Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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ABSTRACT The paper attempts to explain the link between the coronavirus pandemic and climate change reversal .climate change is said to be the biggest crisis of our generation, its effect is not as immediate as that of the coronavirus but climate change is certainly an impending doom, one that seeks to wipe us off the face of the earth with extreme weather conditions. The current pandemic is leading to a halt in many economic activities globally this translates to lower global greenhouse emission, a reality that has shown us how quick nature can bounce back. People have been working remotely and buying just the right amount of things they need, this has helped the environment on all levels. The objective of the study is to ascertain that humans can reverse climate change with very good policies. The methodology adopted is that of content analysis. It was therefore concluded that, if the world takes climate change as seriously, as we do the coronavirus, our future is certainly assured.

Design and installation of 10kw energy by Hybrid Solar-Wind System []

A hybrid system combines many type renewable energies like geothermal, hydro power, biomass, wind, solar, geothermal and ocean resources energies to supply a reliable and efficient power to consumer which is depend on their demand. Due to efficiency and reliability of solar-wind power system is more frequently used to meet the consumer demand. A Grid connected system of solar wind which are hybrid is more reliable and produce continuous power to consumer. In this research we design an optimal system for 10kW load by solar wind which is hybrid system. Major role of this system is use an optimal size and selection of PV module, no and type of turbine and inverter to an optimal power system and have minimum cost. In this system the design and implantation of hybrid solar-wind is simulation through to produce a continuous power to a load. The model is implement through MATLAB/SIMULINK. This system supply a power to 10kw load more effectively and can produce to 35KW power.

Assessing the Status, Utilization and Market value chain of Bamboo Species (Case study from chure area of Arghakhanchi District, Nepal) []

Abstract: Important group of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) gifted by nature to mankind which is also known as the “poor man’s timber” or “green gold of the forest, called bamboo which are also important renewable resources which can bring people above the poverty line if grown and managed on sustainable basis. Bamboo plays an important role in the socio-economic development of the rural people, especially for the poor people. The key objective of this study was to assess the status of bamboo, its utilization and market value in the study area from which production and market value as well as to minimize the gap between the farmers and market price are identified. Biophysical data, Key informant survey, Focus group discussion and Household survey were taken for the primary data collection, which were more precised by information from secondary sources. Qualitative and quantitative data collected were analyzed after feeding them into computer software package like MS Excel, ARC GIS 10.5, and SPSS 20. Data analysis was carried out using various statistical tools like mean, frequency and standard deviation analysis. Some figures were also represented in different diagrammatic patterns. The present study reveals that, 5 bamboo species are found in study area, which supports in products like doko, nanglo, chalno, dalo, bhakari, racks, dustbins, photo frames, flower vase and decorative items made from Tama bans (Bambusa nepalensis) is high as compared to other species. Similar utilization of B. nepalensis has been reported from the Mid-hills and the Terai of eastern Nepal and in central and western Nepal.Bambusa nepalensis has the highest diameter, height and basal area. Similarly, diameter, height and basal area growt,h performance of this species is very good. Though Phyllostachys nigra has lowest diameter, height and basal area, growth performance of Phyllostachys nigra is good. Infrastructure development, Marketing system, introduction of modern tools and technology, Skill development program knowledge of people was found to be improved. Key words: NTFPs, Marketing system, utilization, modern tools and technology


Abstract Climate Change is the global challenge of our time to watershed conservation and livelihood security. Although Nepal has a negligible share in the global emission of Greenhouse gases, it is vulnerable to climate change impact due to its fragile mountain ecosystem, which is characterized both by a highly variable climate regime and by fragile ecosystems. Its temperature is increasing at alarming rate 0.06°c per annum more than the global average. To verify this, a case study entitled “Impact of Climate Change on watershed and livelihood of People living in its vicinity” was conducted in Phewa watershed of Kaski district. The main objective of the study was to present the local level climate change impacts on watershed and livelihood of the users‟ and to identify adaptation measures for improving livelihoods of the people while reducing their vulnerability to climate change. Also, the objective of the program is to assess the trend of change in temperature and rainfall in the study area. Various participatory rural appraisal tools and techniques such as household survey, key informants interview, focus group discussion, and trend analysis were done for collecting primary data. Households of all caste and all categories of well-being of people were selected by simple random sampling method. Meteorological data of the study area form the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Pokhara supplement primary information and various published and unpublished literatures were used for collecting secondary data. Collected data were analysed using MS-Excel 2010. The study revealed that majority of the people were dependent on agriculture and it was found this sector had been adversely affected by the climatic variability. Decrease in agricultural production, loss in biodiversity, depleting of water resource and decrease in soil productivity in the area were the impacts observed during field study. A key conclusion coming out of this review is that climate change is not only an issue of international concern but is now a local problem in Nepal. Key words: Climate change, watershed, livelihood, CC impact, CC adaptation


The basic Law on Protection from Smoking in the Republic of North Macedonia (NMK) went into effect in 1995. Ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control back in 2006, NMK had to implement all of the responsibilities taken over from the Convention, resulting in additions and amendments of the Law. This meant banning smoking within the enclosed areas of catering facilities. At the very beginning, the Law came across reactions and contrasting opinions. According to the caterers, the ban on smoking within the catering facilities decreased the profits. The smokers believed are discriminated against, that is, they are deprived of their right to personal choice; and the non-smokers believed that it was high time for law and order equally applicable to everyone. The Law has been disputed many times, but a procedure for its discontinuation has never taken place. The views and stances of the smokers and non-smokers regarding the Law on Protection from Smoking within catering facilities are still subject to contrasting opinions. Aiming to establish the stance towards smoking within catering facilities, we conducted an anonymous survey. 53,4% from the smokers and 86,4% from the non-smokers argue that smoking is a health-hazard; 73,3% from the non-smokers, and 70% of the smokers argue that the Law on Protection from Smoking within the catering facilities is not being implemented. In addition to this, 73,3% from the smokers believe that the Law is discriminatory against them, and that the prohibition should be abolished. There is no dilemma that a more rigorous control needs to be implemented as part of the Law on Protection from Smoking within catering facilities, in addition to a mass anti-smoking propaganda aimed towards the general population, to help increase the awareness of the damaging consequences from smoking.


Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium responsible for several bacterial infections. S. aureus especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), are usually resistant to several antibiotics which is a global public health problem, associated with considerable mortality and morbidity worldwide. This study aimed to determine the frequency of staphylococcal nasal carriage of health care workers (HCWs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates in Gandaki Medical College and Research Centre Pvt. Ltd, Pokhara, Nepal. The study was conducted in altogether 288 samples. Nasal swabs from all hospital care workers were collected. For isolation and identification of MRSA culture and different biochemical tests were performed. Chi-square test was used to analyze data. Out of 58 (20.14%) S. aureus isolated 18.97% are MRSA, more MRSA were noticed in female (21.08%) than male (18.18%). However, there was no significant association between gender and MRSA (p=0.723). Overall 3.08% male were carrier of MRSA and 4.04% female were carrier of MRSA. The prevalence of nasal carrier MRSA was 3.82%. Vancomycin and Amikacin were found to be most effective (100%) against Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus followed by tetracycline (94.83%). It was concluded that prevalence of MRSA is still emerging. Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA among HCWs necessitates the need of control in the frequency of their exposure with the vulnerable patients and need of strict infection control measures to be followed to control the nosocomial infections. The results emphasize the need for high standards of infection control in tertiary care

Impacts of Virunga’ volcanism on river and soil chemistry in the Mugunga – Sake area North Kivu, DRCongo []

This research focused on the impacts of Virunga chain volcanism on river waters and soil chemistry in the Mugunga – Sake area (North Kivu, D R Congo). The chemical analysis of soil and water samples collected in the sampling sites showed high concentration of chemical constituents known to affect human health above certain level in the soil and water samples. The chemical parameters of soil were as follow: pH ranged from 6.10 to 8.91; total nitrogen (mg/g) from 0.32 to 2.06; organic carbon (mg/g) from 0.60 to 2.77; assimilable phosphorus (ppm) from 1.91 to 48.41; sulphur (mg/kg) from 1.28 to 8.06; iron (g/100g) from 16.93 to 21.11; lead (g/100g) from 0.0102 to 0.0552; and (H+Al) (meq/100g) from 0.34 to 3.39. The chemical composition of the water samples were: total phosphorus (µg/l) oscillates from 7.6136 to 14.9916; soluble phosphate (µg/l) from 13.547 to 16.182; total nitrogen (µg/l) from 19.782 to 44.1; nitrate (µg/l) from 5.096 to 9.996; ammonium (µg/l) from 16.926 to 31.8234; suspended matter (g/l) 0.041 to 0.075; pH 5.16 to 5.44; total hardness (°F) 68.91 to 89.5; calcium hardness (°F) 25.06 to 55.13; magnesium hardness (°F) 34.37 to 53.693; chloride (mg/l) 30 to 65; carbonate (mg/l) 0 to 0; alkalinity (mg/l) 14 to 26.9; sulphate (mg/l) from 453.12 to 576 and Iron (mg/l) from 44.8 to 100. The survey from people living in the investigated area showed that they were not awared about all the hazards related to the volcanism activities. From the observed values, it was established an environmental impact of the volcanism on the soil, on the waters and obviously on the health of population in the area.

Development of a Low Cost Microprocessor/Microcontroller Training Module and Laboratory Manual Designed for Outcome Based Electronics and Computer Engineering Education []

ABSTRACT This paper presents the development of a low cost microprocessor / microcontroller training module and laboratory manual. The first three kits comprise the basic training modules which includes a Gizduino v4.0 (328ATmega), LED array module, LCD module, LED matrix module, digital module, sensor module, variable resistance module, a circuit bread board, buzzer and motors module. The cost of each basic training kits is significantly lower than those available in the market with the same or equivalent features. It includes 30 experiments and exercises that will give the students the actual feel of the functionality of microprocessors and microcontrollers which they can freely do as OBE activities. The last two kits are the advanced training modules. Each is composed of a Gizduino X (ATmega1281) v2.0, Gizduino+ 644 v3.0, gizDuino IOT 644, Gizduino USB host shield, Bluetooth shield v1.1, GPS shield, OLED shield, Keypad module, Wi-Fi module, GSM/GPRS shield v1.2, SD Card module, Ethernet shield module and a circuit bread board module. The advanced module has 20 technical experiments and exercises. The programming environment for both the basic and advanced modules is an open source (free) IDE Arduino v1.0.5 which may be downloaded in their website (http://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software). It follows the C Programming Language and Java. The interface of the hardware and software components of these training modules will be connected via universal serial bus (USB) supported by a prolific driver. The system development method was used in this project which includes: prototyping, product development and technology transfer. The proposed low cost module is less complex, easy to construct, feasible, rugged, serviceable and versatile which allows electronics and computer engineering students to explore and gain advanced knowledge in microprocessor and microcontroller systems. These modules were utilized by fourth year computer engineering students, during the 2nd Semester of A.Y. 2014-2015 and currently being tested by fifth year electronics engineering students during the 1st Semester of A.Y. 2015-2016. The laboratory experiments were designed to achieve course outcomes for microprocessor systems course. Upon evaluation based on the adopted and modified USE questionnaire which focused on usefulness, ease of use, ease of learning, satisfaction and cost of the development, a total of 64 students, composed of 4th year BSCpE and 5th Year BSEcE students strongly agreed that the modules are useful, can easily be used and learned and are satisfied with it for utilization in their laboratory course. The students also suggested that additional features such as a power supply circuit be added for experiments that requires an external power source, an organizer for additional connectors and regular updating on parts that will be available in the future. In addition, majority of them would also recommend it for purchase on their own or to another student who will be taking the microprocessor system course in the future and as an addition to the equipment of the school’s laboratory.


This study aims to determine the fishing gear used to capture shrimp commodities and analyze the productive and eco-friendly fishing gear in Pangandaran. Data collection was conducted from November 1 to December 18, 2019 using fishing gear to capture shrimp commodities; three-layer nets (trammel net), dogol nets, beach seine and bernong nets. The method used in this research is the case-study method. Data analysis includes composition of catch types, catch size composition, composition of catch utilization and analysis the level of eco-friendly. The results from this study showed that the fishing gear most widely used by Pangandaran fishermen to catch shrimp commodities is the bernong nets. Fishing gear that has the highest level of eco-friendly is a three-layer net (trammel net) which belongs to the category of eco-friendly fishing gear. While fishing gear bernong nets, dogol nets and trawlers are included in the category of fishing gear that is noeco-friendly


Because of MANETs' self-arranging nature the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are effectively and ready to give an extraordinary channel to correspondence anyplace, whenever without any incorporated foundation and have a colossal potential in genuine applications like, in the military, salvage and business fields. In any case, due to its dynamic nature of the system they are vulnerable to various sort of attacks, which can hamper smooth working of the system. The standard routing conventions for MANETs don't perform well within the sight of pernicious nodes that purposefully drop packets or data; such malignant conduct is propelled by blackhole nodes. In this exploration, enhanced trust based AODV protocol with the use of sequence number approach was used with NS-3 simulator to cope with the problem of Blackhole attacks in networks. The protocol was used combined with the use of trust to eliminate the corrupt paths. The NS-3 simulation results present that the protocol used was efficient and able to thwart the effect of the blackhole attacks in different scenarios and proves to increase the ratio of successfully delivered data packets significantly. Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET); Blackhole Attack; AODV, Malicious Nodes; Detection and Prevention System. Word Count: 182

This is not a joke a critical discourse analysis of President Buhari’s Covid-19 war rhetoric []

This study adopted a critical discourse analytical (CDA) approach to cognitively analyze the discursive and rhetorical strategies underlying President Muhammadu Buhari’s war rhetoric on the outbreak of Covid-19 in Nigeria. Employing the methodology of critical discourse analysis, the data consisted of President Buhari’s three speeches to the nation on the Covid-19 pandemic. The study has the objectives of explaining the mental model responsible for the President’s strategy of war rhetoric in its construction of Covid-19 as the aggressor and enemy ‘Other’, and explaining the rhetorical strategies used to frame Covid-19 as the Other. The analysis reveals that the President relies on metaphor, evidentiality, lexicalization and number game to discursively and rhetorically paint Covid-19 as an aggressor at war with the country. In its discursive representation of the social reality of the onslaught of the ravaging corona virus, the President carefully and deliberately makes the ‘war’ against covid-19 seem reasonable, responsible, and inherently ‘good’ in spite of the severe social, economic and cultural effects that the measures would have on the people, civic culture and the country. Thus, the paper concludes that directing attention to the language and discourse formations of the President, and political actors in general is critical to understanding the social practices that often shape the mental models that political actors reproduce in discourse.

Factor Substitution in Integrated Maize-Dairy Farming System in Uasin Gishu District []

This study looked at the existence of jointedness in production, cost complementarity and factor substitution in small hold mixed maize and dairy production system. The smallholder farmers in Uasin Gishu County practise mixed dairy and maize farming as a strategy to mitigate against production risks. Maizeis a commercial crop whose price has been directed by the government rather than the market; dairy farming also faced market challenges with increasing imports due to inefficient pricing in the market. However, farmers allocate more land to maize farming than dairy. The study hypothesized that Maizewas found to be an increasing cost industry while dairy was a decreasing cost industry. Expansion of dairy farming enterprises would lead to cost reduction while expanding maize would increase the cost. The study thus recommended that farmers practise integrated mixed farming system due to cost complementarityand the government to facilitate access to credit for farmers access expensive farm inputs. In trying to shed light on this, a survey was carried out amongst mixed dairy and maize famers in Uasin Gishu County and the results showed The production of maize in Uasin Gishu County in Kenya These group of farmers rely much on subsidized maize production annually. They however allocate more land to maize than dairy. It has been observed that farmers in Uasin Gishu County allocate more land to maize farming than dairy farming. Culturally, most farmers who dot keep animals are considered poor and therefore dairy farming is an integral part of any farming practice in the region.

A policy of the Office of the Environment Against Abrasion Management Due to Exploitation of Sand Beach excavation materials in Merauke Regency []

This study aims to determine how the policies of the Merauke Regency Environmental Agency in the effort to overcome abrasion due to sand excavation activities carried out by the community regardless of environmental conditions, thus damaging the coastal ecosystems of Merauke Regency. Responding to the problem, how are the efforts of the Regional Government to overcome the problem of environmental damage? Based on Article 14 of Law Number 23 of 2014 concerning Regional Government, environmental control is a compulsory matter which is the authority of the regional government for the regency/city. This research method uses a descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The results of the study showed that the Environmental Service Policy conducted two work programs to prevent coastal abrasion in three villages in 2017 - 2019 by involving the village government in carrying out the work program.


Garlic (Allium sativum) as a natural growth promoter falls under the immunomodulatory category of growth promoters and its main mode of action happens to be the main target for many drugs and other synthetic growth promoters, it is preferred however since it is not associated with the accumulation of undesired drug residues which is the case with synthetic growth promoters. Therefore in place of the synthetic growth promoters garlic can be used as a natural growth promoter in animals, to verify that, garlic powder was added to the diets of rabbits at different inclusion rates; at 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, and 0.9%. Diets with no garlic inclusion were the controls, meanwhile, each treatment had three replications. Throughout the experiment, rabbits were given as much feed and water as de-sired, allowing the daily recording of feed intake as well as weekly change in live weight and computations of feed conversion ratio. Weekly average values, live weight gain, feed intake as well as Feed conversion ratio were significantly different (P<0.05), confirming that the inclusion of garlic powder to rabbit feed improves the growth performance of rabbits. However, the optimal inclusion rate was not obtained suggesting that the growth performance of rabbits would be enhanced even more at higher inclusion rates, higher inclusion levels of garlic powder in rabbit feed can therefore be used in future to determine the optimal inclusion rate.


This paper focuses on the development of Automated Telecom Network Information System (ATNIS), a case study of Glo Mobile Ghana Limited, Ghana. Network information system is the management of network data for business intelligence purposes. Because the data needs to be processed and shared among different users in a networking environment, this can be made possible with the use of transmission media such as fiber optics cable. Over the years, fiber optics cable as a transmission media has been seen as one of the striking answers to the growing data transfer rate in telecommunication industry. There has been a tremendous increase in usage of fiber optics cable in transferring data from source to destination. The fundamental reasons are due to its numerous benefits such as greater bandwidth as compared to copper and coaxial cables, ease of design and installation, data security and high immunity and reliability. The ATNIS will assist management in facilitating decision making processes, provide faster and consistent information which will enable management to make changes in the network elements when the need arises, increase customer satisfaction and provide security of data as well as avoid data redundancy.


Thirty samples were analyzed in the assessment of the activity concentration levels associated with naturally occurring radionuclides materials from Rosterman gold mine. Activity concentration with regard to gamma ray spectrometric analysis was 245±12.39 Bqkg-1; 110±5.15 Bqkg-1 and 84±4.23 Bqkg-1 for 40K, 232Th and 238U respectively. Averagely, the absorbed dose rate was 53.65±6.2 nGy-1, the annual effective dose of 0.4±0.02 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦−1 for indoor and 0.3±0.01 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦−1 for outdoor were reported. The radiological parameters were averagely valued as 0.7±0.03 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦−1, 0.8±0.04 𝑚𝑆𝑣𝑦−1 and 278±13.08 Bq/Kg for internal hazard index, external hazard index and radium equivalent respectively. All the radiological parameters were within the recommended permissible values. This therefore points out that gold mining at Rosterman has no significant radiological health implication on the miners and population around.

Mangrove conservation in Muara Gembong Coastal, Indonesia: Analysis of land suitable for mangrove rehabilitation using GIS []

This study aims to analyze the suitability of mangrove rehabilitation land in Muara Gembong Bekasi District. This research was conducted using the Geographic Information System (GIS) method and supported by surveys on 2 stations each with 3 substations. The parameters observed include temperature, salinity, substrate, land elevation, and mangrove species. The land suitability level is divided into three classes, which are very suitable, quite suitable, and not appropriate. The results obtained indicate that the entire observation area is suitable to become a mangrove rehabilitation area with an area of 11,64 ha.


Volatile components generally affect the overall aroma of food commodities including fisheries commodities such as narrow-barred Span-ish mackerel. This research aims to identify volatile components of broth which prepared from mackerel fish meat (Scomberomorus com-merson) washed water. The mackerels were collected from the local fish landing site in Karangsong, Indramayu, West Java. The method used in this study was to identify volatile compounds using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) on broth samples with Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) to extract volatile components from the sample. To support the main volatile data, the samples were also analyzed for their proximate composition. The volatile components analysis successfully identifies as many as 121 compounds in mackerel washed water broth sample with diethyl phthalate is the highest proportion compounds. Furthermore, the proximate analysis results showed that the sample has 98.13% water content, 1.21% ash, 0.33% lipid, and 0.33% protein content


This research aims to identify volatile compounds which are the flavor powder from spray dried white shrimp immersed water aroma con-stituents. The research method was experimental by identifying the volatile compounds and proximate composition of previously men-tioned flavor powder. Initially, the white shrimp meat immersed water were boiled (65oC, 90 minutes) until it became liquid broth and then spray dried (inlet and outlet temperature 170o C and 80o C, respectively). Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) method was used to extract the volatile components from the sample (80oC, 30 minutes) and Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile flavor compound’s composition. Moreover, the sample were determined for its moisture, ash, protein and lipid con-tent to support the main data. The resulting data were then discussed descriptively based on the identification and semi-quantification of the compounds detected in the sample. The analysis result succesfully detected 93 volatile compounds in spray dried white shrimp im-mersed water flavor powder sample. Volatile compounds detected were mostly derived from hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, organic acid which could be derived from auto-oxidation and enzymatic reactions, also various product from reaction which affect-ed by processing parameters. Compounds that had the largest proportion is pentanal (8,992%). The proximate analysis results showed that the samples had a moisture content of 4,56%, 1.45% ash content, 5,43% protein content and 0,07% lipid content


Volatile flavor components could affect the aroma characteristics of a commodity. The objective of the study was to identify the compo-nents of volatile flavor compounds contained in spray dried flavor powder made from narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomerus commerson) meat which immersed in water. Experimental method was used in this research with extracting volatiles by boiling the sam-ples (65oC for 90 minutes) and drying in spray dryer (inlet and outlet temperature 170o C and 80o C, respectively). Subsequently, the sam-ple was extracted using Solid Phase Micro-extraction (SPME) (80oC, 30 minutes) and the volatile developed were identified by Gas Chro-matography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Additionally, proximate analysis was carried out to support the main volatile component re-sults which were then semi quantified and descriptively analyzed. The volatiles component analysis successfully detected 81 compounds in flavor powder sample with nonane, 3,7-dimethyl- (6,43%) had the highest proportions compared to other volatile compounds. Most of the detected compounds derived from various groups such as aldehyde, alcohol, hydrocarbons, ketone, organic acid, ester and other group of compound. The proximate analysis result showed that the sample had 4.89% moisture content, 0.72% ash, 0.23% lipid and 1.14% protein content. Volatile components developed could be originated from product of auto-oxidation, enzymatic reactions and var-ious reaction product which affected by high temperature processing parameters.

Phytochemical Screening and Physicochemical properties of oil and Biodiesel produced from non-edible Croton megalocarpus seeds grown in Huye District []

Abstract Production of biodiesel from non-edible plants is regarded as a sustainable alternative to depleted fossil sources mostly because it is renewable and does not compete with human food. Such plants may also have the potential to become suitable sources of bioactive phytochemicals. The purpose of this study was to identify the phytochemicals present in Croton megalocarpus seeds oil and to characterize the physicochemical properties of the oil and biodiesel produced. The seeds were collected from Huye district in Southern Province, Rwanda. Oil was extracted from the milled seeds by solvent extraction method using n-hexane and was converted into biodiesel via esterification and transesterification process using standard methods. The Phytochemicals in the oil and fuel related properties of biodiesel were investigated accordingly and compared with set standards. The yield of oil and biodiesel produced from the seed of C.megalorcapus were 38.20 and 82.50% respectively. Alkaloids, Saponins, Flavonoids, Tannins, Steroids, Terpenoids and Phenols were present in the oil but Cardiac glycosides and anthraquinone were absent. All the physicochemical parameters of the biodiesel assessed in this study such as density (890kg/m3), flash point (120 0C) and acid value (0.65 mg/KOH/g) were found within standard specifications for biodiesel except cloud point (9 0C), viscosity (7.2mm2/s) and moisture (0.25%) which were above the specifications. This study indicates that C.megalocarpus seeds oil has the potential for biodiesel production. However, the development of methods to recover the phytochemicals from the oil prior to biodiesel production may lead to increase in profitability and suitability of the seeds for biofuel.


The literature on Project Management (PM) shows that, in spite of advancement in PM processes, tools and systems, project success has not significantly improved. This problem raises questions about the value and effectiveness of PM and PM systems. This paper reports a research study which tests the relationship between PM performance and project success drawing from empirical data on PM professionals working in Pakistan project-based organizations. Multi-dimensional frameworks are validated and used in this study to measure PM performance and project success. A total of 45 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Bi-variate correlation and multiple regression tests found a positive influence of PM performance and its contributing variables on project success. Additionally, new variable relationships that have not previously been identified are explored between individual variables of PM performance and project success.


The Focus of this paper is linked to the importance of project management in construction industry in Pakistan. The country like Pakistan which is under developing, the developing of housing industry plays a vital role in its economy, in construction which is happening within the world in general and the West Bank. The construction industry not only plays their role in increasing their economy and the social life of individuals but it also inspired the local culture of any region. By understanding the importance of project management in construction industry, it will stress out the problems and impediments. The researcher used mainly qualitative method and quantitative method to complete the research work in the study. To view out the importance of project management in construction sector some questionnaire were preparing by the researcher and ask it from the Project manager of the development sector, the analysis showed that there are several factors and lots of problems faced by the management of construction projects within the West Bank. the foremost important problems were the poor planning, poor project management and poor communication between all parties to succeed in optimal solutions, additionally to gaps and points that are clarified within the context of the search. The researcher developed a framework to rearrange and organize the management of construction projects, to be an efficient tool to assist project managers in setting priorities and show places of success and failure. Moreover, it shows the management process as a crucial a part of the success of any engineering project by several factors. First by understanding the most objectives and goals of the project and check out to use these goals clearly on the bottom, and second by developing coherent system through which the project is going to be implemented within clear basis. Then the exploitation of every project are going to be documented and utilized in future work. Furthermore, the researcher tried to clarify success factors in construction projects to realize better results for engineering companies and to satisfy the requirements of the area people projects through good quality and best value to the engineering projects and to the Pakistani society.


The study examined oil price volatility and budgetary performance: Evidence from Nigeria from 1980 to 2019. The specific objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of oil price volatility on budget performance in Nigeria. Budgetary performance was captured directly by GDP growth rate and indirectly by government expenditures. The study used secondary data sourced from the CBN and the WBG. Data for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Stationarity tests, and other selected diagnostic tests, Ordinary least square regression, Granger-Causality and Cointegration statistical techniques at the 5% level of significance. The findings showed that oil price volatility in the short-run, had negative but significant effect on budgetary performance, measured directly using GDP growth rate, and positive and significant effect when measured indirectly using government expenditures; while in the long-run equilibrium, the effects were significant. The study concludes that oil price volatility has significant effect on budgetary performance and recommends that the federal government should put appropriate framework and infrastructures in place to revamp and restart moribund local refineries and stop importation of refined petroleum products. The government should also embark on urgent export diversification and development of non-oil foreign currency earning products.

Language Learning Strategies and Learning Styles among First Year Students of Cagayan State University []

This study aimed to identify the learning styles and learning strategies among first students under the Department of Arts and Humanities, College of Arts and Sciences, Cagayan State University-Carig Campus. Descriptive re-search design was used in the study. Data from the 94 particpants were gathered through the use of Perceptaul Learning Styles Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ) by Reid (1984) and the Strategy Inventory Language Learn-ing (SILL) by Oxford (1990). Frequency, percentages, mean score, standard deviation, and Chi square were used in analyzing the data. Findings of the study showed that most of the participants are BSICC students, speak Ilocano, and females. They studied in a public secondary school and had an average CAT percentile. It also showed that most of the participants used indirect strategies which include metacognition, being the most used strategy, followed by social and affective strategies. Further, the most frequently preferred learning style is auditory, followed by kinesthetic and visual learning styles. Analysis also reveals that the profile variables of the respondents do not show significant relationship with their language learning strategies and learning styles. Thus, the study concludes that the participants support language learning through focusing, planning, evaluating, seeking opportunities, controlling anxiety, increasing cooperation, and empathy and other means rather than requiring the mental processing of language learning. The participants’ profile variables do not contribute to the students’ language learning strategies and learning styles.

Dossier de soins infirmiers : cas de l'hôpital Régional de Garoua []

Au cours de l'exercice de sa profession, l'infirmier (ère) effectue un travail fastidieux, ce qui constitue une large part dans le domaine de la santé. Pour mener à bien les responsabilités qui sont siennes, il doit user de ses connaissances tant théoriques que pratiques pour dispenser des soins de qualités aux malades. Ce travail qui constitue son rôle propre n'aura d'écho que s'il est consigné dans un document intitulé dossier de soins infirmiers. Le dossier de soins est un document nominatif, personnalisé pour chaque patient, regroupant l'ensemble des informations concernant la personne soignée. Il est renseigné par les professionnels paramédicaux, sociaux et fait partie intégrante du patient. Les dossiers infirmiers font partie des soins infirmiers et peuvent être bénéfiques pour le patient, le professionnel, l'institution et le système de santé. Des dossiers détaillés permettent de suivre l'évolution de l'État clinique des patients contribuant ainsi à la continuité de soins et au traitement prévu, fournissant des informations permettant d'évaluer les soins fournis et procurant des données permettant de développer des indications de santé. Il constitue un outils au service de la sécurité et de la qualité des soins pour le patient et les professionnels.

Factors Influencing Delays of Elective Surgical Cases in Private Health Facilities in Kenya []

Delays of elective surgical operations are a major concern for all healthcare institutions and their resolution would be key in reducing wastes and improving workflow efficiency. However, achieving efficiency in the performance of elective surgical cases has been marred by numerous factors especially in the developing world, and Kenya, in particular. This study sought to identify the factors influencing delays of elective surgical cases in three private health facilities in Kenya. The study evaluated patient, staff, equipment and management support factors associated with delays of elective surgical cases. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study design encompassing use of both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected through questionnaires administered to operating room staff while qualitative data was collected through Key Informant Interviews with operating room administrators. Stratified random sampling was applied to select 238 respondents from a target population of 494 operating room staff drawn from the three facilities based in Nairobi (1), Mombasa (2) and Kisumu (3). Two (2) Key informants from each targeted facility were purposively selected for inclusion in the study. Descriptive data was then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 23.0 and the results were presented through mean and Standard deviation. Inferential statistics were calculated using Pearson’s Correlation and Multi-Linear regression methods to test the relationship between variables at 95% confidence interval where p-values of ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically and was guided by the study objectives, and then the results were triangulated with quantitative findings from questionnaires. The results indicate that out of the four factors evaluated, staff and management factors (X2: β2 =.074, P<.007), (X4: β4 =.516, P< .000), had a significant influence on the delays of elective surgical cases in the private health facilities in Kenya, while patient and equipment factors (X1: β1 =.034, P >.267), (X3: β3 =.009, P > .841) did not have a significant influence on delays of elective surgical cases in the private health facilities in Kenya.

Gravity Secrets []

This research confirms the importance of density in the process of gravity, as it explains a group of secrets about gravity.