (n), total decelerations (n) and total sprints (n) were measured. No difference between playing positions were found in the physical tests. Jump and 20m-speed tests were significantly correlated with total accelerations (r= 95% CI:), total decelerations (r = 95% CI:), total sprints (r = 95% CI:), HSR (m) (r= 95% CI:) and HSR (m.min-1) (r= 95% CI:). 5m-speed test significantly correlated with explosive distance (r= 95% CI:). VO2max correlated with all metrics (p<0.05) except total decelerations (r= 95% CI:) and TDC (r= 95% CI:). To conclude, laboratory based testing protocols were shown to positively relate to professional player training outputs. Furthermore, this study additionally highlights the significant difference in positional based training demands and requirements from a physical training output perspective. Coaches and key individuals involved with the physical preparation of elite players should consider the relationships between these tests when attempting to monitor and develop specific physical fitness qualities of the elite soccer player.

Nursing Collegian Satisfaction toward Clinical Courses []

Abstract Objective: To assess the Nursing Collegian Satisfaction toward Clinical Courses and to find out relationship between the Nursing Collegian Satisfaction with Clinical Courses and their demographic characteristics. Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out through the present study in order to achieve the early stated objectives. The study was began from January , 1st, 2018 to April, 1st, 2018. The study is conducted in Al-Najaf City/ in the University of Kufa at College of Nursing. A non-probability (Convenience) sample of one hundred (100) students, were included in the present study. An assessment tool used to assess the satisfaction of students toward clinical environment. The final study instrument consisted of two parts: part I include Scio-Demographic characteristics, and part II include Questions related to the Students Satisfaction comprised of (3) Domains which include (Supervision Relationship, Pedagogical atmosphere on the training site and Role of the nurse teacher). validity of an instrument for the early structured questionnaire is determined through the use of panel of experts to investigate clarity, relevancy, and adequacy of the questionnaire to measure the concepts of interest. A preliminary copy of the questionnaire is designed and presented to (15) experts, who have years of experiment more than (5) years. Data analysis by using descriptive statistics (percentage, frequency & mean of score) and inferential statistics (Chi-Square). Results: Concerning the result related to relationship between students training satisfaction and their demographic data. The present study reveals that there is no significant association between students satisfaction and demographic data of study group in related to (gender, type of study, stage, monthly income, marital status, socio-economic status, residency and finally last ward). The results of the present study are supported by other studies that indicated no significant difference between demographic data and training satisfaction. Conclusion: The study conclude that the majority of study students were satisfied to the clinical environment, and the supervisory relationship was evaluated by the students as the most influential factor in their satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Recommendation: Registered nurses must be encouraged to view clinical teaching and supervision of student nurses as part of their teaching function and quality improvement strategy in the wards. And there should be cooperation between college tutors, preceptors, ward sisters, unit managers and students in the selection of learning opportunities and formulation of clinical learning outcomes. Key wards: Satisfaction, Clinical Environment.

Numerical Analysis of Earth Slopes Using Finite Element Program []

The sustainability of the earth’s topography is a major concern in geotechnical engineering. Nowadays there are a number of computer-based geotechnical software that is used for slope stability analysis. For slopes with known geometry and soil parameters, computer-based slope stability analysis is a simple task for engineers. Computational software based on limit equilibrium principle has been in practice for many years. Likewise, software based on finite element approach has become a crucial tool for both researchers and professionals. The finite element is becoming well accepted, particularly the FE program Plaxis [1]. Since the finite element program utilizes stress-strain relationships, more practical stress redistributions are computed even for a sophisticated problem. In addition, the concept of slices is not applicable in the finite element approach and there is no need for assumptions of interslice forces. Unlike the LE approaches, the shape and location of the failure surface are not assumed prior to analysis. This makes the analysis of slope stability with FE methods more advantageous than LE methods. The objective of this study is to compare the applicability of the two-dimensional finite element program Plaxis 2D, for the analysis of pore water pressure, deformations and slope stability, with other finite element and limit equilibrium programs.


This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the export of freshwater ornamental fish in the city of Bandung and the factors that have a significant influence on increasing export volume in the city of Bandung. This research was carried out in May to December 2018 in the city of Bandung. The method used is descriptive quantitative method using periodic data and croos check data. Data collection techniques used sampling census technique and purposive sampling. Data tested is Number of types of freshwater decorative fish that are exported in Bandung, Freshwater Decorative Fish Price in Bandung for Importing Countries, Freshwater decorative fish price abroad, The amount of destinations for export of freshwater decorative fish in Bandung, USD Exchange Rate Against Rupiah Data analysis used is multiple linear regression with classic assumption tests, overall tests and partial tests. The results showed that the factors affecting the export of freshwater ornamental fish in the city of Bandung were types of freshwater ornamental in the city of Bandung and Freshwater Decorative Fish Price in Bandung for Importing Countries. The results showed that the factors affecting the export of freshwater ornamental fish in the city of Bandung were types of freshwater ornamental in the city of Bandung Keyword : Freshwater ornamental fish, Export, Bandung City

Globalization has changed the system of education, shaping the education doesn't make any changes []

in response to globalization, the Philippines is on its way to 21st Century Education longing to provide quality education to attain excellence learning, appropriate teaching, and advanced resource teachers. Scenario cited systems of education first, the K-12 basic education program, the present and second, the previous/old system, distinct comparison of this two system has been examined in favor to the later, the significance of its program to globalization are observed, documentations traced the functions of the new system, and evidently showed partial records of phenomena that globalization changed the system, but shaping the education doesn't made any changes. Literature is a paradox to some extent that this study recommends to pursue relative research for comparative and justification of the previous.

An Abridged Review on Biosorption of Heavy Metals Using Aspergillus Niger as Sorbent Material []

Due to technological and industrial advancement, rise in the number of pollutants bring serious environmental issues. Heavy metalsare good example of pollutants that are dreadful due to their high toxicity. Along with variety of techniques studied to treat effluents containing hazardous materials, usage of biomaterial such as fungal biomass for removal of heavy metal was studied due to its high potential in reducing metal concentration on contaminated bodies of water through biosorption.Biosorption ability of Aspergillus Niger, factors involved in achieving optimal adsorption of heavy metals using fungal biomass; type and nature biomass, concentration of metal solution, and physiochemical factors affecting, and parameters used was reviewed including summarization and description of methods used in biosorption, result accumulated, and inferences on the effects manipulating the biosorption. It was concluded that, Aspergillus Niger biomass is an effective sorbent material that most likely follows pseudo-second-order reaction rate and best described using Langmuir isotherm model.


In the vicinity of a nuclear power plant site there may be a multitude sources of human induced hazards. Human induced hazards include all human activities such as all transportation routes, hazardous material storage facilities, pipelines and arsenals which are potentially dangerous and their effects on the nuclear power plant need to be checked. Therefore the data related to the severity of the consequences of an accident becomes necessary and required to use it as a basis to calculate the effects of Human induced hazards on the nuclear power plant. Some of this data is unavailable or temporarily unavailable due to huge time and effort that should be spent to collect and prepare this data in a suitable form, but in many free international websites in the internet some of the unavailable data is exit. This work introduces an automation method for collecting and preparing this data in a suitable form. An automation method in this paper is implemented to collect the database of air crashes since 1921. This database is required for calculating the impact of the air roads in nuclear power plant. This automation method can save a lot of money, effort and time in the processes for calculating the effects of human induced hazards because now days several valuable data is available in many free websites. Therefore the need for creating the automation method becomes highly needed to collect the required data and prepare it in suitable form in minimum cost, minimum effort and shortest time.


This research was conducted in Cikalongkulon, Cianjur Regency, West Java. It began in April-October 2018. It is aimed for determining the influential stakeholders in the Floating Net Cages reduction in Cirata Reservoir and determining the strategies that must be done to reduce the number of Floating Net Cages. The methods used were qualitative descriptive and quantitative with prospective analysis approach. Purposive sampling and snowball sampling methods were used as the sampling method with the total of 30 respondents. Respondents were selected based on their background ability, interest, and influence in the Floating Net Cages reduction. The results of this research showed that the most influential stakeholders in reducing the number of Floating Net Cage as placed in quadrant II are Cirata Reservoir Management Agency, Indonesian National Armed Forces (KODAM, KODIM, KORAMIL, BABINSA), and the Department of Marine, Fisheries and Animal Husbandry in Cianjur Regency. The reduction number of Floating Net Cage can be realized if the role of the influential stakeholders in these activities is optimized. The strategy for 2023, Cirata Reservoir Zero Floating Net Cage, needs to be reviewed since it affects fish farming using Floating Net Cages sector and other supporting sectors. The proposed strategy is doing the reduction activity by referring to the Governor's Decree No. 41 of 2002.


Marketing objectives of motorcycle retailer are to retain existing customers and add new customers. Word of mouth offline and online is one of the marketing communication strategies used to achieve the goals. Sales force works freelance and partners are a source of word of mouth. The results of this study are expected to increase knowledge to small businesses and other marketing workers in using word of mouth marketing. This study uses a qualitative approach. Data collection uses participatory observation in the form of moderate participants where the researcher is involved in the activities of sources inside and outside and documentation observation. Word of mouth, which is delivering a message in the form of product knowledge and sales program with a social, cultural and local community approach. The tools used are brochures and motorcycle test ride; and use social media in person and group.


Koi fish is one of the ornamental fish that has a beautiful body shape and color with a high economic value. One of the indicators of beauty in ornamental fish is the quality of the fish color. Color in fish is created by the presence of chromatophore cells in the dermal part of the skin. Carotenoids are the main natural component of color pigment formation which have a fairly good influence on red and orange colors of koi fish (Cyprinus carpio). One of the sources of carotenoid is Spirulina powder. This study aimed to determine the effect of spirulina powder addition in feed on the quality of koi fish color. This was an experimental study with 2 treatments, namely: koi fish that received 5% spirulina powder and koi fish without spirulina powder administration. Data were analyzed using paired t-test with F count of 5%, meaning comparing one treatment with another treatment to reveal which treatment is better between the two. Koi fish with 7-9 cm size was used. The fish were reared in 2x2x1 cm3 hapa net for 40 days. Parameters measured in the study included color quality, which was measured using Tocca Color Finder; survival; absolute growth; pH; temperature; and DO. Results showed that the addition of spirulina powder to feed affect the quality of koi fish color, which was evident from a significant difference in fish color quality.


The toxicity of three new chemistry insecticides i.e Fenpropathrin 30 EC (Danitol), Pyriproxyfen 10.8 EC (Priority) and Diafenthiuron 500 SC (Polo) along with control were tested against cotton whitefly (Bemesia tabaci) under laboratory conditions. Mortality was recorded after 24 hours. Pyriproxyfen was recorded to be more toxic with LC50 of 133.28 ppm followed by fenpropathrin and diafenthiuron with LC50’s of 361.79 ppm and 4146.95 ppm respectively at highest doses of serial dilutions.

Data security enhancement of an organization to optimize the optimal protection of the data integration []

The world is moving to a different dimension. Technology is conquering all aspects of our daily lives. When we say technology it essentially means “Data”. Unprotected data management paves the opportunity of data security breach resulting to massive financial and reputational loss. Large organization and different governments are spending millions of dollars to ensure data security. Currently we are seeing many organization are facing a lot of challenges from the regulators for breach of data security which is resulting of leakage of human personal data. For large organization it the utmost responsibility to ensure an optimal protection of data integration. There are multiple ways of ensuring data security which keeps on evolving as the technology is advancing. Here we entails highlighting various types of data security breach and enhancement of data security across the organization.

Surgical Outcomes of MVD in terms of Immediate Pain Relief []

TIC doulourex is also known as Trigeminal neuralgia is the mostly known facial pain syndrome. It is characterized by brief but severe and recurring episodes of shock like pain affecting the one or both side of the dermatomal distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Alt-hough the exact TN source or the nature of this pain is not known till yet general consensus is that the pain is caused due to the focal demyelination in the root of the trigeminal nerve is involved. In this paper a surgical procedure called MVD (Microvascular decompression)is presented for the immediate relief from TN by considering 148 patients. Objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia by using the technique of muscle graft for the purpose of immediate pain relief. This descriptive case study was carried out in two hospitals Neurosurgery Department Sheikh Zayed Hospital Rahim Yar Khan and ProfessorNeurosurgery Department Nishtar Hospital, Multan.The number of patients due to compression of cerebellar artery was 88 %.About 148 patients were examined in this case study. Among those 92 patients were female and rest of about 38 % i.e.56 patients were male. Clinical evaluation was performed after 72 hours. The mean range of symptom duration was about 9.92 years. Among these patients 15 % patients were those who had peripheral neuroctomy history. And 39 % of the patients were those who had dental extraction history. In this case study the most common branch of the fifth nerve causing TN was V3 thus comprising 56 % of the patients.In our study those patients who felt no pain after surgery comprised the 71 % of the total patients. Our study proved successfully that for the treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, Microvascular decompression is most effective mode of surgery in terms of immediate pain relief.


The study investigated the impacts of six sigma strategy in selected manufacturing firms in Nigeria. As the global economy continues to face significant challenges, there is an growing pressure on organizations to cut rate and reduce operational absconds, while maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction. The six sigma strategy, now a popular deployment tool in many organizations worldwide was developed as a conception by Motorola in 1980’s. The study examined the challenges of the application of six sigma strategy in Nigeria. The review method was approved. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected staff of the organizations from a population of four hundred and fifty participated in the study. The instrument for data collection was erected on a likert-scale system. Based on the findings of the study, it is discovered that six sigma adds significant cost to the organization that adopt the strategy. The study also exposed that the successful application of Six Sigma largely varies on the infrastructural level of the organizations. Resultantly, the impacts of the process on quality of product and services have been handled. The study mentioned that Government should create a certain business environment in relatives to infrastructure development and guided monetary and fiscal policy. This will allow managers in the sectors to formulate and faced the global trials facing them. The study determines that the application of Six Sigma is highly advantageous to organizations that adopt it.


Abstract This study examines the success factors for knowledge management practices at the project level in building construction firms with a view to adopting best practices. Although many enterprises have a complete system of knowledge management, still, they lack a corporate culture that supports it hence the efficiency of knowledge management practice is limited. However, the assessment and rationale for the informal and unsystematic approach are not known. The study utilized a descriptive survey research design. The study population is 2533 and out of which a sample of (330) construction managers from building construction firms in Lagos State, Nigeria were identified for this study. Data for the analysis were collected through self-administered questionnaires on building construction managers using random sampling method and were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that creating knowledge sharing space (Mean = 3.63) is the most factor that contribute to the success of knowledge management practice. In conclusion, it was recommended that the construction managers in building construction firms should create knowledge sharing space in the presence of top management support and encourage teamwork building among building managers. Keywords: Construction firms, Knowledge, Knowledge management practices, Project Success.


This study aims to conduct a prospective analysis of strategies to reduce the amount of KJA in the Cirata Reservoir. The time and place of the study was conducted from September to January 2019 in Cipeundeuy Dis-trict, West Bandung Regency. This research was designed using case study research methods, prospective analy-sis, and descriptive methods. The sampling method used is the method of interview, direct observation, and lit-erature study. The data collection technique used was purposive sampling and random sampling. The type of data used is primary data generated from interviews with respondents and secondary data generated from the results of studies from the literature and statistical data from relevant agencies. The research data at the socialization and implementation stages were analyzed using the MICMAC software. The results are divided into quadrant 1 determinant variables, quadrant 2 connecting variables, quadrant 3 dependent variables, and quadrant 4 autonomous variables. The stakeholders that will be used as respondents are KJA cultivators, Law Enforcement (TNI), Cirata Reservoir Management Agency (BPWC), Fisheries and Marine Service Office of West Bandung Regency, West Bandung Regency Tourism and Culture Office, West Bandung Regency Environmental Office, District Technical Implementation Unit West Bandung, academics who are competent in the field of aquatic resource management, Community Care for Cirata Reservoir (MPWC) and community leaders. The results of the analysis show that the most influential stakeholders towards reducing the number of KJA are BPWC, TNI, and the Fisheries and Marine Service of West Bandung Regency. The strategy that can be done to reduce the number of KJA is a reduction based on the percentage of KJA ownership. Reducing the amount of KJA will take place optimally if it involves all active roles of influential stakeholders.


Spoof attack suppression by the bio metric information incorporation is the new and modern method of avoid and as well suppression the attack online as well Off line . Wireless networks provide various advantages in real world. This can help businesses to increase their productivity, lower cost and effectiveness, increase stability, and improve relationship with business partners and attract customers. In recent decades, we have witnessed the evolution of bio metric technology from the first pioneering works in face and voice recognition to the current state of development wherein a wide spectrum of highly accurate systems may be found, ranging from largely deployed modalities, such as fingerprint, face, or iris, to more marginal ones, such as signature or hand. Fingerprints cannot lie, but liars can make fingerprints”. Unfortunately, this paraphrase of an old quote attributed to Mark Twain1 has been proven right in many occasions now. And not only for fingerprints, but also for many other bio metric traits such as face, iris, voice or even gait. Every technology has its own time. Since the first pioneering works on automatic voice and face recognition over 40 years ago [1]–[2][3], steady and continuous progress has been made in the development of bio metric technology.


This study aimed to determine the Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of young and matured leaf of Bago plant extract in terms of boiling point, color, density, odor and pH. Then analyze its nutritional content which includes the ash, fats, fiber and moisture. Furthermore, phytochemical screening was done to test for the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. The results of the study showed that the average boiling point of young and matured Bago plant leaf extract is 110:33 °C, the color of the extract is green, 0.9809 g/mL. average density, has a pleasant odor and with an average of 5.53 pH. Furthermore, it was found out that for its nutritional contents, it has an average ash content of 0.6584 g, crude fat of 0.238533 g, crude fiber , and moisture content of 7.751 g. Moreover in the phytochemical screening, it was found out that alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids contents are present in the Bago young and matured leaf extract and only anthraquinone was not present. Therefore the results/findings gathered in this study would help the communities better understand the use of Bago plant not only as one source of nutrients and nutraceuticals but as healthy food and medicine. This will also be a source of phytochemicals which can be a window to newer discoveries in science and technology.


Natural fibers particularly pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) plays important role in the uprising world industry. This fiber is extracted from the leaves of pineapple plant. Pineapple is cultivated for local consumption in Ethiopia within the regions. The pineapple leaves produce agro waste that cause problems for its disposal. This waste can be used as a raw material for value added processing contributing to maintain an ecological balance in nature. This study investigates simple methods of extracting fibres from its leaves. The method of extraction is Scrapping, retting and decorticating methods. The leaves are processed to explore practical utilization of the fibres. The pineapple leaf fiber yielded between 2.5-3%. Under this study the fibers physical and mechanical structure (morphology and molecular structures) are analyzed through different instrument.

Application of Artificial Neural Network And Multiple Linear Regression Model for Forecasting of Container Throughput In APM Terminals Apapa Port A Comparative Approach []

This study is concerned with forecasting of container throughput volume in APM Terminals Apapa Lagos, Nigeria. Using macro-economic variables as the explanatory variables, namely number of container goods, Inflation Rate, Exchange Rate and GDP. The data were obtained from APM Terminals Apapa Port, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and World Bank. Two forecasting methods were compared, namely linear regression model and Artificial Neural Network model, with the purpose of searching among the two models, the model that can provide the most accurate prediction for container throughput. The predicted results were compared using coefficient of determination(), root mean squared error (RMSE). It was found out that, in general the multilayer perceptron (MLP) trained with backpropagation algorithm of feed-forward Neural Network was the better model for forecasting container throughput with of 0.94 as against 0.61, of the multiple linear Regression (MLR).The result of this study may be helpful to APM terminals for predicting short term demand for container throughput. R statistical software was used as a statistical tool for this research study.


This study is cross-sectional survey in nature on the students’ perceptions about their use of social networking sites and its influence on their academic performance having sample of Gomal and Quratba University in D.I.Khan. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test used to test the hypotheses. It was found that H1 of the study that there is correlation between SNS use and academic performance not accepted. It is also found that the difference of SNS’ effects on the GPA of different faculties have strongly significant relationships with students’ GPA and H2 is accepted.

Radical Scavenging Activity of Essential oil from the leaves of Gossypium barbadense (LINN) []

The essential oil constituents obtained by hydrodistillation in an all glass Clevenger apparatus of air-dried leaves of Gossypium barbadense growing in Nigeria was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen constituents representing 75.11 % of the oil were identified from the GC-MC spectra. The main constituents of the oil were Γ-terpinene (22.13%), Cyclohexene (13.28%), (-)-β-pinene (11.93%) and β-bisabolol (11.15%). Monoterpenes (52.65%), Sesquiterpenes (9.76%) Sesquiterpenoids (11.62%) and diterpenoids (1.08%) were the classes of compounds identified in the oil. The examined G. barbadense essential oil for its antioxidant activity at 517 nm was able to reduce the stable, purple-coloured radical DPPH' into yellow-coloured DPPH-H. It can be seen that G. barbadense exhibited is lower than the DPPH % inhibition of the ascorbic acid at the same concentration.

Effect of Salt Concentration with Addition of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Preference Levels of Non-Salty Peda []

This research aims to find out the best salt concentration and soaking time in the best lactic acid bacteria to the level of prefer-ence for non-salty peda. The research was conducted from April to October 2018 at the Fisheries Product Processing Laborato-ry of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences and Test Services Laboratory of the Faculty of Agricultural Industrial Tech-nology, Padjadjaran University. The method used in this research is the experimental method with four treatments of salt con-centration, roomates here 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%, and 3 treatments of soaking time in lactic acid bacteria for 1 hour, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The parameters observed include organoleptic, salt content, pH level, and total plate count. Based on the results, the highest salt content was found at the salt concentration of 20%, but the production of non-salted peda was stopped at the 8th day fermen tation process due to the decay.


The independent set of a graph is the set of vertices which are not adjacent in a graph while the clique of a graph is the set of vertices in the graph which are adjacent in the graph. In this paper we study the independence polynomial and clique polynomial of zero-divisor graphs of the integers modulo n. The independence polynomial of a graph is a polynomial with coefficient as the number of independent sets in the graph. And clique polynomial is a polynomial with coefficients as the number of cliques in the graph. The work considered the zero-divisor graphs of five commutative rings; ℤ10,ℤ12,ℤ14,ℤ15,ℤ16, where the independence and clique polynomials of each graph are computed.

Basic Assessment of Community Based Water Projects in Sri Lanka to Analyze Impacts of it for Health and Social Development and Sustainable Community Development Approaches []

Community Based Water Projects are now doing a major role in supplying safe drinking water among both rural and estate communities. Apart that, these Community Based Water Societies are doing a huge task to improve hygienic practices, community development, community voice for water and other social needs, social capital and behavioural change etc.. In Sri Lanka, many community based water societies are success and some of them are failed due to miscellaneous reasons. This study reveals some reasons for the success and some reasons for the failure, expecting further study on that. As same as this study will focus to meas-ure the level of community based water society’s contribution to improve safe drinking water, hygienic practices, behavioural changes, community development, social capital, peace building, community voice and community development. .


In recent centuries, the environmental issue is becoming a serious topic, especially about waste. Waste is becoming a trending issue around the globe due to the continuous increase of urbanization and industrialization activities. Indonesia as the second largest country which contributes waste in the world needs to take some action regarding solid waste management. West Java as one of a populated province in Indonesia facing waste management problem. Household and non-household waste production in the West Java region continues to increase from year to year. The pattern of handling waste in West Java has not undergone systemic and paradigmatic changes ranging from the central government to local governments. Even though Law No. 18 of 2008 concerning waste management mandates a system change and paradigm in waste management both the prevention and handling aspects of waste from upstream to downstream. This research was conducted from November 2018-January 2019. The object of this research is the existing condition regarding waste in West Java Province. Using the secondary data, we tried to analyze Solid Waste Management in West Java Province. The results show that the four largest waste contributors are Ciamis Regency, Sukabumi Regency, Bandung City, and West Bandung. West Java also lacks in research regarding waste management.

EOQ Model for both Ameliorating and Deteriorating Items with Exponentially Increasing Demand and Linear Time Dependent Holding Cost []

An economic ordering quantity model for items that are both ameliorating and deteriorating with exponentially increasing demand and linear time dependent holding cost was developed.

Analysis of Maize-Based Farmers' Choice of Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Ni-geria []

Climate Change is a trending issue affecting agricultural production, drastically reducing crop yield and threatening food and nutrition security.This study aimed to investigate the factors that influenced the choice of farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change in three agroecological zones of Nigeria using data from cross sectional survey of 346 maize –based farming households. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logit model at α0.05. 90.8% of the maize farmers were male, with 54.6% between the productive age of 41-60 years and mean age of 45 years. About 47.4% of the farmers had no formal education while the average years of formal education was 6.5 years. The mean years of farming experience was 25.6 years. The analysis of adaptation to climate change made by maize farmers across the three agroecological zones showed that the common adaptation methods were changing the planting dates of maize, changing land-use practices, and uses of improved seed variety. The determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies were age, education, farm size, farming experience, access to extension agents, access to credit, farm income, land ownership, agroecological zone, rainfall and temperature. Majority of the maize farmers were being constraint by inadequate credit or saving, inadequate knowledge of appropriate adaptation strategies and inadequate information on climate change. The study recommends government interventions through adult literacy programme, improved extension services, adequate credit facilities and adaptation policies should be based on the constraints and potentials of each agroecological zone.

A Review on Synthesizing Silver Nanoparticles through Green Synthesis and the Assessment of their Methodology and Results []

The field of nanotechnology is one of the most active areas of research in modern material science. Nanotechnology also deals with the formulation of experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles known that cost effective, environmentally friendly and easily scaled up for large-scale synthesis. It is proven that green synthesis using extract from plants can synthesized silver nanoparticles that have different applications such as; antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and etc. Different studies have shown and used different approach in synthesizing silver nanoparticles where all of them succeed in producing silver nanoparticles, which suggests the potential of plant extract and bacteria in obtaining silver nanoparticles through green synthesis. The different types of characterization used such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM analysis, SEM analysis, FTIR analysis and XRD analysis proves and support the formation of silver nanoparticles from different plant extract.


The purpose of the research was to find and analyse the effects of Blog on Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Perak in terms of sales volume and operational cost using quasi-experimental design. The independent variables in this research were two treatment modules: SNS Training and With-out SNS Training. The dependent variables were sales volume and operational cost. 60 entrepreneurs were purposely chosen from MARA Negeri Perak. The entrepreneurs chosen for this research are similar in terms of entrepreneur ratio in the business category and assigned into two groups to interact with either SNS Training or Without SNS Training. The data obtained were analysed by carrying out Descriptive and Independent t-Test parametric statistical techniques. The results showed that the entrepreneurs who used the SNS perform much better in their business compared to those who not using SNS. Conclusion from the research findings indicates that the entrepreneurs get the enhancement of sales volume and the operating costs was decrease.

The Potential of EDTA - Modified Rice Husk Ash as Solid Phase Extraction Resin in Seawater []

Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) is one of the methods used in extraction of elements and metals with the aid of preconcentration process. The development of sorbents and their application in preconcentration is a subject of great importance in the environment. This review summarizes the use of solid phase extraction in developing resin for the extraction of trace elements in seawater. On the right hand, Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a cost-effective agricultural material that has the great properties and capability to be a sorbent for tracing elements. The important properties and components of the RHA will be further specify. This journal review will provide general information regarding solid phase extraction, rice husk ash (RHA), tracing elements and resin. Keywords: solid phase extraction, trace elements, rice husk ash, resin


Mixing plays a crucial role in the whole production processes of many industries (ranging from feed mills for poultry birds and other animals, to cement, pharmaceutical, dairy, food etc) in meeting their demand expectations. The aim of this research is to develop in a continuous blending system an automated poultry feed mixing process using process controllers.

Factors Affecting the Use of Online Flight Booking in Ethiopian Airlines []

The rapidly growing Information and Communication technology (ICT) is knocking the front door of every organization in the world. Online shopping has changed the way business is done & it has made international shopping very easy. As one of the e-commerce categories, e-ticketing system nowadays is being actively and widely practiced. Due to the slow grabbling of E-Commerce and E-payment in Ethiopia, the utilization of e-ticketing in Ethiopian Airlines is an important issue that should be addressed to improve the deficiency of the system. This research aims to identify the factors that affect the use of E-Ticketing in EAL based on extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989). The study was made by collecting data from 399 respondents on Ethiopian Airlines flights. The results obtained from analysis confirmed that Relative Advantage, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Trust and awareness and usage of E-ticketing are found to be having a positive significant relationship with adoption of E-Ticketing while perceived risk has shown a negative significant relationship. The research, therefore, suggests to EAL to promote the E-Ticketing services aggressively through appropriate media to increase users awareness and usage on the advantage of E-ticketing services.


This Study investigated the casual effect of some selected manufacturing activities on government capital expenditure, 1981 to 2017. Theoretical studies show that increase GOCEXP would result to MOUP increase but some available findings from empirical works seems to disagree with this position. The objective of this study was to examine the Causal Effect of some selected manufacturing activities on government capital expenditure, captured by oil refining (ORP), cement production (CEP), basic metal, iron and steel (BMIS), electrical and electronics (ELECT), food beverages and tobacco (FBT) in Nigeria. The study used secondary data obtained from Nigeria Bureau of Statistics and the Central Bank of Nigeria; the research work selected Nigeria as its sample and used the Granger-causality to test the Effect of the independent variables (ORP, CEP, BMIS, ELECT and FBT) on the dependent variable (GOCEXP) at the 5% level of significance. The findings amongst others show that dependent variable does granger-cause independent variables but the independent variables does not granger-cause dependent variables. That is a Uni-directional effect. The study concludes that some selected manufacturing activities does not influence government capital expenditure and hence, recommends among others the government should create an enabling environment, develop programmes and policies as well ensure there full implementation as to support the growth of manufacturing activities. MOBILE NUMBER: 08036930284


This study tested the physical characteristics and determined the active component of Connarus semidecandrus Jack (Polipog) leaves, bark, and roots. The step by step process was collection of samples, weighing, washing, decoction, filtration, test for physical characteristics and detection of active component of Polipog tree. Some several test such as odor, color, pH, density, solubility, and boiling point, Alkaloid screening, confirmatory test for Alkaloid, Triterpene and ∞-benzopyrene (flavonoid) screening test were done. The physical properties of Polipog leaves, barks and roots were: colors of the Polipog leaves were green, odor was unpleasant, 6.0 pH which is slightly acidic, 0.85 density, immiscible to benzene, chloroform, oil but miscible in water. The color of Polipog roots was yellow orange, odor was pleasant, 6.0 pH which is slightly acidic, 0.96 density, immiscible to benzene, chloroform, oil but miscible in water. The color of Polipog roots was red orange, odor was pleasant, pH was 7.0, which is neutral, 0.86 density, immiscible to benzene, chloroform, and oil but miscible in water. Finding showed that among the secondary metabolites triterpene, and (flavonoid) ∞-benzopyrene were present through phytochemical screening of polipog leaves, barks and roots decoction, but negative for alkaloid metabolites. The researcher recommends further study of the chemical properties and other active components of Connarus semidecandrus Jack (Polipog) leaves, barks, and roots.


This research aims to determine and find out how much the use of tuna waste and Soybean Meal best as artificial feed for catfish juvenile growth. This research was carried out in June - August 2018 in the great Hall of Freshwater Aquaculture (BBPBAT), Sukabumi, West Java. The research method used i.e. experimental methods with Complete Random Design (RAL), which consists of six treatments and three times the combination of waste treatment of Deuteronomy, tuna and soy for cake respectively feed A (100%-0%), B (87.5% -12.5%), C (75%-25%), D (62.5%-37.5%), E (50%-50%), and F (commercial feed). Sangkuriang catfish used measuring 3 - 4 cm (3.5 +- 1.09 g) was observed in 18 units at the aquarium with 40 fishstocking the Aquarium for 30 days. The observed parameters include the daily growth rate, absolute growth weight, efficiency utilization of feed, and water quaMTL y. The influence of each treatment of parameters were analyzed using analysis of Variance or Analysis of variety (ANOVA) and continued with Test Duncan. Results of the study on seed treatment that sangkuriang Catfish feeding a combination of 75% tuna waste and 25% soybean meal flour can increase the daily growth rate of 3.09%, absolute growth amounted to 126.3 grams, efficiency utilization of feed (EPP) amounted to 68.48%, and survival of 82.50%.


The increasing number of vehicles on road has resulted in traffic jams, accidents and many other issues that need to be resolved. The world of automation and computerized intelligent control has revolutionized modern world. Both coordinated-actuated signal control systems and signal priority control systems have been widely deployed for the last few decades. However, these two control systems are often conflicting with each due to different control objectives. For this reason, this research aims to introduce an intelligent traffic control system that is able to sense the vehicles and traffic density on a junction and reduce it in an efficient way in order to decrease the overall density of traffic on a specific junction. This article aims to address the conflicting issues between actuated-coordination and multi-modal priority control. The simulation experiments show that the proposed control model is able to reduce average bus delay, average pedestrian delay, and average passenger car delay, especially for highly congested condition with a high frequency of transit vehicle priority requests


Metal machining operation results in irreversible stripping of a work piece material in order to achieve a predefined geometry. It comes with various adverse effects on the cutting tool such as abnormal thermal gradient in the form of von mises stresses. These effects can lead to regrinding of the cutting edges, untimely tool’s failure as well as poor surface finish on the work piece. These and many others are cost ineffective to the manufacturing firm. In this research, we aim to show how robust the Finite Element (ANSYS) method is, by comparing its predictive strength to the experimental machining operation.


This study aims to det ermine the level of eco-friendliness of trammel net fishing based on catches in Pangandaran District. Data collection was carried out in Juni-October 2017. Analysis of the data included the composition of the catch, the size of the catch, the size of the main catch, and the utilization of the catch. The results showed that the main catches on the trammel net fishing gear in Pangandaran District were Penaeus merguiensis and Metapenaeus ansis with a proportion of 54%, while on the side results of Parapenaeopsis sculptilis, Metapenaeus brevicornis, Penaeus monodon, Sepia sp and others with a proportion of 42%. The size of the main catch on the trammel net fishing gear shows that the proportion of 87% captures more than length of maturity size and the proportion of 13% of the catch that has not yet reached the mature size while the utilization of catch shows a proportion of 98%. The results of the accumulation of environmental friendliness as-sessment on trammel net fishing gear in Pangandaran District amounted to a score of 10, with the category "eco friendly").

Effect of Diffuser Aerator to Increase Growth of Nilem (Osteochilus vittatus) Cultivation With Different Density []

Increasing the productivity of nilem cultivation can be done by high dense dispersion with the addition of input diffuser aerator technology. This research aims to determine the highest stocking density on the cultivation of nilem (Osteochilus vittatus) given diffuser aerator. The method used was an experimental method with complete randomized design (RAL) with 4 treatments and 4 replications, A treatment (50 fish/m2), B (75 fish/m2), C (100 fish/m2), and D 125 fish/m2). Used nilem measuring an average of 4-5 cm with an average weight of 1.57 gr derived from Fish Seed Hall in Sumedang with the tank measuring 85x85x40 cm. This research is carried out for 40 days. The research results showed the best treatment at 100 fish/m2 stocking density with absolute long growth of 3.70 ± 0.19 cm, absolute weight growth of 6.84 ± 1.03 gram, daily growth rate of 4.15 ± 0.55%.

Design and Assessment of a harmonic model for sound timbre of Gmelina arborea (Roxb) wood []

Wood is a fibrous tissues which has been known to produce sound by direct striking, and can amplify or absorb sound waves originating from another bodies. More reason it is being used as a musical instruments. Pitch, amplitude and timbre are the major characteristics of sound. Timbre forms the quality of a sound, and there can be a harmonic/inharmonic timbre. However, there is still no known scientific means to determining the harmonic of a timbre common to practitioners. This study therefore helped to proffer a solution. The objective of this study is to design and assess a model suitable for determining harmonicity of a timbre of sound of G.arborea wood. Three trees of G.arborea were fell and samples of 20 x 20 x 20 mm3 were collected from the wood axially (top and base) and radially (inner and outer). It has already been identified by scholars that for a timbre to be harmonic, all natural frequencies must be in arithmetic progression with each other. Thus, it was on this assertion that the model used for this study was designed statistically, ranging from 0 (perfect harmonic) – 1 (imperfect harmonic). Wood samples were suspended after which it was hit by a hammer at one end, and each sound’s natural frequencies were recorded using FFT on the other end. Hence, harmonics of sounds timbre were calculated. Top wood and outer wood had the lowest values axially (0.45) and outer wood (0.47) respectively, while mean value for harmonicity of sound of G.arborea wood was 0.5. Therefore, sound of G.arborea wood has a fair harmonic sound. This study recommends the use of this model to be tested on other wood species too so it can provide us with a standard value with which to consider a wood good harmonically. Also, it recommends this model for other musical instruments such as paino, guitar and talking drum. Keyword: timbre, G.arborea wood, harmonic, model, sound, musical instrument


Duplicate and false identity records are quite common in identity management systems due to unintentional errors or intentional deceptions. Identity resolution is to uncover identity records that are co-referent to the same real-world individual. In this paper we introduce a COTS (Commercial off-the-self) product based solution of identity resolution that discovers individual’s identity and discovers relationships of individuals to other individuals or entities by analyzing disparate sets of data. Solution would be capable of determining relationships with individual and would provide the features like Semantic resolution of identities (means that heuristics are used to match records that refer to the same person, even when their name/address/social are misspelled, or have transposed digits, etc., Anonymous data sharing (ensures privacy and security ), Non-obvious relationship, detection-including out to 30 degrees of separation and Risk rating based upon its relationship.


The objective of this study was to examine the effect of electronic banking on financial performance of listed commercial banks in Kenya. This study was guided by four objectives, establishing the effect of mobile banking, agency banking, ATM banking and online banking on financial performance of listed commercial banks in Kenya. The study employed quantitative research design using panel data analysis. The targeted population of the study was the 11 listed commercial banks in Kenya. Secondary data was extracted from CBK banking supervisory reports and published annual reports of banks. The data was recorded on data collection sheets. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The findings were presented using tables with associated explanations. The study found that there was strong positive relationship between mobile banking, agency banking, ATM banking and online banking and financial performance of listed commercial banks in Kenya. Financial performance of commercial banks and m-banking were strongly and positively correlated. There was a strong positive correlation between financials performance of individual commercial bank and agency banking. There was a strong positive correlation between financials performance of individual commercial bank and agency banking. There was a weak positive correlation between financial performance of individual commercial bank and online banking.

A Study on Identification of Organic Constituents from Ethanol Extract of Eupatorium odoratum Linn. and Evaluation of some Biological Activities []

Abstract One of the Myanmar indigenous medicinal plants, Eupatorium odoratum Linn.(Taw-bizat) leaves was studied in bioactive organic constituents and its antioxidant activity. Firstly, pet-ether extract and defatted 70% ethanol extract were prepared by percolation method. One of the bioactive flavonoid compounds, 4'-methoxy -5, 7- dihydroxy flavanone (0.05 g, 0.02%, Rf =0.33, PE: EtOAc, 8:1) was isolated from 75% ethanol extract of Eupatoriun odoratum L. by silica gel column chromatographic separation method. It was identified by modern spectroscopic methods such as UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1HNMR, NOE, and EI-MS spectroscopy. Moreover, in the evaluation of the antioxidant activity, the IC50 value of isolated compound A from ethanol extract of Eupatorium odoratum. L. was observed (13.07 μg/mL) that more potent activity than ethanol and watery extract by DPPH assay method. Keywords: Eupatorium odoratum. , bioactive flavonoid , 4'- methoxy -5,7-dihydroxy flavanone,


The objective of the research is to find the concept of legal settings and application policies of incentive and disincentive instruments in the Banking Industry. The research method is normative juridical research by using approach of law and conceptual as well as literature study. The formulation of the problem in this study are: 1. How is the legal analysis of the application of incentive and disincentive instruments? 2. What is the concept of Legal Arrangement for the Application of Incentives and Disincentives instruments in the Banking Sector? 3. What factors become obstacles in Legal Arrangement of Incentive and Disincentive Instruments to Debtor Customers in Banking Credit Policy? The results show that the application of incentives and disincentives is still not running. Legal arrangements for the implementation of incentive and disincentive instruments in the banking sector need to be established. Factors that become obstacles in legal arrangement of application of incentive and disincentive instruments to debtors' customers in the policy of providing environmentally sound banking credit are internal and external factors.


CHARACTERISATION OF CLINICAL SHIGELLA ISOLATES, USING SEROTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PROFILES IN ZIMBABWE. Authors: Kudakwashe S. Kakurira, Muchaneta Mugabe, Andrew Tarupiwa, Tapfumanei Mashe , Babill Stray-Pedersen , Joshua Mbanga, Correspondence to: Mr. Kudakwashe S. Kakurira, kudakaku@gmail.com; Phone: +263 778009515 ABSTRACT Objective: The study was conducted to determine the distribution of Shigella species obtained from clinical patients samples: feaces, urine & blood and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella species and the presence of the antibiotic resistance genes (TEM, CTX-M and SHV). Design: This was a cross sectional analytical study. Settings: The study was conducted between August 2016 and May 2017 at the National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL) and National University of Science and Technology, Applied Biology and Biochemistry Department in Zimbabwe. Participants: A total of 123 Shigella isolates obtained from the NMRL were confirmed as Shigella using serology and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all the isolates using the disc diffusion assay and interpreted using the CLSI guidelines. Results: S. flexneri was found to be the most prevalent species 87(71%) followed by S. sonnei 18(14%), S. boydii 11(9%) and S. dysenteriae 7(6%). A total of 115 isolates (93.5%) were resistant to two or more drugs suggesting wide spread multi-drug resistance (MDR). Twenty six multi-drug resistance patterns were detected and the most common patterns were TMX-TET-AMP-C and TET-AMP-C which were exhibited by 28(24.3%) isolates for both combinations. Shigella was mainly isolated from stool samples: [S. flexneri (89.7%), S. sonnei (94.4%), S. dysenteriae (90.9%) and S. boydii (8%)] as compared to urine (4.6%, 5.6%, 9.1% and 0%) and blood (5.7%, 0%, 0%, 0%) respectively. From a total of 16/123 (13%) isolates that were tested for the presence of the ESBL genes selected through phenotypic screening only 14/16(87.5%) isolates were positive for the ESBL genes. Conclusion: There is an emerging antimicrobial resistance to commonly used drugs for the treatment of shigellosis in Zimbabwe. Fourteen out of sixteen 14/16 (87.5%) isolates tested positive for ESBL genes, implying that these strains have the necessary resistance determinates capable of rendering commonly used antibiotics ineffective in the treatment of infection. S. flexineri was found to be the leading cause of shigellosis in our study.

A Geometrical Generalized Model of Failure []

This paper develops a new generalized geometrical model of failure by means of a cross fertilization of the classical reliability failure model with the elementary theory of the catastrophe discovered by René Thom. The purpose is to develop a generalized model of the failure physics in terms of evolution and process to approach the structure of the failure and consequent effects till the catastrophe. The classic fail process starts with some primary malfunction and becomes a defect that propagating transforms to itself to a real failure. Not all the failures are or begin catastrophe in strict sense. Viceversa, all the catastrophes are or begin from critical failures. The application of the RTCT to the above concepts allow to develop (continuous) failure patterns to observe the dynamic of the failure mechanisms. Usually, it is possible to see and control this comparison along the failure pattern going from smooth degradation failures to "critical unsafe failures”.

Effect of Fermented Lemna sp. Meal In Artificial Feed Against The Growth Rate of Giant Gourami (Osphronemus gourami) at Nursery Phase []

The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of the balance of Lemna sp. meal from fermentation results in an artificial feed that produces the best growth of giant gourami in the nursery phase IV. The study was conducted in April to June 2018 in the Laboratory of Aquaculture Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran. The method used in this study is an experimental method with a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 4 treatments and 3 repetition, which is by the addition of Lemna sp. flour from fermentation results in a feed with successive percentages of 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%. The parameters observed were changes in the nutritional value of Lemna sp. after fermentation, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, survival rate, and water quality. Growth rate data and feed conversion ratio were analyzed using analysis of variance while the changes in the nutritional value of Lemna sp. were analyzed descriptively. The results of changes in the nutritional value of feed showed an increase in crude protein from 13.22% to 19.33% and a decrease in crude fiber from 20.08% to 15.38%. A balance of Lemna sp. flour from fermentation results and commercial feed of artificial feed in Giant gourami that showed a fairly best daily growth rate at 30% Lemna sp. flour from fermentation and 70% commercial feed which were 1.44%, with a consecutive feed conversion ratio of 1.82 and survival rate 86.67%.


Indramayu regency is one minapolitan areas with a developing aquaculture including catfish and Tilapia commodities. However, a wide range of aquaculture fisheries requires appropriate development strategies. The purpose of this research is to obtain the extended land areas and RTP for catfish and indigo commodities through digitization using a remote sens-ing analysis, which may become the bases for the development of fishery businesses on catfish and Tilapia cultivations in Indramayu Regency. The remote sensing method is conducted by utilizing interpretation of satellite imagery and combined with the field data. The supporting data are collected through direct survey and interviews including the Fishery House-hold, catfish and Tilapia cultivations, as well as the Environmental data. Interpretation and field survey are conducted in June-November 2015. The data collected and analyzed for the catfish are by 1934 RTP and Tilapia by 138 RTP. Based on the comparison table of catfish cultivation areas, it is shown that the potential of the total extended area for ponds is 9,854.1 ha and the digitation result is 10,879.72 ha. Meanwhile, the potential of the total extended pond area for tilapia cultivations is 12,065.08 ha.


The aim of this study is to evaluate the status of land degradation in Okaba mine using geospatial techniques. The location of study is between latitudes 7˚ 25’ and 7˚ 31’N; and Longitudes 7˚ 40’ and 7˚ 46’ E, covering a land mass of approximately 171.08km2. Remotely sensed data including Landsat (ETM+) of 2009 and ASTER DEM were used along with ancillary data to quantify five disparate categories of land degradation. This involved the computation of biophysical indices, supervised classification by maximum likelihood, and the computation of sediment transport index (STI). Land use/land cover (LULC) of the study area was actually determined in order to see the effects of land use on land degradation. Computed biophysical indices and the LULC were integrated to assess the degradation scenario in the study area using the spatial analyst module in ArcGIS 10.1 software. Five degradation categories selected for analysis includes: highly degraded, degraded, non-degraded, moderately degraded, and slightly degraded. The result reveals that, about 33% and 16% of the study area is highly degraded and degraded respectively. Also, 45.7% and 3.2% of the land is non-degraded and moderately degraded respectively, while, 0.4% is slightly degraded. The result further indicates that, bare land is the dominant land cover and the most degraded at 38.32km2 while rock debris is the list degraded at 0.03km2.

Toxicological and Biochemical Evaluation of Oil from the Seed of Dacroydes edulis []

This study investigated toxicological, hematological and histopathological evaluations of albino rats treated with D.edulis seed oil using petroleum ether as extracting solvent. The objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects, if any, of D.edulis seed oil using petroleum ether as extracting solvent.The study included histopathology of liver, kidney, and heart tissues, evaluation of biochemical parameters in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart tissues, in vivoenzymatic antioxidant studies (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)),electrolyte profile, liver enzyme assays, and lipid profile. Acute toxicity studies were carried out using twenty-five (25) male albino rats shared into five groups. Group A served as control while groups B, C, D, and E received doses of 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg and 10,000mg/kg respectively.Sub-chronic studies were also performed on twenty-five (25) male albino rats divided into five groups and each received doses of 1,000mg/kg, 1,500mg/kg, 2,000mg/kg, 5,000mg/kg, and 0 mg/kg of the seed oil respectively. The acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests revealed that the extracts were tolerated with no observable adverse effects or mortality up to a dose of 10,000 and 5000 (mg/kg) body weight respectively. The plasma obtained was used to determine the level of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). The seed oil did not compromise the activities of the liver, kidney, and heart tissues as the plasma levels of ALT,ALP, AST,and GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL were not elevated (p>0.05) .The seed oil did not cause electrolyte imbalance in experimental animals as Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl – and creatinine were not significantly elevated in the plasma (p>0.05) but urea was significantly elevated when compared to the control (p<0.05). Antioxidant enzymes were not elevated in the liver, kidney, and heart tissues but TBARS activities were elevated. Haematological parameters were not adversely affected. Total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, total protein and albumin were not significantly elevated (p>0.05). Histopathological examination did not show significant biochemical lesions in the kidney and heart tissues but in the liver, there were mild biochemical lesions observed. D. edulis seed oil is relatively safe for domestic uses.


Climate change may faster greater extremes in weather and can change the quality of water in Ayeyarwaddy river. The Ayeyarwaddy river is the life blood and historical princess of the Union of Myanmar. This research focused on the determination of physicochemical parameters of Ayeyarwaddy river water before and after flood. Three water samples from site 1 (Mayanchan), site 2 (Gaw Wein) and site 3 (Chawseith) in Mandalay District, Mandalay Region were collected in two times duration of February 21st, 2018 (before flood) and June 20th, 2018 (after flood). The Physicochemical parameters of all water samples such as color, turbidity, pH values, total dissolved solids, total hardness, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate and iron were determined by EDTA titration method, AOAC method, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Lovibond Spectro Direct method. Moreover, the bacteriological examinations of water samples were also carried out to know how much of public wastes present in river water as well as the contents of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were also studied in Eco-Lab, Myanmar. Key Words: water quality, physiochemical parameters, AAS, EDTA, total alkalinity, public wastes

Lindley Stretched Exponential Distribution with Applications []

In this paper, we have introduced an innovative generalization of the Stretched Exponential distribution termed as the Lindley Generalized Stretched Exponential distribution. This proposed distribution can model data in form of decreasing and increasing hazard rates. Besides, we have derived some mathematical properties of the distribution covering probability density function, distribution function, survival, failure rate and reversed hazard functions, moments, moment generating function, cumulant generating function, Renyi entropy of introduced distribution. The Maximum Likelihood method has been used for estimation of parameters. We have used real life data sets to demonstrate the worth and significance of introduced distribution. It has been observed that the introduced distribution of three parameters fits better than its specific cases as well as competitive distributions for all data sets.

Ginger ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gabapentin in rat fetuses []

Treatment with the antiepileptic drugs is usually associated with adverse side effects, especially when used during pregnancy. The current work aimed to study the possible ameliorative effect of ginger extract on developmental defects of kidney of rat fetuses maternally injected with the antiepileptic drug gabapentin (GBP) during the organogenesis phase. At the histological level, the kidney of fetuses of the GBP group displayed dilatation and vacuolar degeneration in the convoluted tubules epithelium along with hemorrhage between the tubules. In addition, the glomeruli were atrophied and edematous. Similarly, at the immuno-histochemical level, the expression of Bcl-2 in the cytoplasm of convoluted tubule epithelium was remarkably decreased, while the expression of Caspase-3 was increased. At the ultrastructural level, there was obvious thickening of the glomerular basement membranes. Most of the foot processes of the podocytes appeared irregular, short and fused with each other. Cells lining the proximal convoluted tubules showed marked thickening of their basal lamina with partial destruction of the microvilli of the apical brush border. Oral injection of ginger after GBP resulted in evident amelioration at all the investigated levels. In conclusion, the use of GBP as antiepileptic drug should be treated with highly caution during pregnancy and ginger is recommended to be taken in parallel for its ameliorative role in this regard.

Plagiarism Issues in Students’ Project in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions: A case study of Edo State Polytechnic Usen []

Plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty; it is prevalent in the educational and non educational sector. Plagiarism is a universal problem; incidents of plagiarism are becoming increasingly popular in most institutions due to the advent of ICT and internet revolution. This research focuses on determining the level of plagiarism in students’ project in Nigeria tertiary institution a case of Edo State polytechnic Usen. The survey research method adopted for this work involved the collection of two hundred and forty-five (245) projects from the library across some departments in the school. These projects were tested for plagiarism content level using plagiarism checker X software. From the analysis the mean of the distribution is 49.82, mean deviation about the median and mean are 15.69 and 15.71 respectively, the mean indicates plagiarism content of about 50 percent and originality of 50 percent. The class interval group of 16-20 has the least plagiarized content with an originality of 82 percent and the class interval group with the least originality content is 76-80 with just 22 percent and this group has the highest level of plagiarized content with an average of 78 percent. This work shows that the plagiarism level is high when compared to global practice.


The qualities of 10 different honey samples from Morocco were evaluated. Six common physico-chemical parameters were analysed, such as pH, acidity (free, lactonic and total), density, water content, sugars, polyphenols, protein content and mineral composition, including potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P). Most samples showed proper maturity. The pH ranges from 4.02 to 5.01 with an acidity between 12.5 and 25 meq / kg. They have a high sugar content (72.39 to 82.68 g / 100 g) with a density of 1.39-1.49 mg / kg. They contain 13.20 to 18.96% water and 0.082 to 0.87% protein. All honeys samples are essentially consistent with the Codex Alimentarius quality standards for pH, moisture, acidity, density and sug-ars. On the other hand, the samples meet this standard for the protein content. Within the mineral content, potassium was quantita-tively the most important mineral, having an average content of 560 ppm; sodium and calcium were present in moderate amounts in the honeys and accounted for 16% and 10% of the minerals.


The study examines whether financial deepening enhances economic growth. The data sets on gross domestic product (GDP), money supply (M2) and credit to private sector (CPS) used, covered the period of 1981 to 2016. Regression model analysis and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model estimates revealed that the financial deepening indicators have no effect on economic growth but their pooled additive effect on economic growth is positive and it is significant under 1% level. The ARDL result showed no evidence of short-run relationship between financial deepening and economic growth but the long-run equilibrium relationship is only significant at 10% level. The result also showed that the system is getting adjusted towards long-run equilibrium at the speed of approximately . This specifies a slow speed of adjustment towards equilibrium. Hence, the government should make more practical policies in financial sector reforms that can boost positive effect of financial deepening on economic growth both in the short-run and long-run.

Synthesis, Characterization & Anticancer Evaluation of Novel Cetrimonium Tetrahalo-Ruthenate/ZnO Nanocomposite against MCF-7 Breast cancer cells []

Breast cancer is one of the major cases of death in the world. Current treatment of breast cancer is limited to surgery, radiotherapy, and the use of cytotoxic agents, despite their well-known side effects and problems associated with the development of resistance. The discovery and development of novel active chemotherapeutic agents is largely needed. There are some hypotheses to explain the low toxicity and the anticancer properties of ruthenium (Ru) compounds. The present study was conducted mainly to Synthesize, characterize and evaluate the anti-cancer effects of the novel cetrimonium tetrahalo-ruthenate/ZnO nanocomposite (CTR/ZnO NCP) in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). In order to further evaluate Ru complex as potential anti-cancer agent, cetrimonium tetrahalo-ruthenate/ZnO nanocomposite (CTR/ZnO NCP) with general formula [C19H42N+][RuCl3Br-]/ZnO was synthesized by solid-state grinding, characterized on the basis of TEM, FTIR and XRD and tested for its ability to inhibit breast cancer cells in vitro. The complex significantly inhibits in vitro the growth of MCF-7 cell line at low concentration, the IC50 value in µM range is (0.8). The LD50 value after oral administration is found to be more than 2000 mg kg-1 b.w. which is considered in non-toxic drug category.


It is a common phenomenon in matured and burgeoning democracies across the world that candidates vying for political positions emerge victorious not with pettiness but intelligence; not in desperado but good manifesto; not with profligacy but economic sagacity; not with mediocrity but meritocracy; not just by incumbency but competency and most importantly, not by “federal might”, but candidates’ capabilities. The aforementioned negations have dominated the political space and lexicon of Nigerian political discourses. This work attempts a conceptualization of the term “federal might” as it applies to Nigeria. To do this, we have conceptually eviscerated the term “federal might”, and have thematically, with qualitative cases, highlighted its etymology, its beneficiaries, the strength of the might, the nature of threat the might is utilized against, the means it is exercised and the time or period in which the might is exercised. We have also juxtaposed the term with its twin term of “incumbency factor” and its anathema, “political security”. To drive home our point, we have examined the federal power play in the Ekiti 2018 gubernatorial elections and have implicitly and explicitly demonstrated the effect of “federal might” on the political security of Nigerians. The work argues that federal might is not just deleterious to citizen’s political security but insidious to our infant democracy. It is therefore our recommendation that apposite measures be taken to fortify the nation’s institutions against individual or group manipulations.


A study on the abundance of Bostrychus africanus (n=3103) from the Upper New Calabar River was carried out within a twenty month sampling period. B africanus was obtained using bamboo traps and crushed Uca tangeri (West African Fiddler Crab) as bait. The size distribution was normal with a modal length of 10.05cm, and an overall sex ratio of 1:0.89 (M: F). Catch was higher in the dry season (55.23%) than the rainy season (44.7%). More males were caught in the dry season (31.55%) as against 19.82% for the wet season, while female were caught more in the wet season (24.97%) which was 1.29% higher than the values obtained for the dry season. Correlation results for abundance and physio-chemical parameters were strong and positive (P˃0.01) with salinity, temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity but negative strong correlation (P˃0.01) was observed with turbidity.


The objective of the study was to identify the components of volatile flavor compounds contained in fresh and steamed milkfish (Chanos chanos). The method used was experimental method with treatments consist of fresh and steamed milkfish. Furthermore, proximate analysis was carried out to support main analysis which is volatile component analysis.The volatile compound analysis successfully detected 11 compounds in fresh milksfish sample and 52 volatile compounds were detected in the steamed milkfish sample. The proximate analysis result showed a slight differences between the two treatments especially on moisture content ash, protein, and lipid (fresh milkfish moisture content had 72.73%, 1.90% ash, 1.98 lipids, 20.25% protein and steamed milkfish moisture content had 67.13%, 1.98% ash, 3.81% lipids, 22.92% protein). Most of the volatile aroma compounds which affect of a commodity derrived from the results of enzymatic reactions, autooxidation product, the results of microorganism activities, the result of reactions which involved high temperature and the results of environmental influences. Processing can also affect the characteristics of volatile flavor in fishery products.


This research aims to determine the different types of packaging to the quality of shredded tilapia during the storage at room temperature. This research was conducted from April to May 2018 at the Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory of the Faculty of Fish-eries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran for the manufacture of shredded tilapia and organoleptic testing. Peroxide num-ber testing was carried out at the Food Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Pasundan. The research method used was an experimental method with three different types of packaging treatment, namely aluminum foil packaging, HDPE and LDPE plastic packaging. Observations were made on the level of preference which includes the appearance, aroma, texture and flavor by semi-trained panelists and peroxide number analysis on shredded tilapia. The result of the study concluded that LDPE plastic packag-ing is a treatment that is preferred by panelists. The result of the peroxide number analysis showed that the treatment that has the smallest peroxide value every week of storage was HDPE treatment, with the peroxide numerical values for 10 days storage as much as 9.33 meq/kg, 20 days storage as much as 13.95 meq/kg, 30 days storage as much as 20.02 meq/kg and 40 days storage as much as 24.39 meq/kg.


An investigative study was carried out to determine the microbial qualities of drinking water within student’s residential community around Osun State College of Health Technology, Ilesa, Nigeria (OSCHT). Ten water samples of hand dug well water sources were collect-ed within the geographical location (OSCHT). Seven (7) genera of bacteria which include Staphylococcus aereus, Streptococcus Spp, Ba-cillus Spp, Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Pseudomonas spp,Enterobacter spp, and Escherichia coli were isolated from the water samples. The objectives of this study is to identify the sources of water and the safety of their location in the study area by com-paring the results with WHO standard; to examine the bacteriological quality and its diversity of water produced by these hand dug well and to identify the possible health impact of water from hand dug well in the study area. The total viable count was determined and it ranges from the minimum value of 200 viable cells to the maximum value of 3000 viable cells. The coliform count also ranges from 0 -3 cfu/ml. The sample “8” had zero coliform count which could be as a result of its hygienic source. It was also identified that proximity of well water to pollution source and unhygienic handling makes them more prone to contamination though well could also be contami-nated by leaching from runoff, animal manure or improperly treated septic sewage discharge especially when wells are not properly pro-tected.


This research was conducted to determine the best hauling time for the catches obtained by using a set lift net. The research was conduct-ed in September 2017 at the East Coast of Pangandaran. The method used in this research is the experimental method. The study con-sisted of 2 treatments and 3 replicates. Necessary data in this research include primary and secondary data. Primary data was taken by following trip of fisherman. The data obtained include total weight of catch, total weight per fish type and water quality parameters in-cluding water salinity and temperature. Secondary data in the form of literature study by comparing the literature or the research result in accordance to the theme. The data obtained were analyzed by using t-student test. The results showed that the total of catch’s weight is more prevalent during hauling after midnight and the highest catch rebon shrimp were obtained on trip 15 with the total weight of 243 kg. The main catch obtained during the research was rebon shrimp.

Knowledge Management Capability Maturity Level in Selected Public University Libraries in Ethiopia []

Purpose –In libraries, knowledge management maturity refers to a state that provides perfect environment to achieve library’s objectives and missions. Knowledge management maturity provides a path and framework which enables firms to achieve excellence in knowledge management implementation. The current research is aims at assessing and determining the knowledge management maturity Level of the Universities libraries in Ethiopia by adopting the knowledge management Maturity Model (GKMMM). Methodology – A self-administrated questionnaire was adopted in which 83 surveys were distributed to the selected public University libraries of Ethiopia. Findings – The results of the knowledge management maturity assessment shows a basic knowledge of the concept of knowledge management implementation in the public Universities libraries. The findings and context of this study indicates that the current knowledge management maturity Level at AAU libraries KM in people area is at Level 1 and Level 3 both in processes and technology domain. On the other hand, DU and WKU libraries KM in all key process area are at Level 1. Generally, the 1st generation Universities reside in the higher Level of knowledge management maturity, while the 2nd and 3rd generation Universities are still in the Lowes Levels of maturity. Originality – This is the first study to attempt the assessment of knowledge management maturity Levels by using maturity model in Ethiopia/developing countries Universities for identification of the libraries’ placing in knowledge management implementation.

Major Challenges of Standard Antimalarial Drugs []

Abstract: Malaria is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Early and effective treatment of malaria is the cornerstone of malaria control. However, the number of available and effective antimalarial drugs is quickly dwindling may be due to standard antimalarial drugs are facing different avoidable challenges those may negatively affect its efficacy. This review tried to assess some major challenge of standard antimalarial drugs. Inaccessibility of proper heath care services and effective diagnoses leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment that result with patient death. Self-treatment without confirmed diagnosis, treatment with substandard drugs and improper usage of the drug expose the parasite to sub-therapeutic level. Treatment with mono-therapies is easy for the parasite to overcome and develop resistance. The knowledge of the society on every aspect of malaria has its own influence on the malaria control strategy. Therefore, ensuring that drugs are taken properly only for treating those with a definitive diagnosis at a sufficient dose and for a sufficient duration reduces this risk. Understanding of the social, cultural and behavioral issues relating to treatment and prevention of malaria is crucial; the views of the community should be sought and incorporated into any control measures to make the participation of the community meaningful. Key words: Antimalarial, Standard drug, Major challenges

Investigation of the Behavior of Electric Current in Human Cells under the Impact of a Pulsating Magnetic Field []

The human body works by means of electrical conduction and humans are able to move due to this conduction. Some neurological diseases can arise due to the troubles experienced in electrical conduction. One of those diseases is Cerebral Palsy (CP). This disease is the result of irregularities in the electrical activity of the human body and weaknesses in the cerebellum. When this poor electrical conduction and irregularity ceases to exist, the symptoms of the disease begin to fade. The electrical shock therapy applied for the treatment of the disease works but is a short-term treatment and does not give long-term results. It was aimed to increase the electric current on the cells without a physical effect and was worked to obtain an induction on the cells by the pulsating magnetic field. Through induction, it is aimed to increase the current on the cells via a pulsating magnetic field. During our controlled experiments, low electrical currents were applied to the HeLa cells in culture. Cell cultures were also exposed to the pulsating magnetic field and the effect of the magnetic field on the cells’ electric current was investigated. The current over the induced cells is increased and electrical activity irregularity is eliminated. Under the constant potential difference, the frequency of the magnetic field applied to the coil is systematically changed and the optimal frequency value is found. As a result of the experiments, applying different frequencies to the cells with constant potential difference enabled us to work on a wide spectrum of magnetic field. It has been observed that at an optimal frequency, the electric current is increased. The values found may be used as pioneering work in order to overcome electrical conduction problems in organs such as the brain, the cerebellum and the spinal cord. Key Words: Pulsating magnetic field, electrical conduction, cellular conduction, HeLa cells


Our vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines facilitate a significant part of our lives and are used in every area from transportation to industry, from trade to health. However, increasing the efficiency of these engines will contribute both economically and to the environment positively. The frequent maintenance periods of the internal combustion engines increase the operating costs and shorten the service life. The heat caused by friction causes the gap between the metal atoms of the piston and the oxygen molecules that fill the cavities prevent the closure of cracks and disrupt the integrity of the metal. This distortion leads to fracture cracking and this leads to abrasion. Wear is a major problem in the engine and the revision costs of the engine increase due to wear. In order to prevent erosion during the literature review of our project, we concluded that we should first prevent oxygen atoms from entering the piston. Many oils and additives are now used to prevent the introduction of oxygen molecules between metal atoms. Increasing the efficiency of these additives and finding new additives, increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines or wherever the friction effect is seen means lowering the cost. Thanks to the copper oxide solution in our school laboratory, our new lubricating liquid covers the pistons or the metals exposed to the friction and prevents the filling of the gaps during expansion by filling with oxygen atoms, thus preventing the onset of abrasion. The results of the surface roughness tests we conducted before and after the experiments support our idea and show that our experience was successful. Our lubricating fluid, which is more efficient than other oils, can be used in all metals and does not damage metals in the long term and its cost is lower than other oils and additives. Key words: friction, metal wear, copper oxide, piston