Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]   [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]  [7]  [8]


The study assessed the Impact of Government Financial Management (GIFMIS) reform on the Financial Management Practices in Nigerian Universities for the period of Five (5) years 2012-2016. The population of the study was Accountants, Administrators, Internal Auditors and IT specialists working in the Registry, Bursary and Internal Audit Units drawn from Five (5) selected Nigerian federally- owned Universities. The sample size was 80 using Yamane Taro (1967) formulae; the research used both primary(Questionnaires and secondary (Textbooks and other articles) means of data collection, However 52 usable questionnaires were returned, the data collated were analysed and presented using tables and simple percentages and Bar Chart, the test of hypotheses was performed using the Chi-square tool of analysis, the results of descriptive statistics revealed that, the GIFMIS reform has positive impacts on the Financial Management Practices etc. also the empirical results revealed that the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternate hypothesis accepted suggesting that, there are positive impacts of GIFMIS on Financial Management Practices. Finally the study findings suggest that, The Government should create more awareness on the new GIFMIS functionality and its objectives; this will help employees to understand them very well. More personnel should be included in the processes, and also there is need to train them, this will help in establishing good system. There are needs to establish more control measures, computerised system are susceptible to catastrophic fraud or errors, this will secured the system and equally yield the desired results.


The human nose is a prominent facial feature with good potentials for human recognition. Its morphology is particularly very vital to forensic analyses, gender differences, personality identification, facial reconstructions and biological variability amongst ethnic groups. Studies revealed that noses unlike other facial features, such as eyes or ears are difficult to conceal and cannot be disguised without looking suspicious. Additionally, human nose recognition processing methods are relatively simple, reliable and showed good potentials for use as a biometric trait with better recognition rate than the whole face recognition, however it has not been well considered in the domain. Therefore, this work explored the general morphology of human nose, present nose recognition methodologies and further developed a nose biometric recognition system using the two robust recognition approaches considered the nest in this work (the curvature-based landmark detection technique and nose ridge profile approach) as a result of their computational efficiency and intrinsic simplicity. The approach involves measuring the width and length of the nose, calculation of nasal index and nose resemblance degree respectively. Data used for the study were randomly collected from 105 adult subjects comprises of 50 females and 55 males from different tribes in Nigeria. Experimental results showed that the two approaches showed a good performance of 98 % and 96% in terms of average recognition rate (ARR) with average time taken of 17 seconds and 1 seconds respectively. The results obtained were considered better, when compared to state-of-the-art works published in the domain.


Paying more attention to the elderly and disabled people has become an essential part of a developed society. It means they need to be looked after when the responsible people are not around. That means using an automated system is compulsory in fulfilling this objective. The concept of visual attention model for mobile robot navigation in domestic environment is used in this research paper. This solution is mainly aimed on elderly and disabled people. This helps them to obtain a desired object by action recognition using computer vision. In this paper it proposes a method to deliver an object that is required by the elderly or disabled user. First, the robot identifies the hand gesture shown by the user to identify the direction where the objects are used to complete this task. Then it identifies the hand gesture shown by the user, which is representing the required object number, by using the convexity defects detection method. After that robot navigates to the target object by avoiding obstacles IR sensor is used to detect and avoid obstacles. In this process, objects are placed in predefined places in the room. Then the robot platform reaches the object shown by the user and then returns to the user. To measure the angles rotated by the platform, a gyro sensor is used. The main process is calculating the distance values to the required objects. Kinect V2 camera is used to calculate the depth values.


The concept of human and robot interaction has been raised in many ways, such as social, economic, medical, and military. Human and robot collaboration is the new direction that allows humans to perform tasks efficiently. Communication between humans and robots is limited due to robot-human interfacing difficulties. This study provides an overview of hand gesture recognition to understand robot-human interaction by providing methods to identify gesture models, objects, and persons by using image processing techniques. The study aims to develop an interactive service robot eye which is capable of the vision-based system to identify the human hand gesture. In this study, Microsoft Kinect Camera Sensor was used to capture the hand gesture. The efficiency of the system was found that approximately 90% within the optimal distance of 4-5 feet from Kinetic Sensor.

Catalase enzyme indrug and food industry []

Catalase enzyme breaks down H2O2 and produces water and oxygen. It is present almost in all organisms. Catalase enzyme is used in various sectors of biotechnology like bioremediation, biodegradation etc. Catalase plays role in food processing, improving nutritional values of food. To maintain the color and aroma of food a catalase-based system has been introduced. Sodium azide is a chemical which is poisonous and highly toxic is used in agriculture to control the pests. This chemical is also used as preservative in the laboratories.The utilization of catalases in the pharmaceutical industry has been known for various redox responses. The purged catalaseperoxidase from Bacillus pumilus was abused for oxidation of pharmacophore for anti-infection agents (i.e., β-lactams) into their sulfoxides in less time than the synthetic course with enantio unadulterated structure squares.There are many diseases that are associated with deficiency of catalase. These are divided into main three groups metabolic, neurological and other disorders. Hypertension, diabetes type I, diabetes types II, impaired tolerance to glucose, insulin resistance and osteoporosis are included in metabolic disorders. While neurological disorders included Schizophrenia, Alzheimer, bipolar and Parkinson disorders. Other disorders are Asthma, anemia, Wilson, acatalasemia and cancer.


Urban Heat Island (UHI) is the name given to the characteristics warmth of both the atmosphere and lithosphere in cities (urban) compared to their rural (non-urbanized) surroundings. This study was directed towards studying urban heat island situation in Awka, Anambra state. During the study transect and fixed temperature of some selected locations were measured to determine spatial extent of UHI in Awka. The study revealed both the positive and negative impacts of UHI in Awka. Results demonstrate that land-use/land-cover correlates with temperature range in Awka capital territory i.e. temperature correlates with the concentration of urban structures, population density and human activities. Temperature gradient are formed at the central business district (CBD) in the downtown areas and progressively lowered to the suburbs. The study suggested the pursue of high-density green over, reflective roofing materials wit h high albedo, building massing (arcades) and lightening of pavements as adaptive/mitigation measures against UHI in Awka urban.

How to Understand China’s Measures to Fight Against COVID19 and its Values and Contributions to other Countries []

The symptom of COVID-19 has observed on January first at Wuhan city of china. The first large-scale study of the epidemic, released by the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention on February 18th, reports that the trend in new cases has peaked and is starting to fall. Thus, the China’s government has taken an effective measure to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in terms the draconian lockdowns and travel restrictions instituted nationwide. Then China has controlled within a specific period of time. However, the coronavirus disease has fatally disseminated throughout the world and killed thousands of people within a day. Therefore, most of the countries in the world which follow China’s example, have been protecting the coronavirus while countries which initially criticized its controlling mechanism, have become harassed though later applied its measurement. In doing so, this article examines the China’s splendid protective mechanisms to fight against COVID-19; and also its values and cooperatives to other countries in the world.

Decoding Depression:A Narrative Review of Its Molecular Mechanism and Emerging Treatments []

Depression refers to a range of mental problems characterized by loss of interest and enjoyment in ordinary experiences, low mood and associated emotional, cognitive, physical and behavioral symptoms (Penninx et al., 2013). It is currently one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity, which occurs in all genders, ages, and social backgrounds. This problem is often explained through psychiatric inquiries which incorporates physiological facts. Researchers are now looking into different lenses to better understand the problem. Among these lenses is the molecular mechanism of depression. In this paper, a systematic review of the different published literatures discussing the molecular mechanisms of depression and the interventions used to treat the said problem was established. Molecular mechanisms of depression are described in this paper in terms of its genetic and physiological-metabolic, neurological and cardiovascular- aspects. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of depression has provided alternative molecular targets. Depressive symptoms can be improved by altering the actions of glutamate in the brain, enhancing the function of GABA-releasing interneurons, selective blocking of neurokinin-2 (NK2) and considering the potential effects of chromium, based on various studies. Indeed, the molecular mechanism of depression is so complex to decipher that we could not totally exterminate its occurrence in the society even with our current medical advances. However, with continuous review and innovation in the field psychiatric care, this disorder could become more manageable in the future.


Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the role of student councils in enhancing discipline in public secondary schools in Matuga Sub-county in Kwale County. The study was guided by the following objectives: to establish the mode of selection of students’ council in public secondary schools, and to examine the effects of students’ council involvement in decision making process affectsstudents’ discipline in public secondary schools. This study adopted the descriptive survey design. The target population included prefects, students and administrators (principals and deputy principals) in public secondary schools. The study collected data through the use of structured questionnaires which were given to the sampled respondents. Validity was determined using spearman’s correlation which yielded a reliability coefficient was 0.78. Descriptive statistics was used and data was presented in frequency tables and percentages. The study found that 68% of the respondents supported democratic selection of prefects while again 68% of the respondents strongly felt that prefects should be engaged in formulating school rules and regulation. Based on the findings of this study the researcher recommended that all public secondary schools should adopt the democratic selection of student leaders and also involve prefects in schools decision making. For further research, a study should be carried out on the effectiveness of having student council trained. Another study should be on how and to what extent student leaders can be involved in decision making on student discipline issues within the school. Key words: Decision making, Student councils, Student’s participation, Student’s discipline

The Effectiveness of the Addition of Red Dragon Fruit Peel Extract on Feed to Enhancement Color Brightness of Clownfish (Amphiprion percula) []

This research aims to obtain the optimum concentration of red dragon fruit peel extract in the artificial feed to improve color enhacement of clownfish (Amphiprion percula). Research preparation of red dragon fruit extraction was carried out on November-December 2019 at Central Laboratory of Universitas Padjadjaran while the main research was carried out for 42 days at the Main Center for Marine Aquaculture, Lampung. The research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. The feed used in the treatments were feed with concentration of 0 ppm (treatment A), 200 ppm (treatment B), 300 ppm (treatment C), 400 ppm (treatment D) and 500 ppm (treatment E) of red dragon fruit peel extract. Clownfish (Amphiprion percula) used in this research was ± 2 months old with length ranging from 2-3 cm while density of fish was kept at 1 fish/1 L (10 fish per aquarium). Brightness level of the fish color was analyzed using non-parametric statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test) while survival rate and water quality was also measured. The results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extract had a significant effect on increasing the brightness of clownfish (Amphiprion percula). The highest level of color brightness was found in the treatment E which was artificial feed enhanced with red dragon fruit peel extract with the concentration of 500 ppm. Keywords: Red Dragon Fruit Peel Extract, Clownfish, Color Brightness Level


Abstract This study determined the relationship between audit quality and firm value of listed insurance companies in Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was used, data was extracted from annual reports and accounts of the listed Insurance companies for five years (2015-2019). Data were analyzed using multiple regression techniques; the results revealed that the Audit firm size has a negative relationship with firm value; the relationship is statistically significant. Audit firm tenure is negatively related to firm value; however, the relationship is not statistically significant. Audit fees have a positive and significant impact on firm value. Company size has a positive and significant impact on firm value. However, the relationship between company age and firm value is positive but not statistically significant. The study recommends that insurance companies should reduce the number of years same audit firm is serving since longer audit firm tenure affect firm value negatively. Keywords: Audit Quality, Firm Value and Insurance Companies

COVID-19 Pandemic Induced Challenges and Opportunities in Ethiopia: Situational Analysis Based on Global and National Evidences []

The COVID-19 pandemic is among the cross cutting health problems of the twenty first century on the world that have resulting sever human and socio-economic crises. The objective of this study was to examine the COVID-19 pandemic induced challenges and opportunities in Ethiopia based on global and national level evidences. The author has collected and analyzed articles and reports collected from trusted academic journals, government and non-governmental organizations, public Medias, amended website which are related to COVID-19 pandemic and personal observation since the outbreak of the pandemic. The result revealed that since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic different human and socio-economic crises were happened in the country. The finding indicated that the COVID-19 pandemic created better opportunities like strong collaboration and mutual support among social institutions in the country, improves humanitarian involvement to support people at risk, strengthen the research insights, innovation practices, and the self-care practices of citizens from risky health behavior. The pandemic is challenging the sustainable development efforts of the Ethiopia’s government and nations. Hence, having unity and collaborative work between professionals from different backgrounds, policy makers, researchers, administrative agents and the wider community is must to slow down the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Key Words: COVID-19 Pandemic, Health, COVID-19 Challenges, COVID-19 Opportunities, social institutions

Youth Unemployment and its impacts; A study in Assela city Administration []

Youth unemployment is one of the most dominant socio-economic problems in Ethiopia. Particularly, youth unemployment is higher in urban areas of the country. This study explored the nature of youth unemployment; examine the living conditions, causes of youth unemployment, challenges, and impacts of unemployment on youth living in Assela city administration. A purposive sampling technique and a qualitative research design with a phenomenological approach were used. As tools to collect data; interview, observation and focus group discussion were used. The primary Data were collected from the unemployed youth themselves. Similarly, secondary data were also collected through reviewing the documents obtained from Assela city administration, the city administration social affairs office. The study revealed that unemployed youths are facing many psycho-social and economic challenges while living in the community. Thus, disrespect, depression, and low self-esteem are common among unemployed youth of the study area. Key words Youth, unemployment, impacts, challenges

Economics of Wheat Production with Happy Seeder in Rice-Wheat Cropping System of Punjab, Pakistan []

Adoption of zero tillage (ZT) with Happy Seeder (HS) is needed in rice-wheat cropping system for timely field operations and sowing of wheat. A survey was conducted after harvesting of wheat crop 2018-19 to estimate the economics of wheat production with HS in rice-wheat cropping system as well as to record the farmer’s perception regarding its adoptability. District Gujranwala was selected purposively with the sample size of 100 in rice-wheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan. The data revealed that few farmers had their owned happy seeder (2%) and laser land leveler (5%), respectively, among the targeted population. Maximum wheat sowing (53%) with HS was recorded on sowing dates from Nov. 15th to 30th indicating timely sowing. The yield, net benefit and BCR were higher by 7.69, 44% and 58.95%, respectively in HS primarily due to reduction in operational cost by 33.80% than conventional tillage (CT) broadcasting method. Sowing of wheat with HS lead to savings in cost incurred on land preparation (100%), seed (8.27%), irrigation (12.46%) and fertilizer (11.70%) in comparison to CT method. In conclusion, zero tillage with HS is the solution for timely wheat sowing in rice-wheat cropping system, and saving of operational and sowing cost as farmers are reluctant to prepare fine seed bed for sowing of wheat; hence it could be adopted for uplifting of wheat production and economic growth. Keywords Adoption; Economics; Happy Seeder; Rice-wheat cropping system; Zero tillage

Phytochemicals Comparison of some Selected Plant Leaves Extracts []

Abstract The importance of the selected plants for treating different forms of diseases locally in Oyo State, Nigeria and the reason to quantify the various secondary metabolites present in them gave rise to the research work. The plant samples were collected and air dried. Extraction was carried out using recommended protocol without modification. The tannin content of Vernonia amygdalina (0.197±0.002amg/g) was better and higher than that of Morinda lucida (0.063±0.003amg/g) and Carica papaya (0.048±0.001amg/g) respectively. The Phenol content of Vernonia amygdalina (0.510±0.004amg/g) was higher than that of Carica papaya (0.498±0.002b mg/g) and Morinda lucida (0.480±0.003b mg/g). The flavonoid content of Morinda lucida (3.690±0.002c mg/g) was more than that of Vernonia amygdalina (3.105±0.003cmg/g) and Carica papaya (2.586±0.004cmg/g). However, the extracts were rich in alkaloid; Vernonia amygdalina (6.689±0.004dmg/g), Carica papaya (6.408±0.002dmg/g) and Morinda lucida (5.042±0.001dmg/g). It could be deduced that the plants showed different contents of metabolites which confirms the application or usefulness of the plants in treating different sicknesses locally in Oyo State. Keyword: Extraction, Alkaloid, Flavonoid, Phenol and Tannin.


Provision of facilities in any habitat needs planned infrastructures to deliver the expected service to the municipality. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), Goal 6 is to “Ensure access to water and sanitation” by 2030. This study was carried in Epe town, Lagos State, to evaluate the current situation of safe water supply and the contributing effects of water infrastructure provision. Questionnaire were administered on the residents and officials of the Lagos Water Corporation Agency, facilities were inspected. Presently municipal water supply infrastructure is disconnected due to the recent road project, while the Odomola water supply scheme is in the new Lagos Water masterplan. Water supply now mainly by personal effort via boreholes, wells and packaged water, with almost 100% water supply self-provided by residents. Implications includes over 54.6% resident drinks unsafe water from borehole, high cost of water supply, and man hour wastage. Public private partnership investment would be the way out, considering fund limitations to address series of infrastructural challenges.


Pollution of groundwater sources is a major concern, as this source of supply is categorized as relatively safe for abstraction; as such monitoring of this source is of high importance. The physico-chemical and micro-biological parameters of water from two (2) boreholes and nineteen (19) hand-dug wells in Maidan Orile around Mile-12 area, within Ikosi-Isheri Local Council Development Area (LCDA) which was part of old Kosofe local government (LGA). Some selected ground water sources in the LCDA was analyzed to evaluate the pollution level. Water samples were collected with laboratory conditioned plastic bottles for analysis. The mineral content was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectro-photometer while the t-test method was used to examine the major physical and chemical variables for water quality parameters in the study area. The results of the water analysis were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). Most of the physico-chemical parameters were not within WHO standards, over 40% of the wells has pH below 6.0, with a mean of 6.11 for boreholes and wells; they tends towards acidic condition below the average of 6.27 for Ogun river. The maximum Iron (fe) content of 15.07 mg/l recorded is in excess of the limit of 0.3 mg/l. Total coliform count ranges from 0 - 30×101 cfu/ml above the WHO standard of 0.00 cfu/ml and the mean of 23.33×101 cfu/ml for Ogun river. These results shows that the ground water sources has been polluted by other observed sources of pollution which includes; open cow ranches for grazing, septic tanks leakages, fish pond waste water discharge, surface solid waste disposal. Recommendations includes; groundwater sources to be treated for microbial contaminants before consumption, needs for routine quality checks to ascertain pollution status, and more importantly, high sanitary condition should be maintained around boreholes and wells.


All over the world it was very challenging problem for construction industries to measure the construction industry productivity growth because consistent production deflator was unusual. To know the better measurement of productivity growth from the Bureau of Labor Statistics research group reported first by this paper. Where deflators were not present, a positive productivity growth was shown by the results in industries. As per quantitative data the reduction in productivity growth due to shifting of labor was found 0.4% per year. The Productivity was reduced only 0.1% per year because of regulation which influence the productivity negatively. In construction industry undocumented immigrants are more essential which work off the books. It was concluded only 0.1% per year productivity growth is observed with presence of increase unauthorized labors. More ever it is noted that all factors together cannot explain productivity less growth in construction as compared to the rest of economy. Thus, it is recommended to include new industries like schools, warehouses, and industries of contractor etc. to study it in broader range.


Globalization has contributed so much benefits to the world in terms of products, services and many others. Many global brands have expanded their operation in different countries giving opportunity to citizens of different countries to experience their products and enjoy loyalty of their customers. Unfortunately for some other global brands, this might not be the case. It is very crucial to properly analyze the challenges any global brand will encounter in a new market. The success of any global brand is its ability to compete in the local setting wherein local brands offering the same products enjoy the loyalty of local consumers therefore the global brands must be able to offer something unique to gain trust and loyalty from its target market.

The Economic Effect Analysis of Wolaita rural children: A Perception of Lottery venders Wolaita, Ethiopia []

A lottery is a form of gambling from which revenue is obtained. Today many countries operate lotteries to increase their national income. Ethiopia had reestablished national lottery administration by proclamation no535/2007 intending to generate national revenue that could contribute to financing economic and social development programs and supervising lottery activities. In the lottery activities, children are taking part in taking from retailers by fixed commission and agreements. Many of the children from the Wolaita zone engaged in lottery ticket sales in big towns of the country. The main objective of this study was to assess the economic effects of lottery sales on Wolaita rural children. Specifically, the study was aimed to investigate the economic factors (push/pull) that make lottery sellers to engage in the lottery ticket sale, to explore the challenges and opportunities of lottery sellers in the new environment, to distinguish the contribution of lottery sales for the children’s families economic life improvements and To find out the economic effects of lottery sales for lottery sellers/. This study used a descriptive cross-sectional research design. The sample size was determined by using yemane formula (1967) and 204 households were selected through multi-stage sampling techniques. The quantitative data were entered into SPSS version 20 and analyzed. The qualitative data were obtained through an interview with the social workers unit of the sampled woreda, lottery vendors in the area of destination, and FGD with composite groups of 36, each group consisting of 6. The results of the study show that the factors that push children from the area of origin are a land shortage, peer pressure, the role of child traffickers, absenteeism of parents, lack of soil fertility, the poor living condition of the parents. The pull factors of lottery vending are seeking a better life and job opportunities in the towns. The economic impact is low on the part of families and children and it created low employment opportunities as children are not beneficial. It is child labor exploitation for they are not beneficial after moving long-distance and selling lottery tickets.

An Exploration of the Socio- Cultural statues of the lottery salespersons: the case of Wolaita Children in southern Ethiopia []

This study explores the socio-cultural status of Wolaita children who were involved in Lottery sales. Specifically, the study was aimed to investigate the socio-cultural factors (push/pull) that make lottery sellers to engage in the lottery ticket sale, to explore the challenges and opportunities of lottery sellers in the new environment, to distinguish the contribution of lottery sales for the children’s families cultural and social life improvements and To find out the cultural and social effects of lottery sales for lottery vendors. It is child labor exploitation for they are not beneficial after moving long-distance and selling lottery tickets. Besides, the children are challenged in the new environment by robbery, physical and mental damage, and lack of education. The socio-cultural effect was that it increases socialization, exposure to physical and mental damage, robbery, and drop out of school, misperception of society about lottery sales that considering it illegal affects children's Psychology. Thus, the result indicates that children were not socially and frugally beneficial by lottery sales

The Nature and Consequences of Slum Settlement in Jimma City on the Life of Settlers: The Case of Hirmata-Mentina Kebele []

The Nature and Consequences of Slum Settlement in Jimma City on the Life of Settlers: The Case of Hirmata-Mentina Kebele Nigus Shimelis Abstract Urbanization in Ethiopia is at a very low standard; and rapid population growth because of high fertility rate, and rural urban migration. Informal settlement in Ethiopia’s urbanization process has resulted from social, political, and economy related problems. Informal settlements are characterized by unauthorized invasion and development of land, illegal subdivision, lack of basic social services and infrastructures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the Nature and Possible Consequences of Slum Settlement in Jimma City on the Life of Settlers: in Hirmata-Mentina Kebele, Jimma, Ethiopia. A qualitative research method was employed to conduct the study through the use of in-depth interview, key informant interview and focus group discussion. The study revealed that the nature and the degree of problem at slum settlement are changed from time to time from good to the worst situation. The nature of the problems that currently exist in the slum areas of the Jimma city are situated to four reasons. These are: socio-economic reasons, communal reasons, administrative reasons, and institutional reasons. Dwellers in the area of slum are suffered from problems like absence of basic social services, health cases, and environmental pollution. Besides, Women, youths, elders, and children in this area are suffered from unemployment, lack of security and property right absence of care service, food shortage, and water born disease because of the absence of sanitation. The problem of slum settlement could be solved through all-inclusive approach. The government politicians and urban experts on different positions are expected to: build their administrative, financial and institutional capacities in order to carry out their responsibilities successfully, and resourcefully. Key Words Urbanization, Informal settlement, Slum, Social infrastructures


Abstract The globalizing weapon on the non-pharmaceutical facility as the minimum healthcare tool, machinery in combating, attacking and fighting COVID-19 pandemic such as 1) wearing of face mask reveals likelihood in the urban and rural centers where the fast transfer of mobility occurs; 2) washing hands and feet reveals likelihood to both urban and rural areas despite limited available water facility; 3) physical distancing reveals likelihood, however, during riding public utility vehicle, transacting businesses in private and public the institution, buying a grocery store, the congregation of population and relative thereto most of the time facility cannot provide; 4) staying at home reveals favorable likelihood, however, shanty and informal shelters, overcrowding members of the families uneasy and uncomfortable condition in the house tend to stay outside; 5) curfew hours reveals likelihood however, essential (foods, medicine, hospitalization & APOR-Authorize Person Outside Residence) movement of the population doesn’t curtailed mobility; 6) sleeping habit reveals likelihood in the rural and some urban areas except metropolitan and urban centers that are essentials and 7) eating vitaminous foods reveals very high likelihood on the greening and vegetating the environment with the go, grow and glow foods available. It increases surpluses of goods and decreases the price as weaponized by the GLOCAL (Global and Local) island of Mindanao, Philippines as offensively combating, attacking, and fighting COVID-19 pandemic. Generally, the attack of COVID-19 brings positive indication that people challenge and change from the traditional “norms” into a “new normal” using the non-pharmaceutical facility. Short title: Globalization of Non-Pharmaceutical Facility against COVID-19

Adsorption of Navy Blue on Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst by Using Metallic Nanoparticles []

Dyes have the largest range of colors that can readily change our taste. Dyesnecessarily havethe ability to be soluble to a maximum extent or fractionally where it is being applied. Industries are setting free million tons of dyes as a hazardous and toxic discharge. Dyes produced a toxic effect to the global world.(TiO2) Titanium dioxide is a notable substance for the researchers due to its biocompatibility, chemical structure stability, optical, electrical, and physical properties. The efficiency of titanium dioxide was improved by doppingTiO2 with copper using visible light irradiation. CuO/TiO2anatase and Degussa P25 were used to degrade Navy blue dye and havehighphotocatalytic effectiveness in the evacuation of natural contaminants. The amount of debasement of dye as an element of time indicated that the efficiency of degradation is different for both P25 Degussa and CuO/TiO24 wt.%anatase for the same dye. The adsorption of color at its normal pH is higher because of the low negative surface charge on Cu-TiO2 when contrasted with Degussa P25on which the adsorption is less due to the relatively more negative charge on the surface. Decomposition of (NB) was investigated using different concentrations (25, 49, 76, 124, and 149) mg L-1 of Degussa P25 and 4 wt.%CuO/TiO2 and. The total degradation (100%) of dye was investigated at 125 mgL-1 with 4 wt. % CuO/TiO2after 80 minutes. The debasement rate is relative to the measure of OH•/O2•-radicals that are shaped on a superficial levelof the photocatalyst. However, when the same amount of catalyst concentration is used, the active site quantity remains the same. This optimization value of catalyst can be illustrated on the development of OH•/O2•- radicals, as at higher convergence of catalyst progressively dynamic locales are accessible for OH•/O2•-radicals, which increases the adsorption on catalyst surface of dye and ultimately increases the rate of debasement. This factor can be attributed to two reasons, first due to penetration of light in the solution as less light reaches to the catalyst or accumulation of more TiO2 that causes less degradation rate. Secondly, by increasing the interaction of particles in solution consequently increase the deactivation ratio of activated particles by particle collisions at the ground state, so the ratio of debasement decrease. The results revealed that the amount of dye adsorbed on 4 wt.%CuO/TiO2 ¬catalyst surface was higher than the absorption on the Degussa P25 surface.