Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Conformal Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Mechanics Systems with Almost Three - Dimensional f-kenmotsu Manifolds []

Abstract The study concern with using dynamical formalism and equations to find produced dynamical Euler -Lagrangian Equations with Conformal Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Mechanics Systems with Almost three- dimensional f-kenmotsu Manifolds. However we gave some corollaries about related mechanical systems and equations.


Objective: To investigate the factors associated with dispensing prescription only medicines without a prescription in private pharmacies in Jinja Municipality, Uganda and scrutinize the causes of such practice. Method: This was a cross sectional survey conducted in 13 randomly selected private pharmacies including 23 dispensers from them and 436 clients/patients who had been dispensed medications by the pharmacies. Results: Dispensing Prescription Only Medicines without prescriptions at the private pharmacies was 56.1% of the total dispensing encounters. Clients demand, discrepancies between prescribed drug and available drug, survival in the market as well as need for profit were some of the reasons for dispensers engaging in such practices. 91.3% (21/23) of the dispensers in these private pharmacies were not knowledgeable on Prescription Only Medicine and none was a pharmacist. Antibiotics was found to be the highest (74.7%) category of prescription only medication that was dispensed without prescriptions. Conclusion: This study raises concern about common bad dispensing practices of private pharmacies in the Jinja district in dispensing POMs without prescription. It also revealed the lack of pharmacist in private pharmacies which was detrimental to health care delivery and a high proportion of irrational use of antibiotics since it was mostly purchased and dispensed without any prescription. Thus, there is an urgent need by the regulatory bodies to address these issues to improve dispensing practices in the private pharmacies.

Does CEO age matters? : A case of an emerging economy. []

In today’s business environments, “Does CEO age matters?” still have doubts due to multiple pros and cons associated with the age. Where CEO age has been noted as an influencing element on firm performance. The intervening mechanism that governs direct and indirect effect of CEO age on performance via CEO tenure has remained limited and under researched in the markets of emerging economies. Specifically, test models of this paper suggest that CEO Tenure indirectly influences performance through its direct effect on the link between CEO Age and performance. Results from regression and pairwise correlation analysis confirms the study hypothesis and are consistent with model. In discussion this study traces the implication of results for practice and future research.


Most customers of commercial banks in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been losing vast amounts of money from their accounts to fraudsters and hackers, who are taking advantage of weak security controls. This has necessitated the present study to be conducted for recommending a mobile banking security framework based on Octave-small approach for commercial banks in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study adopted a descriptive research design and used 549 branches of the eighteen commercial banks in Democratic Republic of Congo, where the Krejcie and Morgan formula was adopted in obtaining a sample size of 227 respondents. The study findings show that while identifying critical organisational information has a statistically significant positive influence; identifying threats to information systems critical assets had a statistically significant positive influenced; there is statistically significant and positive influence of analysing infrastructure vulnerabilities; and risk mitigation has a statistically significant positive influence on mobile banking among commercial bank in Democratic Republic of Congo. The study recommends a four stages octave-s mobile banking security framework; defining sensitive organizational M-Banking information, identify the security requirements of the vital asset and then create a risk profile for each asset, creating key components of vulnerabilities, and developing a corporate security policy and mitigation strategy and three essential security layers; the client; the communication channel and the server.


ABSTRACT Regular participation in physical exercise and sports constitute one of the major components of a healthy lifestyle along with healthy diets, tobacco free life and avoidance of other substances harmful to our health. The descriptive survey design was used for the study because the study investigated the contribution of sports and exercise to the promotion of healthy life and well being of kwasu students. The population for the study comprised the entire students that participates regularly in one sports/exercise or the other in all the six colleges. Simple random sampling technique was used to select three colleges for the study and proportion sampling technique was used to select 20% of the students from each of the three colleges and a total 116 students were used. Researcher questionnaire designed in a four point likert rating was used to gather data from the respondents and the three hypotheses formulated were analyzed with chi-square statistic at 0.05 level of confidence. The findings revealed a significant influence of regular participation in exercise and sport in the promotion of healthy life and well-being, prevention and treatment of disease. Among the recommendations given include: the university management should improve the existing sports facilities and equipment and construct new ones to enhance students’ mass participation in sport and exercise others Keywords: contribution of sport and exercise, promotion of healthy life, well-being of kwasu students.

Diurnal Variation of Surface Refractivity over Anyigba and Bauchi []

The results of the annual mean variation of surface refractivity based on measurement of atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity made across two selected locations within Nigeria; Anyigba (7.4934) and Bauchi (10.3010) is presented in this study. This research utilized three years of meteorological data measured from January 2013 to December 2015 using the Center for Atmospheric Research High Precision Telemetry Weather Monitoring Station installed in Anyigba. The data were obtained in five minutes interval, sorted and average into hourly data using MATLAB. The average data was then used to calculate surface refractivity according to the ITU Model. From the research work it is noted that the two stations under study exhibit the same pattern of surface refractivity in the three years of high solar activity studied. Though Anyigba has higher levels of Surface Refractivity compared to Bauchi.

Blockchain Applications []

Blockchain is the technology behind bitcoin, but its scope is not limited to it. If you have been following banking, investing, or cryptocurrency over the past years, you may be familiar with “blockchain” as the record-keeping technology that is decentralized, transparent and immutable. Many define it as “a distributed, decentralized, public ledger". In a nutshell, blockchain is a collection of blocks that are interconnected and contains digital piece of information that is visible to everyone on the blockchain. There are two types of a blockchain, private and public blockchain. Blockchain has its benefits almost in every industry like banking, healthcare, finance, cryptocurrentcy, supply chain and many more.

The Impact of Layout Shape and Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) on the Performance of Light Sources Arrangement for Indoor Visible Light Communication []

The impact of layout shape on the performance of light source arrangement is presented in this paper. Unlike what obtains in the literature that a particular layout is used to measure the performance of a proposed light source arrangement, this study examines the performance of a proposed LED (light emitting diode) arrangement using simulations in two different layouts, a square and a rectangular layout. The same number of LED chips were used in the two layouts considered, placing them a distance of 1m apart on the ceilings of the layouts. Simulation results based on received power and SNR (signal to noise ratio) distributions show that the proposed LED arrangement yields better results compared to the commonly used four LED arrays centered on a ceiling of a square layout that was adopted by many studies in the literatures. Although the rectangular layout has better received power and SNR distributions, but fluctuations are more severe in both indices compared to that of a square layout. The results indicate that a layout shape has influence on the performance of a light source arrangement and therefore should be given considerable attention for an indoor visible light communication system. The impact of ISI was also analyzed in the proposed models and found out that in all the cases were this metric was included in the analysis, the maximum value became more spread than the cases where it was not included and hence reduce fluctuations. However, its impact is more noticeable in the rectangular layout. Keywords: Arrangement, Impact, Layout, Performance and Visible Light Communication.


ABSTRACT Background: Hygiene practices are very essential in the avoidance of the infectious disease. It is recognizable in most developing countries including Ethiopia, hygiene preventable diseases are prevalent. These diseases account for eighty percent of morbidities together with other infectious illness including malnutrition. The term hygiene is the practice of protecting oneself and one’s environment clean or unsoiled, particularly in order to prevent the spread of communicable diseases like COVID-19 infection. Globally, 2.3 billion people still do not have basic sanitary facilities such as toilet or latrines. Of these 892 million still defecate in the open, in street gutters, behind bushes, or into open water bodies. This study was intended to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice status of infection prevention among health care providers and to have a better understanding of the possible areas for improving infection prevention strategies and practices in Ethiopia. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards hand hygiene in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among health care providers placed in different wards of Arba Minch hospital and health centers situated in Arba Minch town. A self-administered questionnaires containing different types of questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice on hand hygiene were used for data collection. Results: A total of 98% of the partakers answered that they remained familiar with the world health organization suggested steps of hand washing. The knowledge on hand hygiene was moderate (85%) percent among the total study partakers. Knowledge concerning the least time desired for alcohol based hand rub (20 second) remained well-known correctly by only 56 of the study partakers. A total of 91% of the partakers had positive attitude towards hand-hygiene. A total of twenty nine percent of the correspondents said that they had not been appropriately instructed in hand hygiene during their practice, 58 of the partakers showed good practice regarding hand hygiene and Ninety one percent of realized that the presence of an infection prevention squad in the health care institutions would have positive influences on their hand hygiene practices. Conclusion: Moderate knowledge among majority of health care providers reflected upon their positive attitude and practice concerning hand hygiene. Fundamentally, most of the health care provider’s well-thought-out that hand hygiene as an indispensable part of their role. Enhancement of convenience to hand hygiene facilities would play a significant role to advance the compliance to hand-hygiene in this existing time. Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Hand Hygiene


A cross sectional study was conducted from October 2013 to April 2014 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated risk factors in small ruminants in Jibat district of west shoa zone. Small ruminants were selected randomly, from purposively selected district. A total 308 blood samples were collected from local breeds of sheep and goats and serum samples from these animals were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and those samples found positive by RBPT were further tested by Complement Fixation Test (CFT) for confirmation.


Due to change in customer demand and preference, carbonated soft drink industry has faced more challenges and opportunities. Also, liberalization of the economy has made it easy for products to be imported into the country. Therefore, strategic change management has therefore become the main focus of these organizations in an effort to survive in the turbulent environment. The general objective of the study was to evaluate the role of strategic change management on employee performance in the carbonated soft drink industry in Nairobi County. Specific objectives were to evaluate the role of organizational structure change on employee performance in the carbonated soft drink industry in Nairobi County. To determine the role of technological changes on employee performance in the carbonated soft drink industry in Nairobi County. To examine the role of organizational leadership change on employee performance in the carbonated soft drink industry in Nairobi County. To assess the role of organizational culture change on employee performance in the carbonated soft drink industry in Nairobi County. The study was informed by concepts explained by the theory of change management, Lewin’s Change management model and the Kotter’s Change management model. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was 2,147 employees at carbonated soft drink companies in Nairobi. Stratified random sampling was used to select the study sample. The study sample size was 337 respondents. Structured questionnaires were used in data collection. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. Quantitative data analysis was in form of frequency tables and percentages which represent the most commonly used method for descriptive data presentation. Content analysis was used to analyse the unstructured questions. Inferential statistics was used to determine the relationship between strategic change management on employee performance in the carbonated soft drink industry in Nairobi County. The study found that organizational structure change, technological changes, organizational leadership change and organizational cultural change had a positive influence on employee performance. The study recommends that the management of carbonated soft drink firms should communicate about organizational structure change to the employees as early as possible. This would help employees to understand and adjust to the new organizational structure. This would also improve their performance. The study recommends that carbonated soft drink firms should have a systematic procedure of technology transition. The organization should also make sure that the employees are informed on the phases of technology changes. This will enhance their acceptance of their new technology and hence their performance. The study recommends that the carbonated firms should inform all individuals in the organization about organizational culture change. This will help them to effectively adjust to the improved firm culture. This will also reduce resistance to change and hence employee will focus on their tasks to improve their performance.

Consitutional Interpretation in Ethiopia []

This paper tries to discuss constitutional interpretation in Ethiopia. To this end, the main purpose of this paper is to explain constitutional interpretation in Ethiopia. The paper has four parts. Part one dealt about the overview of constitutional interpretation. The second part of this paper discusses interpretive principles of constitutions. The third part dealt with constitutional interpretation in Ethiopia. The fourth part of the paper mainly elucidates the role of courts and other institutions in constitutional interpretation. As constitution is the supreme law of the land. The interpretation of the constitution is the big issue in different part of the world. The house of federation the upper house has ultimate power to interpret the constitution in Ethiopia. Most of the members of the house of federation are not legal expert to interpret the constitution. So the council of constitutional inquiry is play advisory role to the house of federation. Unlike the Ethiopian system of constitutional interpretation many system in the world prefer ordinary courts, other have vested constitutional courts the interpret body of constitution.

How Mergers and Acquisitions Affect Manufacturing Company Performance in Indonesia []

This study aims to examine the effect of mergers and acquisitions on market performance and financial performance of acquiring companies to show the effect of performance in the short and long term. The study was conducted on manufacturing industry companies that merged and acquired in the period 2012 and 2013. The event study method was used in this research, where the short-term market reaction was measured using market-adjusted CARs in the event period (-1,+1), (-3,+3), (-5,+5), and (-10,+10). Long-term market reaction is measured using the BHAR approach that is adjusted by the market to the period of events (-36, + 36) and (-60, + 60) around the announcement month. As for financial performance both short and long term is measured by comparing the value of Tobin's Q, ROA, ROE, and EPS for 5 years before with 5 years after M&A. As a statistical analysis tool in testing hypotheses using different tests (paired sample t-test ). The results showed that there were positive and significant differences in the CAR adjusted by the market, while in the long run, the adjusted market BHAR did not show a significant difference, this showed mergers and acquisitions unable to create value for the company's shareholders. Financial performance shows similar results that in the short term there is no significant difference, but in the long run, especially the ROE ratio shows a different and significant in the period (-4,+4) and (-5,+5), while the ratio of ROA and EPS shows a significant difference in the period (-4,+4) but then decreases and is not as significant in the next period.

Perception and Awareness of Intellectual Property Rights by Undergraduates of two Universities in South West, Nigeria []

In recent times, the rate at which undergraduate students make use of works covered by intellectual property rights without seeking permission from copyright owners seems alarming. This could be detrimental to the growth of scholarship as authors could be discouraged from engaging in sound researches. The study used descriptive survey research design. The population comprise a total of 14,536 undergraduate students from University of Ibadan and Lead City University, Nigeria. Purposive and Stratified sampling technique were used to select a sample size of 347 students. Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study, which were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Findings revealed that undergraduate students from the two universities were knowledgeable of the concept of intellectual property but majority of them had negative perception of it. Though majority of the respondents were aware of copyright law and intellectual property, a significant number of them was not. The university libraries of the selected schools did not provide adequate education on copyright issues. It was therefore recommended that university libraries should broaden students understanding of intellectual property and copyright laws through user education.

Energy Management in a Residential Building Case study: Tenement Residential Apartment in Somolu, Lagos, Nigeria. []

Energy is essential to all human activities. Energy is an integral part of modern life. Energy demand has been on the high rise over the years while energy Supply has been so limited. With energy demand increasing daily and limited supply of Energy, there is a need to monitor and reduce energy consumption in our home since majority of the industries in Nigeria depends on Generator for their day to day activities. Residences are the major Consumers of National Grid Electricity. The main Objective of these research was to audit the energy in residential building, thereby ensuring a reduction in the energy consumption cost of the building. From analysis of the data collected, it was found that the main grid electricity was the most used source of energy and the most used aspect of energy was lighting. By using the 80-20% rule, energy consumption by lightning was considered which resulted that about 70% of the hours the light was on was not needed, 12 bulbs were changed from Incandescent light to compacts led bulbs which made the regular energy consumption of 550Kwh to be reduced to 450Kwh in November 2019, thereby reducing the cost of energy.


Warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies are of classified in two major types such as wax-based and chemical based. The prior additives at temperature of mixing and compaction completely melt in the binder and thus construction work enable at low temperature. While in case of chemical additives fraction between binders and aggregates minimize and thus provide same results during construction. It is well known that during construction technologies of WMA showed tendencies for increased rutting because of reduced ageing. However, in trails of laboratory better performance revealed by wax-based additives at pavement service temperature , the wax crystallizes and provide enhanced stiffness to the mastic. At pavement service temperatures the WMA visco-elastic response effect by wax presence and the related temperature sensitive properties (crystallization and melting). This study mainly examined on such type of problems for wax and chemical based additives along with a control hot mix asphalt (HMA) binder. The Study showed three essential results. During first result, binder’s rheological response is characterized, in second the rutting and third result showed the calculation of mixtures mechanical properties. It is concluded that mixture of bitumen’s having wax based additives showed better rutting resistance characteristic below temperature of 40 degree C. Same response given in the range of 40–50 ◦C temperature while more prone to rutting at the temperature above 50 ◦C as compared to mixture of HMA. More ever high rutting was shown consistently in WMA mixture with chemical additives


To adventure the thermal energy storage properties of phase change materials (PCM), it is necessary to investigate its retention in the pores of concrete. This research work is focused on sensible thermal energy storage composite material system using aluminosilicate rich mud and milled glass powder as source material with phase change material PCM was incorporated in the proportion of 0 %, 5 %, 10 % and 15 by weight with aggregate of geopolymeric mixture composed of red mud and milled glass powder. Red mud and milled glass powder are the source materials which contain optimum ratio of silica and alumina which are basic ingredients for geopolymeric reaction. The ratio of chemical activators (Na2SiO3/NaOH=2.5, 15M) and source materials were kept constant while the ratio of PCM were changed by different weight percent. PCM based geopolymeric slurry was obtained after 30 min mixing with the speed of 120rpm. PCM based geopolymeric paste was pressed in the mould of 50 mm2 at 10 MPa. The prepared mixed geopolymeric concrete was tested for compressive strength, thermal conductance and porosity through universal testing machine (UTM), conductive meter and water absorption method respectively to achieve the acceptable level for applications in buildings for enhancement of their energy. Addition of 10 % by wt PCM provide optimum compressive strength of 28.64MPa, thermal conductance of 2.811 W/m.K, porosity of 3.7 % and the latest heat of 179.2 KJ/kg. Different characterization techniques i.e: XRD, XRF, SEM and flam test were conducted for PCM based geopolymeric material investigation.

Community and Individual level socio-demographic determinants of routine Measles immunization uptake: Profile from measles endemic country Pakistan []

ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the availability of a safe, cheap and effective vaccine for measles and inspiring success stories of the elimination and eradication of this disease from major regions of the world, it is still endemic in Pakistan. Repeated national level campaigns have taken place but the coverage still remains below the optimal level. Therefore, this study aims to explore any socio-demographic factors which may be responsible for the reduced uptake of Measles vaccine in Pakistan. Methods: Secondary data analysis of the recent most available Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2012-13 was carried out. The Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2012-13 is a National level cross sectional survey which included a household sample of 14000 households. In the PDHS survey, mothers with the youngest child between the ages of 12-23 months were selected and vaccination status of the child was inquired through a questionnaire. The Measles vaccination status of a child was taken as an outcome variable in our study. Socio-demographic determinants of childhood vaccination uptake were identified through literature review and were taken as exposure variables. Associations between the exposure and outcome variables were calculated through multivariable binary logistic regression. The results were displayed using Unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios with 95% CI and p values. . Results: The study results revealed a prevalence of measles vaccination uptake to be 60.9%. The socio- demographic factors influencing the Measles vaccine uptake by children included their type of residence, region of residence, wealth quintile of the family and local access to health care facility. Individual level factors affecting the uptake included maternal age, education and empowerment. Individual factors of the child influencing this uptake were identified as the gender of the child and the birth order. Increased likelihood of the child receiving the vaccination was found with urban residence, higher education status of mother, older age of mother, maternal empowerment, family wealth quintile, access to health care facility, possession of mobile phone, male gender and lower birth order of child. Maternal age, education status and empowerment were found to have the greatest impact on the uptake of Measles vaccination among children in Pakistan. Conclusion: Despite repeated national level high costing campaigns, measles vaccination uptake is still much below the optimal level. Targeted interventions are needed to focus on the socio-demographic determinants of vaccine uptake identified in this study, to achieve the optimal uptake of Measles vaccination among Pakistani children below 2 years of age.

The Impact of Motivation On Employee-Satisfaction and Work-Performance Within Ghana's Hospitality Industry []

The study provides empirical evidence for the impact of motivation packages on employee-satisfaction and work-performance within Ghana’s hospitality industry. A multistage sampling technique involving the purposive selection of three hotels and one restaurant and the stratified categorization of the population into sub-groups based on the different departments within these establishments, was used in the random selection of 202 employees from some selected hotels and restaurants within Accra. The study set out to identify motivation factors within the industry and assess the impact of motivation on the satisfaction and performance of employees. The independent variables (motivation factors) as well as the dependent variables (employee-satisfaction and work-performance) were modeled into two multiple regression equations, the results of which showed that the most important predictors of employee-satisfaction are good working conditions and job security while salary and skills & knowledge development impact work-performance the most. The results showed a positive relationship between motivation and all significant variables, with salary having the most impact on work-performance.

Dynamical System on Three – Dimensional Almost f-Cosymplectic Manifolds []

Abstract The study addressed the Dynamical System on three- Almost f-Cosymplectic Manifolds and its applications in Mechanics using differential manifold techniques. It has been found that triple (M^3,ϕ.ξ,η,g) is Hamiltonian mechanical system on 3- Almost f-Cosymplectic Manifolds (M^3,ϕ.ξ,η,g).


All over the world, construction industry plays very essential role in the economic condition of the country. Beside this, in construction industry , during construction of buildings at different level large number of deaths and injuries occurred as compared to other industries are considered. As a result, on construction sites maintaining safety of adequate level becomes more important, and among the construction industry personnel through raising of safety climate it can be promoted. The main aim of this study is to find those factors which influencing the construction industry through safety climate. The data for this research study was collected form literature review .For the process of key factors determination, in this study journals included on the Web of Science platform were only considered. Based on literature review results, 18 numbers of factors were found and classified in two different groups such as management related and worker related safety climate factors. Based on analysis and results it was concluded the management related team in any organization had the greatest effect on safety climate. Thus, as a result for safety measure ,this group is considered as accountable.

Fortification of Carrot Flour as a Source of Vitamin-A for Levels of Preference of Otak-otak Snakehead Fish. []

Increasing the vitamin-A content in fish jelly fish products can be done by adding carrot flour. This study aimed to produce the most preferred otak-otak based on the percentage of carrot flour addition. The study was conducted from December 2019 to January 2020. Otak-otak processing and organoleptic testing were carried out at the Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences and chemical analysis carried out at the Food Technology Laboratory of the Faculty of Engineering, Pasundan University, Bandung. The method used in this research is an experimental method with 5 treatments adding carrot flour and 20 semi-trained panelists as replicates with a level of 0%; 5%; 10%; 15%; and 20%. The parameters observed were the yield of carrot flour, organoleptic characteristics which include appearance, aroma, texture, taste of the otak-otak folding test and chemical tests (protein content, ash content, water content, carotene content in control treatments and the results of the study concluded that the addition of carrot flour by 10% is the most preferred treatment having a median appearance value of 8 (highly preferred), aroma, texture and taste 7 (preferred) with proximate test results of 11.50% protein content, levels ash 1.61%, water content 34.27%, and carotene content 29.6 ppm or 32.26 IU.


ABSTRACT The study included study the effect of the aqueous extracts for (Myrtle, Ment, Eucalyptus, Rosemary) on the germination and growth of two types of flowers. Where an aqueous extract of dry (Myrtle, Ment, Eucalyptus, Rosemary) leaves was prepared in concentrations (2.5, 5%) in addition to distilled water (compared), to study their effect on the germination and growth of Cheiranthus cheiri and corn Flower plants. The results showed a significant decrease in the germination percentage, as well as a decrease in Seedlings Vigor Index , as the results indicated a decrease in the root length of a plant. corn Flower Show the highest rate of decrease (76.92%) caused by the aqueous extracts of Myrtle at 5%. The results showed that the treatment with aqueous extracts (Myrtle, Mint, Eucalyptus, Rosemary) caused a variation in the phase factor and cleavage index of the studied plants. The results showed that the treatment with aqueous extracts (Myrtle, Mint, Eucalyptus, Rosemary) caused a variation in the coefficient of division and coefficient of phase at the root tip for all plants in studied. Most of the aqueous extracts caused a decrease in the coefficient of division at the root tip of the Cheiranthus cheiri, and corn Flower was observed that the coefficient of division increased with the effect of most of the aqueous extracts except the decrease by aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus and mint at 2.5% and Myrtle aqueous extract at 5%. This study showed that the Eucalyptus, mint, and rosemary plants contain most of the active compounds such as Terpenes ,steroids, saponins, flavonoids, resins, and Glycosides ,while Myrtle gave a negative result in detecting terpenes, and saponins.

An Assessment of the Role of Enforcement in Promotion of Compliance to Environmental Standards in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria []

This study examined the role of enforcement in the promotion of compliance to environmental standards in Ibadan Metropolis. It also identified various enforcement actions of government and investigated the various environmental management tools that promote compliance. This was with the view to identifying the challenges and prospect of enforcement of environmental laws in Ibadan metropolis providing a platform for rapid generation of data for environment related decision making and promoting compliance to environmental standards in Ibadan metropolis. This research focused on the major regulatory authorities overseeing environmental compliance and monitoring in Ibadan. The primary source of data involves the conduct of interview with regulatory bodies in Ibadan Metropolis and the use of properly structured questionnaire. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered to workers of four enforcement agencies in the study area. The data collected from the field was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the analysis showed that 52% of the respondents indicated that enforcement promotes compliance to environmental laws, 46% of the respondent stated otherwise that enforcement do not promote compliance to environmental laws while 2% of the respondents do not know the effects of enforcement to compliance promotion. Environmental Management Plan (38%), relevant regulations (34%), environmental impact assessment (16%), and environmental audit (12%) were indicated as environmental managment tools used in Ibadan. 33% of respondents stated that environmental management tools are moderately enforced, 30% said they were very effective, 15% said they were not effective, 8% said they don’t know, while 6% were indifferent. Also 38% of respondent agreed that enforcement efforts of government were well executed, 26% agreed that it was moderately executed, 22% were undecided. 36% of the respondents agreed that lack of awareness has been hindering the enforcement of statutory environmental legislation, 26% said it was lack of training, 20% said it was inadequate funding, while the remaining percentage 18% said it was poor understanding of legislation. The research concluded that diligent enforcement of environmental laws and relevant management tools promotes compliance to environmental laws and regulations.


Housing affordability has been remained the illuminating agenda of every government, but the factual targeted demand was never addressed due to number of challenges and constraints. Often, the development of such project worked exclusively, rather not integrating the other dimensions. In light to cater the gap, this paper exhibit the path that can laid the foundations to achieve affordable housing in a sustainable way by integrating the finance, design standards and pricing. While the further lights has been put upon the fundamental principles and their implications to accomplish the affordable housing by adopting the successful simplified and integrated design models for housing projects in Pakistan. Whereas, the affordability must be combined with the cost recovery for sustainable and replicable housing projects in case of non-existence of development grant and least / zero interest loans. The multiple variables should be kept in mind to attain the successful housing projects such as realistic demand and supply, developer and housing finance options, construction marketability, effective and efficient planning and development standards, and demanding legislative and institutional framework etc. However, this paper briefly exhibits the innovative models for affordable housing, being implemented globally, to be adopted in Pakistan to address the housing challenges. Through investigating the numerous alternatives models by using different planning and development standards along with the financing options, this paper also describes the way forward to accomplish the affordable housing projects.


Rotation is motion and vice versa . Rotation of oxygen in the human body is the respiration. Respiration is the inhalation , absorption and exhalation of oxygen in the human body .So respiration of oxygen in the human body is a motion . Life is a motion as it moves from the birth to the death. Hence respiration of oxygen is the life of the living society. If a force is applied on a wheel and that force simultaneously converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force then the wheel moves forward on the road. So in a rotation, every point of a wheel moves simultaneously in a vertical cycloid path as well as a horizontal straight line path. The vertical cycloid path of the point is moved by the centripetal force and simultaneously the horizontal straight line path of the same point is covered by the centrifugal force . The following law is derived from the motion of a wheel on the road , LAW OF MOTION ----------------------- Nrusingh’s 1st law (a) INERTIA OF REST : A body is at rest, until the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . (b) INERTIA OF MOTION : A body is at motion, as long as the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 1st law THE FORCE OF ACTION IS ALWAYS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF OPPOSITE REACTION AND ABSORPTION ------------------- Nrusingh’s 2nd law i.e. 14 PARTS ACTION = 3 PARTS ABSORPTION + 11 PARTS REACTION i.e. ACTION = REACTION + ABSORPTION The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 2nd law Force = (11/14) mass * acceleration ---------- Nrusingh’s 3rd law where (11/14) is the constant of proportionality Nrusingh’s 2nd law is 14 PARTS ACTION = 3 PARTS ABSORPTION + 11 PARTS REACTION It states that, If a road absorbs 3 parts of the force out of 14 parts of the force by means of a wheel , then it allows the wheel to move on it by the rest 11 parts of the force. Similarly if a human body absorbs 3 parts of the oxygen out of 14 parts of it , then the body allows the rest 11 parts of the oxygen to form carbon dioxide in his body. The respiration of oxygen in the human body works according to the above law , So Nrusingh’s 2nd law is the life of the livimg society . The above law can also be expressed in another way as follows , ACTION = REACTION + ABSORPTION Hence how the respiration of oxygen in the human body obeys the above law is explained below by taking the percentages of oxygen available in the atmosphere .


A consumer preference is a predisposition of consumer to choose one thing over the other (one product over the other). Consumers’ behavioural factors such as social, personal and psychological factors affect consumers on their purchase decisions. Apart from consumers’ behaviour, product attributes such as price, quality, style and fashion are also determinant factor for consumers’ preferences. Based on these concepts, the objective of the study is to identify and analyze factors that affect consumer preferences of domestic garments such as T-shirts, Shirts, Trousers, Sweaters, Knitted under wears and jackets. This study was conducted on factors affecting consumer preferences of domestically produced Garments. The basic reason to conduct the study is the declining trend of sales performance of domestically produced garments in domestic markets from 85% in 2006 to 70.8% in 2008, and from 70% to 59% from 2009 to 2010 on average. The reason that caused the decline of demand in local market for such product was the curiosity behind the study. Hypotheses were formulated to test for how significantly the presumed factors affect consumer preferences. Hypothesis one was tested using one sample z-test while the rests were tested using one sample t-test. Various literatures and research works are reviewed about these factors to get the understanding of the theoretical framework. The primary source of data for the study were consumers found in Addis Ababa that were encountered during the study time, and domestic garment producers which are found in Addis Ababa and within 60 km radius of Addis Ababa. Garment Shops from seven major market areas such as Merkato are judgementally selected, and a sample size of 331 consumers who were conveniently available, but by selecting randomly the 3rd entrant, keeping separate for male and female was selected. Data were collected through scheduled questionnaires from consumers where enumerators fill the response on questionnaires. But from 16 sample producers, it was collected through semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using SPSS version 17 (Statistical Package for Social Science) and presented using tables and pie charts. The study found that product attributes such as garment quality, design and color are the major factors negatively affecting consumer preferences of domestic garments. From behavioural factors, self-concept plays a major role in affecting their preference of local garments followed by friends’ influence. The study recommended that the garment manufacturers and the government should work on access to input to combat the delay of these input that extremely affects the garment quality.


This study aims to determine the effect of dividend policy and investment decisions on capital structure and profitability.This research was conducted in the manufacturing company sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in 2014-2018. The manufacturing sector was chosen because BEI in its activities further strengthened this sector with the aim of increasing competitiveness and developing the manufacturing industry. This type of research is an explanatory research with a quantitative approach. The population of this study is the manufacturing sector which was listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2014-2018. The total population in this study was 163 companies. This research sampled using a purposive sampling technique and retrieved 44 companies sample.The data analysis method used in this study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using the AMOS program. The results of this study indicate that: 1. Dividend policy has a negative and significant effect on capital structure, 2. Investment decisions have a negative and not significant effect on capital structure, 3. Dividend policy has a positive and not significant effect on profitability, 4. Investment decisions have a positive and significant towards profitability, 5. Dividend Policy has positive and significant effect on profitability through capital structure, 6. Investment decision has positive and insignificant effect on profitability through capital structure, 7. capital structure has negative and significant effect on profitability.


A cross sectional study was conducted in Sheno veterinary clinic, Ethiopia from August 2018 to March 2019. The objectives of study were to estimate the prevalence of lungworm infection and associated risk factors in sheep. Coproscopic examination was done by using a modified Baermann technique. Fecal samples were collected from randomly selected sheep of systematically chosen households. The study animals were composed of different breeds, age groups, sexes, management systems, and subjected to different health care conditions. Out of 384 sheep examined, 69 (17.9%) were found to be positive for one or more species of lungworm parasites. Dictyocaulus filaria (6.8%) was the predominant species of parasite identified followed by Muellerius capillaries (4.7%) Protostrongylus rufescens (2.6%) and mixed infection of D. filaria and M. capillaries (3.9%). There was statistically significant difference in prevalence of lungworm parasite (P<0.05) among the risk factor like body conditions of animals. Animals with young age, not dewormed, and managed under extensive production system were more infected with the parasites. On the other hand, the prevalence of the parasites among management, age groups, deworming history and sexes showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Despite the smaller prevalence observed in this study, ovine lungworm is still a constraint to sheep in the area in different season of the year, and therefore, vigorous controlling strategy should be implemented to reduce the prevalence of infection. Keywords: Sheno; Lungworm; Prevalence; Risk Factors and Sheep