Volume 8, Issue 6, June 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This article addressed a contract software negotiation case in Brazil, aiming to improve the negotiation skills of business negotiators, scholars, and practitioners through a two-party, multiple-issue role-play simulation. The case involved a state-owned company and a private software manufacturer, one month before the two-year contract ends. Key findings pointed out the necessity of improving integrative strategies, such as understanding the other party's underlying interests, value creation to achieve mutual benefit agreements. Further implications suggest the case replication to other business scenarios, with an asymmetry of power. Discussion and future research recommendations compile this research.


As past earthquakes hazards have demonstrated huge loss of life and building stock, affecting the social and economic conditions of a country it was necessary to use and develop new technologies to fight with this phenomenon. Thus, I started to do a research regarding these new techniques by checking blogs, supervising modern structures` construction and asking from experienced designer to prepare my paper and to improve our knowledge and become aware of these recent methods and their usage in our daily life to optimize earthquake effects on our structures. Though it is not possible to prevent an earthquake, the least that can be achieved in reducing the damage is to make the buildings earthquake resistant. With the advancement in our understanding of the earthquakes, most of the countries have mandated the incorporation of seismic provisions in building design and architecture. Over all, the seismic design philosophy aims to primarily ensure life safety and secures the functionality of the building. In conjunction with the design philosophy, it is essential to adopt earthquake-safe construction practices for the efficient seismic performance of a building. Regulating its design procedures and its modern technologies we obtain our ideal resistance ratio against earthquake. As there is several modern technologies mentioned and explained this research paper.


The study assessed the key determinants of energy demand in Nigeria using an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) covering the sample period of 1987 to 2017. The results from ARDL model indicates strong cointegration relationship among the variables and that CO2 emission and real GDP have significant positive impact on energy demand with Urbanization having significant negative and significant impact on energy demand in both long run and short run periods. The VECM Granger causality test results revealed that there is long run causality in access to electricity and CO2 emission equations and that there is also short run bidirectional causality running from real GDP to energy demand and from urbanization to real GDP. Short run unidirectional causality also exist running form CO2 emission to real GDP and from access to electricity to real GDP. Therefore, it is concluded that CO2 emission, real GDP and urbanization are among the key drivers of energy demand in Nigeria.

Risk-Return Trade off and Loan Default Consideration in Lending Decisions: A Case Study of Whence Financial Services []

In a bid to construct a decision making model to remedy the contradictions encountered in lending decisions, the study explored the dysfunctionality caused by risk-return and loans default considerations in lending decisions. Whence Financial Services, a microfinance institution was selected as a case study on the basis of being a good representative of the type of institutions that have exploited the niche under review in terms of size, capacity and range of services offered. Documentary review, survey questionnaire, in-depth interviews and a workshop were used to collect data for the study. Through analysis of this data, the study found that the dysfunctionality was primarily due to risk considerations and the risk was mainly due to information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers. Therefore, the decision making model was constructed through establishment of a series of actions to be taken before a lending institution settles for guidelines to inform lending decisions, subject to the information asymmetry challenge. The model ensures the risk is managed through weaving together risk management measures to deal with the information asymmetry. The study established that the risk of default was at about 36% and this was way too high compared to the 2% residual risk internationally accepted for microfinance institutions. Therefore, in order to reduce this risk to acceptable levels, the Government and the central Bank of Zambia (BoZ) should take keen interest in local microfinance start-ups which usually start out operations using the money lenders certificate and support them through regulation and constant monitoring. This would greatly help in managing their risk exposure which is core to the dysfunctionality under review which continues to adversely affect the entire finance industry through moral hazard, adverse selection and excessive indebtedness. This is because such a development would increase customer and other stakeholder confidence in the microfinance institutions and this in turn would be vital as it would enable microfinance institutions to collaborate with other stakeholders, a development central to resolving the information asymmetry constraint.

Rare coexistence of patent urachus with Meckel's diverticulum in a 7 year old child []

Background: Patent urachus and Meckel’s diverticulum are both rare congenital anomalies, and the coexistence of both pathologies make it an even rarer entity. Case presentation: A 7 year old child, presented with abdominal pain at the right flank for 4 days, associated with discharge from the umbilicus was treated as urachal cyst with UTI. Imaging showed a patent urachus, and an open umbilical exploration was done incidentally finding a Meckel’s diverticulum. Conclusion: The author hopes this case report will improve our understanding in diagnosis and management of this rare entity.


Physical health of families is of paramount importance, especially when associated with Khat consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Khat consumption on the physical health of consumers’ families. The study used Reference Group Theory, by Herbert & Singers, (1968); Social Learning Theory by Newman and Newman, (1999) and Symbolic Interaction theory by Andersen & Taylor, (2004). This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. The study was carried out in Meru County because it’s the traditional home of Khat trees in Kenya which plays diverse roles in the many social aspects to date. A multi-stage sampling technique involving purposive, simple random and systematic methods were used to select the county, three sub-counties, six wards and 583 households. The family heads from the selected households were automatically included in the sample population. Data were collected through face to face interviews with selected family heads who were consumers of Khat. The study also used key informants guide, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation checklists. Results from a linear regression analysis indicated that, there was no relationship between Khat consumption and consumers physical health indicated by study variables such as lack of sleep.

The Geology and Geochemistry of Agwan Malam and Environs []

The Geology and geochemical mapping of latitude N 08˚ 51l, N 08˚ 45l and longitude E 007˚ 45l,E 008˚ 00l of Nigeria North Central Part of Keffi Sheet 208 NE. Thin section of the various rock types in the study area were carried out, with migmatite, granodiorite, pophyritic granodiorite, and biotite gneiss intruded by mineral bearing pegmatite dyke were Identified. Structures like fault, vein, joint and foliations were also observed during the field mapping and they trend NE - SW. Geochemical analysis of the rocks using x-ray fluorescent techniques reveals the concentration of Potassium, Calcium, Titanium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Nickel, Zinc, Arsenic, Robidium and Strontium. The structural trend of the rocks conforms with the general pan-African Orogeny deformation and mining activities in some of the villages does not contaminate or pollute its water, soil and wellbeing of the people living in the Agwan mallam. This study reveal some major elemenfewtal composition of earth across Agwa mallam village and how they are respectively distributed, the deduced findings will be a benefit to Environmental Impact Assessment and further research is hereby recommended on the Hydrochemistry with special emphasis on water contamination due to leached ion from rock.

Supervised morphosyntactic tagging of parts of speech of Twi, a Ghanaian language []

In this article, we present the results of the supervised automatic tagging of parts of speech of Twi. We speak of the importance of tagging parts of speech as presented by other researchers. We explain the objective of the present work and how tagging the parts of speech of the Twi language is useful. We present the corpus as well as the tagging tool which we adapted for the Twi language. We also present the methodology and the steps involved in tagging. We analyse some morphosyntactic phenomena which can be a source of difficulty to the automatic tagging process. We suggest some solutions to these problems. In conclusion, we present some recommendations aimed at improving the results of this preliminary approach to the automatic tagging of the Twi language.

Differentiate Polyradiculoneuropathy (PRN) accidents after rabies prophylaxis of Paralytic Rabies. []

A 13-year-old girl developed acute flaccid paralysis 10 days after receiving the first dose of mouse brain rabies vaccine (SMBV), wherein distinction between paralttic rabies and Guillain-Barré Syndrome may be difficult.

The Role of Local Government Sub-Structures in Revenue Mobilization and the implications for effective Local Governance in Ghana. []

Decentralization is process by which a central government formally cedes powers to actors and institutions at lower levels in a political-administrative and territorial hierarchy. Local government and its sub-structures are the key recipients of decentralized powers. It is important to note that these powers are transferred to sub- district structures in the form of functions. Local government units all over African have several challenges in the discharge of their functions. Structural inadequacies, infrastructure and resources, logistics, personnel, low motivation to support the performance of the functions of sub- structures. In order to investigate the implications of revenue mobilization on the performance of these sub-district structures, a conceptual and theoretical framework of the study was designed which combined survey and case study methods of data collection and analysis. The study revealed that; there is male dominance in Local Government in Ghana, low level of education, old revenue collectors, absence of revenue task force, inadequate revenue collectors and logistics to support revenue collection and training. In view of these, major recommendations proposed include the need for; setting up a revenue mobilization task force, training of revenue staff of the sub- structures, adequate motivation, provision of logistics, recruitment of additional revenue collectors, procurement of a revenue mobilization van and promotion of women in local governance. Finally, the effective implementation of these recommendations could lead to an improvement in the general performance of sub-district structures since they constitute the nucleus of Ghana decentralization efforts.


ABSTRACT Solar radiation is a primary driver for many physical, chemical, and biological processes on the earth’s surface. Solar energy engineers, architects, agriculturists, hydrologists, etc. often require a reasonably accurate knowledge of the availability of the solar resource for their relevant applications. In solar applications, one of the most important parameters needed is the long-term average daily global irradiation. In this paper with the help of different empirical models we have estimated the value of monthly average global solar irradiation for Makurdi, Nigeria. The performance of the models were evaluated on the basis of the following statistical error tests: the Mean Percentage Error (MPE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE). These tests are the ones that are applied most commonly in comparing the models of solar radiation estimations. From the results, Jain model was found as the most precise model for the prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for Makurdi. The values of the correlation coefficient, determination coefficient R2, MPE, RMSE and MBE were 0.984, 0.416, 0.0253, -0.011 MJ-1m2 and 0.0464 MJ-1m2 respectively. This model can be recommended in a different place with similar climatic conditions.


This paper defines options as derivatives connecting people with unique interests. It establishes how the values of the derivatives are based on the agreements about the financial assets in question and how the rights rather than commitments of buyers to purchase or sell the assets are more impactful. The deal occurs within a specific duration. Lattices are discontinuous time presentation of the evolution of the asset price, which incorporates skewness and kurtosis.


Background: E-learning denotes to the use of information and communication technologies to help retrieve teaching and learning resources online. The combination of education and technology has been regarded as the chief key to human improvement. Education sustains technology which in turn forms the foundation of education. Information technology in a way has influenced changes to the method, purpose and perceived ability of education. The nursing colleges in Ghana use technology in their education. The study intends to evaluate the use of E-learning to progress the performance of first year students in ICT. Methods: The study employed a simple random sampling technique to enroll participants. Closed ended questionnaire was given out to 85 first year nursing students to solicit their views on use of E-learning to improve their performance in ICT. Results/Discussion: The study revealed that not all first-year nursing students get the chance to sit by one computer making the computers insufficient to cater for the large size of student that go to the ICT laboratory. This made learning of ICT theoretically based which hindered the students understanding of the subject. Students indicated that e-learning have actually increased their engagement and again added value of flexibility in the learning of ICT anytime. Conclusion: The study concluded that e-learning affects students’ performance in ICT and also recommends that colleges should provide bigger laboratory with many computers to cater for the larger size of the students and also teachers should give students more hands-on practical activities in ICT lessons in order for them to grasp the ICT skills.


This study aims to analyze the effect of HR competency, motivation, utilization of information technology, organizational commitment to the accuracy of the delivery of the treasurer accountability report on expenditure in the work unit in the area of KPPN Makassar I. This type of research is causal associative research. The population of this study was 95 work units with 95 respondents. The sampling technique is the census method using primary data obtained through a questionnaire. Of the 95 questionnaires distributed, the number of questionnaires returned was 80. The research data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. Based on the test results, it can be confirmed that HR competence, the use of information technology have a partial and simultaneous effect on the accuracy of the delivery of the treasurer accountability report. While the motivational variable does not partially affect the accuracy of the delivery report of the treasurer accountability report, but simultaneously affects the variables of HR Competency, utilization of information technology and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment variable is a moderating variable that can moderate the relationship of HR competencies, motivation and utilization of information technology with the timely delivery of the treasurer accountability report in Makassar KPPN I


As use of internet is growing and people are bounded to their laptops and mobile phones, consumer’s perception towards buying and shopping has taken a new shape and use of this internet has opened an all together a new virtue where there’s a new marketplace where virtual imprints are more important than consumer’s physical imprints. As a marketeer we should act smart enough, so that we can understand the dynamics of marketplace where fully empowered consumers and businesses rewrite their buying journeys each and everyday. In this world tons and tons of data flows every second and out of these huge piles of data it is very important to find out the best suited data for our use. In this research we will try to find out the effect of Hyperconnectivity and it’s implications in various forms where flow of data and information is very important in real quick time and can help to understand the consumer buying behavior. In this research we will also try to know that how implication of this hyperconnectivity could benefit both consumers and marketeers.

Hypertrophie Mammaire sévère chez l’adolescente : A propos d’un cas avec revue de la littérature []

INTRODUCTION La gigantomastie survient de façon idiopathique à la puberté, le plus souvent avant le début des premières règles, on parle de gigantomastie juvénile. Elle se manifeste cliniquement par un accroissement excessif, rapide et bilatéral du volume des seins . Il s’agit d’une anomalie morphologique majeure des seins de l’adolescente. Son retentissement physique et psychologique est grave et peut amener l’adolescente à la chirurgie de réduction mammaire. Nous rapportons le cas de gigantomastie juvénile chez une adolescente traitée en France par mammoplastie bilatérale de réduction (2). Le résultat a été bon au plan psychologique et esthétique. OBSERVATION : La patiente B.N, âgées de 13 ans, non réglée, était orientée et opérée en France, dans un service de chirurgie plastique et esthétique, pour une gigantomastie bilatérale. Le traitement a consisté en une plastie mammaire de réduction avec greffe de la plaque aréolomamelonnaire (PAM) selon la technique de Thorek. L’histologie de la pièce opératoire de la patiente était en faveur d’une dystrophie fibrokystique des seins L’impact psychologique était favorable chez l’adolescente. CONCLUSION La gigantomastie juvénile est une anomalie morphologique majeure des seins. La correction plastique de ces hypertrophies très importantes donne un confort de vie à l’adolescente qui les porte. Les récidives fréquentes imposent une surveillance postopératoire prolongée.

Condylome acuminé péri anal géant (A propos de deux cas avec revue de la littérature) []

INTRODUCTION : Les condylomes acuminés sont des lésions bourgeonnantes, uniques ou multiples, rosées ou grisâtres, qui ont tendance à se regrouper en prenant un aspect de chou fleur. Ils résultent d‘une infection par le virus du papillome humain (HPV). Ils sont contagieux et sont sexuellement transmissibles. Les localisations les plus fréquentes sont les organes génitaux et la région périanale. OBSERVATION : Nous rapportons deux observations : le premier patient B.A âgées de 60 ans, marié et père de 4 enfants, retraité, le deuxième, K.R âgée de 42 ans, célibataire et sans profession ayant présenté chacun un condylome géant péri anale. Il a été pratiqué une exérèse tumorale chirurgicale associé une colostomie terminale pour le deuxième patient. Les pertes de substances ont été laissées en cicatrisation dirigée. Les résultats anatomopathologiques étaient en faveur d’un condylome acuminé. CONCLUSION : La coexistence des HPV à bas risque responsables des lésions bénignes externes de type condylomes et des HPV à haut risque responsables des lésions précancéreuses et cancéreuses est fréquente et justifie la pratique d'un frottis cervical chez la femme porteuse de condylomes ainsi qu'un examen attentif de l'ensemble du périnée à la recherche de lésions suspectes, chez les deux sexes. La régression spontanée est possible, mais l'évolution classique est habituellement l'extension des lésions en taille et en nombre, pouvant être responsable d'une gêne physique et psychologique importante.

Coexistence rare de cancer et tuberculose mammaire (A propos d’une observation avec revue de la littérature) []

INTRODUCTION : la tuberculose mammaire est une localisation très rare, sa fréquence est certes plus grande dans les pays d’endémie tuberculeuse. Elle est plus rare dans les pays à haut développement économique. Les examens para cliniques reposent sur la mammographie, l’échographie mammaire, l’examen anatomo-pathologique et l’IRM. C’est la preuve bactériologique ++++ par la mise en évidence du BK (à l’examen direct ou à la culture) sur le produit de cytoponction qui permet de poser le diagnostic de certitude. La coexistence de cancer du sein et de tuberculose mammaire est très rare. Nous présentons le cas d'une patiente opérée pour un cancer du sein chez qui la tuberculose mammaire coexistait avec le cancer, de découverte sur pièce de mastectomie adressée à l’anatomopathologiste OBSERVATION : Madame B.F., âgée de 44 ans, a été admise pour tumeur du sein droit, associé à un écoulement mamelonnaire louche. Une mammographie et une échographie objectivent une tumeur suspecte de malignité, la cytologie de l’écoulement mamelonnaire était inflammatoire, la cytoponction de la tumeur retrouve des cellules carcinomateuses. La tumeur a été classée cliniquement T2 N1 M0. La patiente a été opérée, il a été réalisé une mastectomie avec un curage axillaire (Patey). Les résultats anatomopathologiques étaient en faveur d’un carcinome canalaire infiltrant associé à une tuberculose mammaire (présences de cellules géantes de Langhans). CONCLUSION : La tuberculose mammaire est rare, atteignant essentiellement les femmes jeunes en période d’activité génitale. La contamination mammaire est souvent secondaire, par voie lymphatique et plus rarement par contiguïté ou par voie hématogène, l’atteinte primaire étant exceptionnelle. La confirmation de l’origine tuberculeuse se base sur l’isolement du BK ou sur l’histologie. L’absence de nécrose caséeuse à la biopsie doit faire discuter les autres granulomatoses du sein. Elle doit être distinguée des autres pathologies mammaires et surtout des cancers étant donné les ressemblances cliniques et radiologiques. A défaut d’une certitude bactériologique, l’histologie présente un intérêt diagnostique essentiel. L’évolution est généralement favorable sous traitement anti bacillaire associé ou non à la chirurgie.

Les Tumeurs Géantes de l’Ovaire : Les Cystadénome Mucineux : A propos de 10 cas []

INTRODUCTION Le cystadénome mucineux est une tumeur épithéliale bénigne de l’ovaire. Il représente 15 % de l’ensemble des tumeurs ovariennes, venant en seconde position après les kystes séreux. Il se rencontre habituellement chez la femme en période d’activité génitale, rarement avant la puberté et après la ménopause. L’âge moyen est de 50 ans avec des extrêmes de 13 à 79 ans. Leur volume varie de quelques centimètres cubes à plusieurs dizaines de litres. Ils sont typiquement bosselés car multiloculaires (réalisant un aspect en nid d’abeille), ils sont parfois uniloculaires. OBSERVATION Nous rapportons une série du service concernant 10 patientes sur une période de 5 années (de2008 à 2017). L’âge moyen était de 37 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 à 45 ans. Le motif de consultation était dominé par une masse abdomino pelvienne avec compression des organes de voisinage ainsi que par des douleurs abdominopelviennes. L’échographie transabdominale a permis de poser le diagnostic dans tout les cas. Une laparotomie était pratiquée chez toute les patientes ainsi qu’une annexectomie unilatérale emportant la tumeur. L’examen anatomo-pathologique avait conclu à un cystadénome mucineux pluriloculaire de l’ovaire sans signe de malignité dans tout les cas. L’évolution à ce jour est tout à fait normale chez toute les patientes. CONCLUSION : Le cystadénome mucineux petit est, en général, asymptomatique, et c’est avec l’augmentation de volume que les premiers signes vont apparaître. Les signes d’appel sont non spécifiques et n’orientent pas directement vers la sphère pelvienne. L’échographie transabdominale est le principal examen complémentaire permettant, d’une part, de confirmer l’origine ovarienne de la masse et d’autre part, de renseigner sur sa structure. Le traitement coelioscopique n’est pas indiqué dans le cadre de ces volumineux kystes. Une laparotomie sera réalisée. Chez les jeunes femmes désirant conserver leur fertilité, un traitement conservateur est réalisable et consiste en une kystectomie ou ovariectomie ou annexectomie, préservant l’utérus et l’annexe controlatérale si celle-ci est saine.


Sustainable aquaculture in Indonesia especially the development of shellfish has been conducted. Until now, the culture of abalone that have been developed in are Haliotis asinina and Haliotis squamata. The potential for developing abalone for sustainable aquacul-ture in Indonesia is very high because the need for abalone feed as herbivorous organisms can be fulfilled throughout the year from the cultivation of Gracilaria sp. Abalone cultivation can also be integrated with fish culture or seaweed culture. Recently, the supply of abalo-ne from major producer countries, namely Japan, Taiwan, the United States, Australia and New Zealand, still cannot meet the needs of the world market. The current global abalone production was known to only come from capture fisheries which yielded around 6500 mt in 2016/2017. The trend of harvest decline was seen since previously the worldwide abalone harvest in 1970 was around 20 000 mt (Cook, 2019). The declined harvest was known to occur in South African countries, Australia, New Zealand and the United States (Cook, 2019). However, declined production of abalone was thought to occur also in Indonesia, one of which is caused by illegal capture (WWF.or.id, 2019). This paper discuss the recent trend of aquaculture to support the development sustainable aquaculture in Indonesia.