Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The benefits of virtualization cannot be overemphasized. It is an innovative technology that helps businesses save huge amounts of money and increase efficiency by performing more with less effort. The objective of this paper is to review the business benefit of adopting virtualization technology and highlights factors to carefully consider before switching to virtualization

MusiQue-A dynamic platform for music interchange []

Application of technology restricts its boundaries to only technological advancements of pre-existing main stream entities (Such as mobile phones pc’s and virtual technologies such as Artificial intelligence, Mean Stack, Neural Science Data mining and IOT etc.) The Study has been done to follow and amend the applications of these technologies to the welfare and development of Music Industry. As the world proceeds towards the more and more Board Based(Computer Based) implementations. The way of existence of traditional music industry must also evolve by the introduction to these technological facilities to it. The more it (Music Industry) evolve, leads to the increase in reach of people who pursue music and the way it is perceived .It will also open doors to change the use of Music entities based on traditional ways and implemented in a virtual and more advanced manner. The physical presence of the instruments and traditional way of teaching application and the enactment of various instruments in accordance to it has a physical presence boundation. Physical boundation leads to unavailability of instruments to greater learning capacitive audience. The traditional ways are restricted to have an external interface and their execution via digital/virtual presence will open doors for the further growth of the industry. The motive is to fetch the physical music system and set-up a virtual portal to implement whatever the traditional music and instruments can do, just very efficiently. Virtual Instruments, Microphone- Adaptive Tuner, GroovePad, Stave Reader/Generator, Randomizer, Recorder-Looper and Interactive music theory are simple yet very effective norms of music that are to be implemented. The implementation of virtually active technology in music can definitely produce effective music without the boundation of physical purchase and presence of instruments, that even correlates well with interface based learning as well as increased growth areas for further developments in the manner. The virtual instruments allow users to explore music, practice it, further develop and intervene in music industry that has far more greater capabilities of its application. Despite its initial development, there exists far more different and innovative, custom based ways to implement and develop these technologies which indeed proves that the door offered via virtual existence of this technology in this field have unbounded real-world applications that are far more diverse and effective in inclusion to the traditional ways.


Increasing the efficiency of feed use in fish culture in floating net cages can be done by cultivating trophic level-based fish, using nilem fish. This research is to find out the eating habits of nilem fish that are cultivated in the third net of KJA in Cirata. The study was conducted by taking samples of nilem fish from floating net cages ponds which were given various levels of feeding (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% of body mass per day). The parameters observed include diversity, dominancy and similarity of plankton. The data obtained were analyzed in a quantitative description, by describing all the results obtained during the study with a plankton identification book. The results showed that from observations in the five treatment nets, the total number of plankton species identified in the digestive tract of cirata reservoir nilem fish were 49,227 individuals. Ar-cella sp had the highest number of species, with 19,163 individuals. Based on the index value of the diversity, the plankton diversity in the di-gestive tract of nilem fish in cirata reservoir was in the medium level category. While the dominance index and similarity index were low. Plank-ton diversity index values in all treatments ranged from 1.79 to 2.12. Dominancy index in all treatments ranged from 0.16 to 0.28, and similari-ty index ranged from 0.24 to 0.30.


Background: Children more than adults are more vulnerable to acute respiratory infections (ARI). Evidence has shown that there is a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and childhood infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on incidence of ARI among under-five children in rural communities of Ekiti State. Methods: Study design was interventional. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 281 healthy under-five with their care giver for the study, 157 respondents and 124 respondents for study and control group respectively. Zinc tablet (20mg) was given daily to the study group for 2 weeks to determine the difference in ARI incidence between the study and control group. The questionnaire was validated, pretested and interviewer administered. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics was done using percentages and mean while inferential statistics was generated using chi square and independent t test. Results: The incidence of ARI in study group was 2.45 per child/year while in the control group it was 9.75 per child/year (IRR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.20 – 0.31)). There was 75% reduction in incidence of ARI and 41% reduction in the duration of ARI among under-five in the study group. Conclusion: The study showed that zinc supplementation reduces incidence and duration of episodes of ARI in under-five children. Formulating policy that will incorporate the use of zinc into the child survival strategy will reduce under-five morbidity and mortality from ARI. Word count: 242 Key words: ARI, Incidence, duration, Zinc and Under-five

Preparation effects of the Half Marathon on the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Morphological Adaptations of Congolese Middle Distance Runners []

Abstract: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the morphological, cardiovascular and aerobic performance of middle distance athletes of the Brazzaville’s athletic league. This, during the preparation of the Brazzaville International Half Marathon, in French, Semi-Marathon International de Brazzaville (SMIB). For this purpose, twelve (12) senior athletes (= 25.58 ± 2.50) years old, with a height (= 1.73 ± 0.06 m), including weights (= 61.75 ± 7.01) kg and Body Mass Index (BMI) values of (= 20.52 ± 1.59) kg m-2 were selected. These were tested for body composition, arterial pressure, and aerobic fitness assessment (VAM EVAL). The averages were compared by using the Student's test. The results obtained showed the decrease in the fat index and the fat mass (p 0.001) parallel to an increase in lean mass (p 0.001). The athletes also underwent pre and post training tests. The post-endurance training, test reveals that the Heart Rate at rest (HR0) after one minute (HR1), after five minutes (HR5) and after ten minutes in the post-training (HR10), were significantly reduced compared to those recorded in pre-training test. Similar results were obtained regarding the Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of athletes. That at rest (SBP0), after five minutes (SBP5) and after ten minutes (SBP10) after training were significantly less large / than their initial values. Also, the number of steps, the duration, the maximal aerobic volume (VMA and V ̇O2 max after endurance training-speed, were significantly higher than those recorded before training (p <0.001) .These results suggest that the training program for middle distance runners reoriented towards the preparation of the SMIB entails morphological and cardiovascular adaptations and improves the aerobic performance. However, an action should be oriented on the biomechanical action and the economy of the race.

The effect of demographic factors on intention to use banking services: evidence from Ethiopia []

Nowadays, banking the unbanked has become critical for developing countries like Ethiopia, as most of the households do not hold bank accounts with conventional banks due to several factors. As a result, a huge amount of money circulates outside the banking system and limit the intermediation role of banking institutions. This study aims at determining the effect that demographic factors has on the unbanked intentions to use banking services in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in selected three regions of Ethiopia using multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from 384 unbanked respondents in the three regions. Both t-test and ANOVA tests were adopted in order to analyse the data and determine the effect of demographic factors on intention to use banking services. The findings indicate that the unbanked individuals’ level of education and occupation significantly affect their intention to use banking services. Therefore, Ethiopian banking sector should consider these factors while taking measures to bring the unbanked to the banking system and ensure that the bank services meet the requirements of the people at their respective levels of occupation and literacy. Key words: unbanked, banking services, demographic factors, marketing


Acoustics analysis plays a prominent role in the measurement of speech intelligibility of dysarthric speech disturbances. Vowels produced by speakers exhibiting the dysarthria associated with Stroke are characterized by abnormalities that can be detected at the perceptual, physiological, and acoustical levels of analysis. Vowel space area (VSA) refers to the two-dimensional area bounded by lines connecting first and second formant frequency coordinates (F1/F2) of vowels. The present study aimed to determine the vowel space area functions VSA or the F1-F2 (Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR3) among the individuals with dysarthria and the normal population. The main objective of the study was to document the formants (F1, F2, F3) among individuals with dysarthria ( 5 Males & 5 Females) and typical adults ((15 Males and 15 Females) between the ages 18 to 40 years. The phonation samples of phonemes /a/,/i/,/u/ were obtained with a high-quality condenser microphone at a distance of 12cm away from the mouth. The stimuli were further analyzed with Praat software. The frequencies of the first three formants were used to extract the function of the Vowel Space area. The frequency values were used to create vowel quadrilateral plots, including F1-F2, F1-F3. FCR3 is the inverse of vowel articulation index (VAI3) deduced with the formula which was given by Sapir, Ramig, Spielman, and Fox in 2010. Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR3) = (F2u + F2a +F1i +F1u) ÷ (F2i + F1a). Results suggested that there was a significant difference in the Formant values of phoneme /i/ between the groups. Formant frequencies (F1 & F2) of phoneme /i/ correlates with the height and advancement of the tongue in the production of the vowel. Other formant values were not significant.

Exploring the Operational Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Zambia []

Zambia’s central bank – Bank of Zambia (BOZ) - has reported that the banking sector has been satisfactory in its performance and conduct, it has relied on financial ratio analysis, an approach which has been found to be inadequate in many aspects. Financial ratio analysis as a measure of efficiency can be considered problematic and rigid and may also fail to account for environmental and broad institutional factors as drivers of efficiency and performance. It also fails to differentiate between the different types of efficiency such as scale and x-efficiency. To circumvent these weaknesses, this study adopted a flexible and heuristic approach – the stochastic frontier approach – to unpack and define efficiency in terms of its operational meaning. A Tobit regression was undertaken to establish the determinants of efficiency as well as to investigate quantitatively the internal and external factors which underpin and drive efficiency in the banking sector. The study found that commercial banks in Zambia for the study period were inefficient of order of 10.3%. This suggests that, for the Zambian banking industry as a whole, mismanagement of resources may be an impediment to desirable performance. The Tobit regression revealed that foreign owned banks were on average more efficient than domestic banks, it also revealed that bank inefficiency in the Zambian banking sector was underpinned by bank profitability, high Capital adequacy, greater bank liquidity and high percentage of non-performing loans. Inefficiency means that banks are using a costly combination of inputs to produce a feasible level of output.

Optimization of fermentation conditions for Bioethanol production from Acid Hydrolysed Cassava fibres and Corn cobs using a Palmwine yeast []

Abstract The optimization of some fermentation parameters for bioethanol production from cassava fibres and corncobs by a paimwine yeast was studied. The Malt Extract Agar was used for the isolation of the yeast from raffia palmwine using the spread plate technique. The yeast was used for the production of bioethanol from acid hydrolysed cassava fibres and corncobs at different fermentation time. Various inoculum sizes and substrate concentrations were employed to determine the optimum for bioethanol production. The effect of UV irradiation on bioethanol production by the palmwine yeast was also conducted. The result of the study revealed that the yeast strain isolated from the palmwine was Saccharomyces cerevisiae DBVPG6765. It was observed that maximum ethanol concentration of 8.0 %v/v was recorded after 72 h for corncobs, while 6.8 %v/v was recorded for cassava fibres after 96 h respectively. Optimum ethanol yield of 8 %v/v for corncobs and 6.8 %v/v for cassava fibres was observed at 1 %v/v inoculum size. The optimum ethanol yield of 8.3 %v/v for corncobs and 7.2 %v/v for cassava fibres was observed at a substrate concentration of 200g/l. The UV irradiated strain of the yeast, recorded 8.9 and 7.5%(v/v) of ethanol from corncob and cassava fibre respectively. The study has been able to establish that cassava fibre and corncob could be used as substrates for bioethanol production. It has also revealed that optimization of some fermentation parameters could enhance bioethanol yield. Keywords: Bioethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, palmwine, fermentation time, inoculum size, substrate concentration, UV irradiation

Impact Of COVID-19 on Household Workers []

Although the practice of social distancing and 'lock down' may help reduce the spread of the recent COVID-19 virus, its effect on the economy is deleterious and reaches the grass root level of the population of India as well as the world. Through this paper our main objective was to understand the predicaments faced by household workers, whose population mostly consists of the poor and illiterate. Our research also aims at providing the reader with an idea of the different needs and problems to be addressed in the lives of household workers. Changes in income and wages, effectiveness of government schemes and reliefs are some of the topics that are discussed. Various statistical tools, surveys and telephonic interviews were conducted to formulate conclusions and results.

Screening for the re-emergence of yaws in Nigeria []

The objective of this study was to screen for re-emergence of yaws in Nigeria. Written informed consent and questionnaire were administered to residents in 32 communities within Adamawa state with climatic possible to support the growth of Treponema pallidum pertenue. Descriptive statistics were used for the frequency analysis while multiple linear regression was used to predict how well cases of yaws is explained by age, gender, occupation and use of antibiotics for the analytical epidemiological studies. From the questionnaire, those presumed to be cases of yaws were tested serologically with syphilis strip.A total of 461 individuals participated. Slightly more male (n = 265, 57.5%) were included than female (n = 196, 42.5%), and more of children (aged 15 and below, n = 343, 74.4%). Despite high presumptive cases of yaws (n = 297, 64.4%), only 3.7% (n = 17) was reactive to serological test strip. Quite a number of respondents (n = 198, 43.0%) used/using antibiotics especially with the onset of papule.There is a direct linear relationship between ‘Presumptive case of yaws’ with each of the independent variable (Age, Gender, Occupation and Use of antibiotics), however only those of ‘Occupation’ and ‘Use of antibiotics’ have significant relationship (p = 0.008 and p = 0.0001 respectively).

The Evaluation of Assessment Centers, Structured Interviews, and Personality Tests as the Methods of Personnel Selection in HRM []

The aim of the article is to critically analyze the three contemporary personnel selection practices - assessment centers, structured interview, and personality tests. The main strengths and weaknesses of the presented methods have been pointed and evaluated. Based on the reviewing of the related literature the common and individual strengths of each of the approaches have been identified and it includes the level of validity and the convergence of each techniques towards the overall organizational HRM framework. In counterweight to the beneficial aspects, negative prospects include overcomplexity, cost-efficiency, and a certain level of bias, which can cause direct and collateral damage for the work of HR practitioners and organizational overall HRM development. Overall, there is a necessity for the future studies in the field of organizational recruitment and selection practices, in order to clarify and develop the existing knowledge of the subject of discussion.

Pakistani Medicinal Plants Used In Treatment Of Helicobacter Pylori []

Helicobacter pylori is one of the class 1 carcinogen due to its ability to cause infections like chronic gastritis, gastro duodenal ulcers and MALT lymphoma. Historically H.Pylori has been treated with antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and antirpotozoal but due to evolving multi drug resistance incidence of relapses, side effects and drug interactions are increasing by day and its a major reason for treatment failure. Search for novel molecules and innovative therapies have since been underway ranging from herbal therapy to ancient Ayurvedic system of medicine. The present article would give a perspective of medicinal herbs for treatment of H. Pylori from Pakistan’s point of view, which provides better protection,less side effects and even lesser prolapse rates. It will highlight the active plant compounds responsible for this effect duly supported by modern science which makes it necessary to standardize the constituents responsible.

DDoS Attack []

The chosen topic is a new kind of DDoS attack called the temporal lensing DDoS attack. This is a kind of DDoS attack that applies the principle of creating pulsing DDoS but it is conducted in a way that it only uses a very low bandwidth of the attacker’s system to create a very high bandwidth of requests to the victim’s servers thus creating DDoS when the requests overwhelm the servers. The purpose of this study is to explore how this kind of attack is used by attackers and also identify ways in which the threat of this kind of attack can be mitigated.


In oil and gas operations, waste drilling muds are considered the second most generated wastes next to produced water. Many experiments, trials and field operators have proposed several approaches and technologies in effectively managing wastes generated from drilling operations. Based on published literature, available data, and materials, this article comprehensively reviews the strategies and precisely outlines best practices on drilling waste solid-liquid separation techniques. Their operational mechanisms and effectiveness are also concisely stated. Effective solid – liquid separation techniques include the application of solid control and other techniques such as: centrifuges, thermal treatment, chemical treatment, biodegradation and electro-mechanical process. Centrifuge is usually accompanied by further separation techniques to ensure further solid liquid separation. According to literature, effective waste management program involves: Source reduction, reuse, recycle, recover and disposal.

Mechanical Properties of Particleboard Made from Mahogany Leaves Using Gum Arabic as Binder []

This paper presents the findings of an investigation into the use of mahogany leaves particles for the production of gum Arabic bonded particleboards. Fresh mahogany leaves, air-dried to a target moisture content of 10% were crushed to an average particle size of 2mm. Mix ratios of 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1, and 3.5:1 of gum Arabic to the crushed mahogany leaves by weight of the mahogany leaves were produced respectively. Twenty four (24) particleboards of sizes 200mm length, 50mm width, and 6mm thick were produced. The boards were cured for 28 days in an acclimatized room, after which tests on modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were carried out in accordance with ASTM D1037-93 procedures. Cost-effective analysis was also carried out to obtain comparison with conventional particleboards available in the market. Results of the investigation indicated that the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) with mean and standard deviation in parenthesis, are 22.235N/mm2 (2.92827N/mm2) and 16131.04N/mm2 (4806.63N/mm2) respectively, were above 3.0N/mm2 and 550N/mm2 as the minimum values specified by ANSI/A208.1-1999. The particleboards produced met the minimum standard for general purpose boards, and adjudged cost-effective and cheaper as compared to the conventional particleboards.

Relationship between Professional Counsellors’ Self-Efficacy and Non-Verbal Communication Efficacy in Ilorin Metropolis. []

This study was designed to investigate the relationship between professional counsellors’ self-efficacy and non-verbal communication efficacy in Ilorin metropolis. The descriptive survey method was adopted for the study. The instrument used for this study was adapted from a survey instrument of Flaman (1995). The instrument was tagged “Counsellor Self-Efficacy and Non-Verbal Communication Efficacy” (CSENVCE). The population of the study comprises of all professional counsellors in Ilorin Metroplolis. Percentages and mean scores were used for demographic section and the two research questions raised for this study were answered whilepearson’s product moment correlation at 0.05 level of significance was used to test the null hypothesis. The findings showed that professional counsellors worked efficiently and confidently control verbal messages more than nonverbal, uses and understand face-to-face body orientation and also lean forward and structure time in communication process, there was significant relationship in the counsellors’ self-efficacy and the use of non-verbal communication efficacy. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended thatcounsellors and counsellors in training on the need to learn and used skills and techniques to be able to understand and control non-verbal cues, messages and information during counselling relationship, counsellors should be very intentional about artifacts and olfactics non-verbal communication and that professional counsellors should increase their non-verbal communication proficiency as a way of attaining high level of efficacy.


This research was conducted to compare the growth efficiency and business of the G3 transgenic Mutiara juvenile catfish and the Sangkuriang juvenile catfish results of the broodstock G2 crossing. Growth efficiency parameters include growth rate, feed conversion rate, weight increase per week and business benefits including R/C ratio and BEP. This study used the mixture feed test of PF-500 pellets and boiled little tuna that given on transgenic Mutiara catfish G3 with feed treatment A (ratio 50:50), B (ratio 65:35) and C (ratio 80:20). As the control treatment is used Sangkuriang catfish with treatment D (ratio 50:50). The treatment repeats 3 times using the complete randomized design (CRD) method with the OneWay Anova significance test (SigmaPlot 12.3) to the daily growth rate parameters and feed conversion rate. The transgenic Mutiara catfish of the G2 (both positive transgenic, carrying CgGH) produces higher FR, HR and SR than Sangkuriang catfish (p < 0.05). The growth efficiency of G3 transgenic Mutiara is higher than the Sangkuriang catfish (SGR ranges from 4.08 – 4.89% and FCR ranges from 0.58 – 1.18). Meanwhile, the value of the business efficiency of G3 transgenic Mutiara juveniles enlargement for 42 days is higher than the Sangkuriang catfish (R/C by 1.12, BEP unit of 67.75 kg, and BEP price of Rp 1,490,570.00). Moreover, optimum growth efficiency apppeared on the treatment B of transgenic Mutiara catfish with 65:35 ratio of PF-500 and boiled-little tuna. The results of the business analysis showed that juveniles enlargement of Mutiara catfish are higher than Sangkuriang catfish.

Assessment of Effectiveness of Surgical Safety Checklist through Education Program among Nurses: An Observational Study []

Abstract Background: In low income countries the compliance rate of surgical safety checklist is badly decreased due to multiple factor that hindered its implementation. Negligence of health care providers in operating room leads to a number of death worldwide. Which can be minimize through administration of SSCL via education session. Material and Method: To assess the effectiveness of SSCL through education a quasi experimental study was conducted. Target population was OR nurses that have working experience more than three month in OR. A convenient sample of 160 surgeries was selected for research purpose. Data was collected and pre and post intervene through educational meeting with selected Nurses. Collected data was analysis using SPSS version 25 through descriptive analysis and paired sample t test. Results: In general outcome was positive, proposed research proves that the educational trainings are extremely efficient to enhance the compliance and effectiveness of SSCL. The results were highly significant with p value of 0.000. Conclusion: Effectual teaching is important to uphold secure quantifiable surgical practices inside operating room as well as in whole surgical unit. Teaching techniques that are comprehensive will make it more useful and effective and will surely minimize the error occurring in hospital setting especially in OR. Keywords: Surgical safety checklist, assessment of SSCL, effect of education over surgical safety checklist, WHO recommended surgical safety checklist, an observational study on surgical safety checklist, effectiveness of surgical safety checklist.

Teachers' Continuous Professional Development Practices Adopted By Principals for Enhancing Effective Teaching in Public Secondary Schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. []

This study determined Teachers’ Continuous Professional Development practices adopted by principals for enhancing effective teaching in secondary schools in Anambra state. The study was guided by three research questions and three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of 6,639 respondents comprising 257 principals and 6,382 teachers in the 257 state owned government public secondary schools in Anambra state. A sample of 801 was drawn using multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were collected using a researcher developed instrument titled Principals Continuous Professional Development Practices for Teachers’ Effective Teaching Questionnaire. The instrument was face validated by three experts and subjected to internal consistency test using Cronbach alpha method which yielded 0.90. Data analysis was done using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that the extent to which principals encourage staff attendance to conferences and workshops for teachers for effective teaching in Anambra state secondary schools is high. The study recommended among others that principals should uphold their conference and workshop practices for teachers for enhancing effective teaching.


The study determined school security management procedures applied by principals for effective administration of public secondary schools in Anambra State. One research question guided the study and two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population of the study comprised 258 public secondary schools principals. A 17 items structured questionnaire which was validated by three experts in the Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka was used for data collection. The questionnaire was structured on a five point rating scale. To establish the reliability of the instrument, it was administered on 10 Principals of Public Secondary Schools in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State who were not included in the population of the study. The Cronbach Alpha reliability method on the obtained data yielded a score of 0.75 for internal consistency which was deemed high for the study. Out of the 258 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned and were used for data analysis. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using descriptive mean, standard deviation and t-test. Findings of the study indicated that principals of public secondary schools in Anambra State apply school security management procedures to a low extent. Findings also revealed that location and gender did not significantly affect the respondents mean ratings on their application of school security management procedures for effective administration of secondary schools in Anambra State. Based on these findings, the researcher makes the following recommendations among others, that the Anambra State Government through the State Ministry of Education and the Post Primary School Service Commission (PPSSC) should formulate a comprehensive framework of security procedures for public secondary schools in the State. it was also recommended that the Anambra State Government through the State Ministry of Education and the Post Primary School Service Commission (PPSSC) should organize seminars and workshops for secondary school principals where they will be trained on current trends in school security management procedures.


This journal aims at introducing biometric capable technology for use in automating the entire attendance system for the students pursuing courses at an educational institute. The goal can be disintegrated into finer sub-targets; fingerprint capture and transfer, fingerprint image processing and wireless transfer of data in a server-client system. For each sub-task, various methods from literature are analyzed. From the study of the entire process, an integrated approach is proposed. Biometrics based technologies are supposed to be very efficient personal identifiers as they can keep track of characteristics believed to be unique to each person. Among these technologies, Fingerprint recognition is universally applied. It extracts minutia- based features from scanned images of fingerprints made by the different ridges on the fingertips. The student attendance system is very relevant in an institute like ours since it aims at eliminating all the hassles of roll calling and malpractice and promises a full-proof as well as reliable technique of keeping records of student’s attendance.

Exploring the Operational Efficiency of Commercial Banks in Zambia []

Zambia’s central bank – Bank of Zambia (BOZ) - has reported that the banking sector has been satisfactory in its performance and conduct, it has relied on financial ratio analysis, an approach which has been found to be inadequate in many aspects. Financial ratio analysis as a measure of efficiency can be considered problematic and rigid and may also fail to account for environmental and broad institutional factors as drivers of efficiency and performance. It also fails to differentiate between the different types of efficiency such as scale and x-efficiency. To circumvent these weaknesses, this study adopted a flexible and heuristic approach – the stochastic frontier approach – to unpack and define efficiency in terms of its operational meaning. A Tobit regression was undertaken to establish the determinants of efficiency as well as to investigate quantitatively the internal and external factors which underpin and drive efficiency in the banking sector. The study found that commercial banks in Zambia for the study period were inefficient of order of 10.3%. This suggests that, for the Zambian banking industry as a whole, mismanagement of resources may be an impediment to desirable performance. The Tobit regression revealed that foreign owned banks were on average more efficient than domestic banks, it also revealed that bank inefficiency in the Zambian banking sector was underpinned by bank profitability, high Capital adequacy, greater bank liquidity and high percentage of non-performing loans. Inefficiency means that banks are using a costly combination of inputs to produce a feasible level of output.

Chinese Growing Global Influence and the Possible Expansion of the Mandarin Language []

Everything is subject to change, nothing is permanent. This phenomenon seems more befitting in the context of the language. Every language that is modern or primitive is either expanding, shrinking or even dying through various reasons. This process of changing a language is not a new one. The Roman language, which was once the most privileged and target language of the world for being the language of scholarship and modern knowledge, today, is no longer an administered language. After the 18th century, the English language has emerged as the global language. In addition to its natural capabilities of integration and assimilation, this happened as the result of a vital substantial process of colonization and scientific inventions, which were further powered by the growing trade supremacy and some implicit or explicit policies of the English spoken regions of the world, especially by Britain. Although the Mandarin language is the native language of the biggest population but, so far, it has failed to acquire the similar position that the English language enjoys. However, in the recent years, the growing industrial hegemony of China has triggered a debate about the possibility of the expansion of the Mandarin language. Can growing trade supremacy of China help the Mandarin language to reach the world as the British and the American industrial monopoly favored English in the eighteenth and the nineteenth century has become a topic of interest among the scholars. This paper aims at making an assessment of possibilities of the expansion of Chinese language in the light of reasons for English as a global language.

Déterminant du suivi de l'État nutritionnel des enfants en âge préscolaire (0 a 5ans) dans le district de santé de Rey Bouna, Nord-Cameroun []

La malnutrition joue un grand rôle dans la moitié des décès des enfants en âge préscolaire dans le monde, ce qui est plus que de n'importe quelle maladie infectieuse et pourtant elle n'est pas une infection.

Évaluation des connaissances des femmes enceintes sur les infections sexuellement transmissible dans la ville de Garoua, Cameroun. []

Les Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles sont une des causes de mortalité et morbidité les plus fréquents dans le monde. Au Cameroun, selon le CNLS (centre national de lutte contre le Sida), 51745 cas d'IST ont été pris en charge. Les femmes étant de loin les plus infecté soit 82,5%. Au delà de tous ces problèmes, la femmes enceintes reste la cible la plus vulnérable et par conséquent plus atteinte.