Volume 9, Issue 4, April 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cerium Oxide Nanostructures []

Abstract The development of nanomaterials and nanocrystals in a lab-controlled environment has been found to be highly beneficial in the industrial and commercial settings. Past studies have assessed the growth mechanism of cerium oxides and how the nanocrystals can be prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The hydrothermal synthesis of cerium oxide nanostructures is accomplished in two stages. In the first stage, the nucleation of cerium oxide nuclei is achieved. In the next stage, there is a ripening of the nuclei through hydrothermal synthesis. In the nucleation stage, the cations are precipitated and nanoparticles are developed. A transition to cerium oxide nuclei is accomplished through dehydration and oxidation processes. When the hydrothermal synthesis is executed, the ripening of nuclei results in the growth of nanocrystals. In this method, the dominant strategy is the oriented attachment. Afterward, there is a gradual addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone surfactant, which is followed by the adjustment of acidity in the solution. The resultant form accomplishes the nuclei dispersion. The collision mechanism aggregates the particles resulting in further grown nanocrystals. A key challenge in the hydrothermal synthesis is the conversion of assembly crystals to nanocrystals. The experimenter may also have to assess nanocrystals in the absence of well-defined edges. When it is accomplished, there is a further nuclei growth that eventually produces larger nanocrystals. Keywords: Hydrothermal synthesis, cerium oxide, nanoparticles, nanomaterials, nanostructures


The agricultural sector output is seen as the main source of revenue to the government before the discovery of crude oil in commercial quantity in 1956. However, the agricultural sector in Nigeria has suffered neglect and continues to face several challenges hindering its performance. In order to revitalize the agricultural sector, there have been concerted efforts by the government through the implementation of monetary policy. Despite these efforts, Nigeria has not achieved the desired level of agricultural output. Arising from this problem, this study investigated the effect of monetary policy on agricultural sector output in Nigeria. The research covered a period of thirty-four years (1985-2018). The time series data were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics. The model was specified and the hypotheses were tested with the Autoregressive Distributed Lag model. The Augmented Dickey-fuller and stability Tests were carried out to ensure robust regression results. The results of the study revealed that Agricultural Credit Guaranteed Scheme Fund (ACGS) has positive relationship with agricultural sector output with co-efficient of 0.8091 and probability value of 0.0455. The effect of Agricultural Credit Guaranteed Scheme Fund (ACGS) on Agricultural Sector output (AGDP) is statistically significant. However, money supply and monetary policy rate have negative relationships with the dependent variable (AGDP) with co-efficient of -0.0634 and -6.9262 respectively. The effect of monetary policy rate is statistically significant on agricultural output with the probability of 0.0032 while money supply is not statistically significant with the probability value of 0.1398. Interest rate has direct relationship with Agricultural sector output as a unit increase in interest rate will lead to about 29% increase in the dependent variable (AGDP). It is therefore concluded that monetary policy has a very significant effect on the output of agricultural sector in Nigeria. The study recommended that government should pay more attention to agricultural sector by making tractors and seedlings available to farmers at subsidized rate. KEYWORDS: Monetary policy, productivity, autoregressive distributed lag, agricultural sector

Influence of Reference Feed on The Growth of Freshwater Crayfish []

Freshwater crayfish is one of the marine commodities in Indonesia which has many benefits, from aquaculture, cultivation, processing, to ready-to-eat food. The growth of freshwater crayfish can be influenced by both internal and external factors, one of the internal factors that can affect the growth of freshwater crayfish is the food or feed given both type of feed, feed dose, feed content, and timing of feeding itself can affect the growth of the freshwater crayfish. The purpose of this journal review is to describe the freshwater crayfish feed that can affect its growth. In conclusion, water conditions, eating habits, the addition of symbiotics, probiotics, mixed feed, and so on can affect and/or can stimulate the growth performance of freshwater crayfish.

Effect of Microalgae Chlorella sp. As a Phytoremediation Agent in Lowering Wastewater Pollutant Levels []

Wastewater contains many organic and inorganic contaminants that can cause severe damage to the environment and human health, therefore, it is necessary to eliminate all or part of the nutrients contained in wastewater and produce water that can be reused or suitable to be returned to its naturalnature. One of the environmentally friendly and beneficial waste treatment technologies is bio-logical waste treatment. Biological waste treatment system is still considered the cheapest way when compared to chemical means considering the price of chemicals is relatively expensive. Microalgae based on phytoremediation technique becomes a promising method because of its viability,one of the microalgae that can be used is Chlorella sp. Chlorella sp is one of the microalgae cho-sen as a means of handling wastewater because this algae can multiply rapidly in its growing conditions, produce oxygen through the process of photosynthesis, contain high proteins with the main componentsof aminoacids, and the structure of these algae cell walls are formed from various metric fibers of polysaccharides. In this article the potential of Chlorella sp as a phytoremediation agent is seen from the content value of Phosphorus, COD, Nitrate, BOD, Nitrogen, TSS in wastewater that has been cultivated Chlorella sp. The purpose of this article is to describe the potential of chlorella sp as a phytoremediation agent against wastewater pollutants. Chlorella sp. cultivated in domestic wastewater can be grown by utilizing the content of organic matter and other nutrients contained in domestic waste polluted water for its growth nutrients. In adapting to polluted environments, Chlorella sp requires an average ad-aptation period of 5 days. Chlorella sp , adapts well to high concentrations of nutrients, and shows great potential in removing nutri-ents from wastewater. It is proven that the content value of Phosphorus, COD, Nitrate, BOD, Nitrogen, TSS contained in wastewater can gradually decrease along with the increase in biomass chlorella sp. It shows the ability of Chlorella sp. to synthesize and accumu-late it in their cells Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioremediation of wastewater using Chlorella sp. is an effective and envi-ronmentally friendly option to improve water quality and recycle valuable nutrients that can be

Effect of Salinity on Tilapia's Growth []

Tilapia or popularly known as "Tilapia" is one of the important fish species in aquaculture or aquaculture systems in the world. Tilapia is a euryhaline fish, in which tilapia has a good level of physiological adaptation to a wide range of salinity. From the results of the research that has been done, it is proven that tilapia can live at a salinity concentration of 10-15 ppt using osmoregulation. The osmoregulation process in the body of tilapia has a close relationship with salinity, the higher or lower the salinity of water in an environment will have an impact on different osmoregulation processes in the body of tilapia. The advantages of tilapia include having a relatively fast growth with relatively large body size. Too high salinity levels in the waters can affect changes in chloride cell function which disrupt the absorption of energy that should be used for growth. The purpose of this article is to compare the growth of tilapia under different salinity treatments. The growth of tilapia weight is not directly or inversely proportional to the salinity value, the higher the salinity value does not necessarily mean that the weight growth of tilapia will increase, as well as the lower salinity the growth of tilapia weight is also not necessarily an increase.

Effect Of Providing Carrot Flour On Feed Against The Brightness Of Guppy Fish Color (Poecilia Reticulata) []

Fish are included in animals that cannot synthesize carotene directly in their bodies, so that the increase in color in fish must continue to be supplied with the addition of feed that contains high carotene. The use of carrot flour is considered quite efficient in adding color to guppy fish. Carrots are well-known for their high content of Vitamin A, apart from that carrots also contain beta-carotene. While the function of carotenoids is the pigmentation in the skin of the fish which is responsible for the coloration of the fish. Carotenoids are the main source of fish skin pigmentation. Natural fish coloring works better than synthetic or chemical dyes. The purpose of this article is to present information about the effect of giving carrot flour on color brightness in fish Keywords: carrots, carotenoids, pigmentation


Climate change is the most interesting issue, because it is a process length with high complexity so that the impact is difficult to predict with accuracy and affects the natural and social environment. Climate change has been proven to impact marine ecosystems through vari-ous stressors (e.g., wind, temperature, freshwater inputs) over several decades. Climate change is a world concern international life has had many negative impacts on various life activities on earth, including the forest-ry sector in coastal areas. Bappenas (2011) reports that global climate change has had direct and indirect impacts in various sectors in Indonesia. In the marine and fisheries sector, it was report-ed that between 2005 and 2007, Indonesia had lost 24 small islands. The negative impacts of climate change include inundation of coastal areas and the threat of sinking the smallest islands due to sea level rise, tropical storms, the impact of large waves and tidal waves as well as threats to the safety of human life due to increased intensity of topical storms. There is also overwhelming evidence that chang-es in climatic variables has detrimental effects on the ecosystem of shrimp farms, and thus, severe effects on survival, growth, and pro-duction of shrimp. One important fishery commodity is shrimp. Shrimp have high commercial value, have contributed a lot to foreign exchange for the coun-try, and most of their life is in the bottom of the water. Crustacean species diversity is estimated reaching more than 1,502 species. Climate change affects climate change and can make shrimp more vulnerable disease because their resistance decreas-es. Climate change has an impact on shrimp growth on the coast of Indonesia because it can reduce shrimp immunity so that they are susceptible to disease. Climate change also affects coastal communities who forage by working as fishermen, this affects the amount of shrimp or other fishery commodities that are obtained when farming. So that many pond farmers have suffered losses.

Analyse de la qualité des soins dans la zone de santé de Katana, en République Démocratique du Congo à L'EST. []

Objective: to contribute to improved health care / health services of quality in the Katana health zone. Materials and Methods : This study is cross-cutting, targeting health care professionals and patients to health centers, from September to December 2020. Sampling is stratified, with 384 households in seven countries. health centers. The data collection is done with the help of survey questionnaire and statistical analysis is used for process data from Microsoft Excel and Epi-Info 3.5.2 software. Unvaried analyzes followed by logistic regression was be done .Results:Patient behaviors towards health care providers in the Katana health zone is 52% and health care providers 68% of patients are dissatisfied with medical procedures The univariate analyzes revealed a correlation between age (OR = 0.4 p-value 0.000056, religion (OR = 6.54, p-value 0.0000000002) and household size (OR = 3.33, p value0.000003) and logistic regression retained the age (OR = 0.05, z-stat -7.9894 and p value = 0.0000) Conclusion: Improving the quality of care is a process complex involving several factors. In low-income countries and average, the behavior of patients towards health care providers.Are to be deplored. The functioning of the health facilities is to be deplored deplore.The authorities must make a great deal of effort to achieve quality health care; in order to achieve the universal health coverage. Supervision has a place of choice in this process. Keywords: Quality – Health care - Perception - Area - Katana - DRC


Health Scan application is a GPS based application aimed at helping people locate nearest hospitals to them. This follows the difficulty to access medical help in time when they are in unknown locations. As a result, this project will enable one to locate convenient hospitals using their mobile phones. As a student, my involvement in this project was to make sure that I come up with innovative ways of using technology for the betterment of people’s lives, improving my confidence in problem-solving, and utilizing opportunities to relate to different categories of people likely to meet in real-life situations. This report contains seven chapters. Chapter one is the introduction that commences the project, gives objectives, assumptions, budget, and schedule of the project. Chapter two is the literature review and it discusses previous research done and published by other authors. Chapter three discusses the methodologies used n the development of this android application. Chapter four discusses the analysis of both functional and non-functional requirements while chapter five discusses the design methodologies for the android applications. Chapter six discusses the different programming languages used in the implementation of the application, testing, and changeover techniques. Chapter seven summarizes the project report and gives proper recommendations towards future improvement of the application.


This review is a summary of several studies on plankton as a bioindicator in various countries. The research in this review includes those conducted in freshwater and sea waters. The purpose of writing this review is to summarize some of the previous research on plankton as a bioindicator in both fresh and marine waters from various countries not only in Indonesia but also in other countries. Bioindicators are living organisms such as plants, plankton, animals, and microbes, which are used to filter the health of natural ecosystems in the environment. Biological indicators can monitor on an ongoing basis and are easy indicators to monitor the occurrence of contamination. Plankton is aquatic organisms that live in passive movements and cannot fight against currents. Plankton which is always in motion can also be used as an indicator of water pollution. The use of plankton as a bioindicator in the water sector has been widely used both in fresh and sea waters. The use of plankton as an indicator in freshwater includes phytoplankton which is mostly used as an ecological indicator or water quality indicator while Zooplankton is widely used as an indicator of pollution. The use of plankton as a bioindicator in sea waters includes indicators of environmental quality, indicators of pollution, indicators of oceanographic complexity, as well as potential indicators of water mass. Plankton can be used as a bioindicator because plankton is a biota that is very responsive to water pollution and has a fast growth rate so that it can show indicators of significant ecological changes and can be measured on a short time scale.

Analysis of the applications of Lithium-ion batteries in Internet of Things (IoT) battery powered devices []

Many Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices are powered by electrical grids whose supply of power is interrupted by critical grid failures which occurs due to the outbreak of natural disasters. The IoT device development which can operate during such scenarios must be designed with the best power energy source that can withstand the natural disasters menace. In this study Lithium-ion batteries are considered to evaluate its operation time, output power, and any general technical specifications. Currently, batteries are more cost-effective, however as the cost of fuel cells comes down, the higher power density will be valuable.


Abstract Nigeria is persistently undergoing a failing state because of the general disenchantment and agitation canvassed by various ethnic groups for better living conditions to meet basic human needs. The high level of disillusionment has made Nigerian institutions responsible for system continuity and maintenance to battle for survival because of the uprising from the disenchanted individual and groups. In the study, the paper used secondary materials, theoretically and historically, analyzed by employing a public affairs management approach and frustration-aggression theoretical analysis. The findings revealed that a lack of basic human needs generates aggression, leading to upheaval and loggerheads with the government by various groups, affecting the country's political and economic fabrics, suggesting a failing state. To ensure internal stability, especially for Nigeria’s heterogeneous societies, there is a need for broad public participation in the state's affairs in order to raise the level of national consciousness among Nigerian people and cultivate in them a strong sense of commitment to the survival of the country. To halt failing states, leaders must give adequate attention to basic needs and people-oriented programmes which enhance their domestic productive capacity. The ruling elite must endeavour to raise their contentment level through purposeful leadership and cost-effective national resource management. keywords: Failing State, National Security, Nigeria


In the academe, reading takes on a gradually crucial role. Any barrier to the development of reading ability can completely debilitate a student's goals. Hence, this study analyzed and determined the reading competency level of Junior High School students in a remote National High School in the Philippines. Two hundred fifty respondents, enrolled for school year 2019-2020 were taken as subjects of the study. To gather the research data, a triangulation method was employed. A Focus Group Discussion was first conducted among the teachers to identify teaching and assessment techniques in reading. Then, due to the existing pandemic; an online survey questionnaire via google form was utilized to identify the problems encountered by the respondents in reading comprehension. Finally, a qualitative data analysis was administered to examine the lesson and curriculum guide vis-à-vis the Reading Efficiency Index results. The REI showed that majority of the respondents fall under the frustration level, with comprehension below fifty percent; thus requiring extensive assistance from teachers. Moreover, there was a low alignment in the lesson guide objectives compared with the curriculum. Techniques and assessment employed in teaching reading were limited to book-comprehension-checks. Henceforth, a reading program was designed as an intervention. The study concluded with the findings that the development of the reading program was necessary to augment the competency level of the respondents. The paper recommended for students to be constantly exposed to several reading activities in their classes to further enhance their reading comprehension skills.

Effect of Addition of Probiotics on Growth and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) in Vaname Shrimp (Litopenaeus vanname) []

Vannamei shrimp has high economic prospects, so an increase in production is needed. One of the constraints in the production of vaname shrimp is the feed that affects growth. Probiotics are used to break down leftover feed and make feed easier to digest so that growth can be optimal and the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) can be low in value and save expenses. The addition of commercial probiotics and RICA probiotics had an effect on increasing growth and FCR, but there was no significant difference between the two.

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome []

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Ramsay Hunt syndrome is triad classic symptoms from vesicles in the auricles, otalgia and facial paralysis / weakness. This disease is result of reactivation of the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and is more common in immunocompromised persons as complications of Herpes Zoster. The use of antivirals and steroids is still the main choice as the main line of therapy to treat the patient and to have better outcome. Keywords: Ramsay Hunt syndrome, Varicella Zoster Virus, immunocompromised


Abstract- This study aims to determine the effect of work family conflict and work stress on organizational commitment and performance of nurses at RSUD H. Andi Sulthan Daeng Radja Bulukumba. The population in this study were inpatient nurses at H. Andi Sulthan Daeng Radja Bulukumba Hospital. The sampling technique used non probability sampling with purposive sampling method . The research data comes from a questionnaire made with a Likert scale and analysis using multiple linear regression. The results showed that work family conflict has a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment. Work Stress has a negative effect and significant to organizational commitment. Work family conflict has a positive and significant effect on performance. Work family conflict has a negative and significant effect on performance. Organizational commitment has a positive effect on performance. Work family conflict through organizational commitment affects the performance of nurses. Work Stress through organizational commitment has an effect on nurse performance. Keywords: Work Family Conflict, Work Stress , Organizational Commitment, Performance


Abstract: This study aims to determine the effect of family social support and workload on the performance of nurses at Lanto Daeng Pasewang General Hospital in Jeneponto with burnout as an intervening variable. The population in this study were inpatient nurses at Lanto Daeng Pasewang General Hospital in Jeneponto. Sampling technique using non probability sampling with saturated sampling method. The research data comes from a questionnaire made with a Likert scale and analysis using multiple linear regression. The results showed that family social support had a negative and significant effect on nurse performance with the regression coefficient value-0.550, significant value less than 0.05. Family social support has a positive and significant effect on performance, with a regression coefficient value of 0.446 and a significant value less than 0.05. Workload has a positive and significant effect on burnout, with a regression coefficient value of 0.458 and a significance value less than 0.05. Workload has a negative and significant effect on performance, with a regression coefficient value of -0.187 and a significance value less than 0.05. Burnout has a negative and significant effect on performance, with a regression coefficient value of -0.169 and a significance value less than 0.05. Burnout as an intervening variable between family social support and performance has a significant effect. Keywords: Family Social Support, Workload, Burnout, Performance


Industrialization has led to an increase of water contaminants in the form of heavy metals that pose significant risks to the environment and to human health and welfare. In the environment, heavy metal decreases fish population and biodiversity, causes surface degradation, and deteriorates the quality of groundwater and growth of vegetation. The conventional physiochemical technologies that are implemented to clean water contamination is often times lacking in performance while also being expensive and hazardous. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to reduce contaminants in a wide variety of environment, including water, have been hailed as an innovative new technology that is effective, green, and low cost. The aim of this article is to describe the potential of phytoremediation of water contaminated by heavy metal by first understanding the dangers of heavy metals to humans and the environment, then the application of phytoremediation and its mechanism and the advantages and disadvantages of this method of environmental remediation. Several studies have found that phytoremediation is an effective method of reducing heavy metal contaminated water but further study is still needed to optimize the process and overcome its limitation. Keywords: Conservations, risks, environment, remediation


The study investigated the effect of manipulative materials on the achievement of learners in mathematics. The sample consisted of 79 learners in two Junior High Schools in the Accra metropolis in the Greater Accra Region. These participants were drawn by convenient sampling. One of the main purposes of this study was to determine the effect of manipulative materials on the achievement of learners in mathematics at the JHS level. A mathematics achievement test with a reliability coefficient of 0.81 was the instrument used to collect the data which was analyzed using the independent sample t-test and the paired samples t-test. The analysis revealed the efficacy of manipulative materials in the teaching and learning of mathematics at the JHS level. There was a significant difference on learners’ achievement in mathematics before they were introduced to the treatment and after the treatment. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mathematics achievement of learners taught with manipulative materials and those taught without it. By inference, it was revealed that the use of manipulative materials in the teaching and learning of mathematics has significant improvement on learners’ achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that manipulative materials should be used in the teaching and learning of mathematics at the Junior High School level.


Gourami is generally cultivated and is a mainstay as a source of animal protein, but it still faces obstacles in terms of cultivation, namely slow growth, and low survival. A solution is needed to help the growth of gourami, one of which is feeding. Feed is one of the most important factors affecting the growth and survival of fish. Optimal feeding will result in good growth. Because one of the factors inhibiting the growth of gourami is feed. The purpose of this article is to study the effect of adding feed amino acids (lysine) on the growth performance of gourami. The conclusion of this article is that amino acid (lysine) can help the growth of gouramy by adding it to commercial feed. The slow growth of gouramy which was fed without the addition of the amino acid pure lysine may be related to an imbalance in the amino acid composition of the experimental feed. It cannot be denied that the addition of amino acid (lysine) to goramy feed can help its growth become faster.


Indonesia has a variety of abundant natural resources, one of which is marine resources, namely fish. Based on statistical data obtained by the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs (KKP) in 2014, fisheries have contributed as much as 13% of the total natural resource wealth found in the marine and fisheries sector. With abundant natural resources, Indonesia needs to pay attention to the quality of fish that will be traded. Good quality and fresh fish has a high selling value in the market, but in reality, the handling of fresh fish has not yet reached certain standards such as careless handling, unhygienic handling and inappropriate temperature handling. Fish fillets are semi-finished products that can increase sales value, this is because fish fillets can facilitate consumers and benefit producers. However, fish fillets are prone to bacterial contamination so that in the process of making fish fillets, it is necessary to pay attention to the factors that can reduce the quality value of fish fillets. This article will explain the effect of fish mortality methods and other factors on the quality of fish fillets. In making fish fillets, it is necessary to pay attention to the quality of the fish to be filled, the method of fish death, fish cutting time, and the process of filleting. Fish fillets need to pay attention to many factors because fish fillets are semi-finished products that are prone to bacterial contamination, which can reduce the quality of the fish. When the fillet process is recommended to use the death method with a hit or the use of carbon dioxide, provided that when using the hit method, it is necessary to pay attention to the accuracy of the user's power and expertise. It is recommended that the time for cutting the fish be done as soon as possible after the fish has died, to get good results and it should be noted when using the manual fillet method because it can reduce the bonding to the fish meat.


This study aims to determine the Palawa traditional village 'and its social environment as one of the unique cultural attractions in Tana Toraja. The type of research is qualitative research. Data collection is done through observation, interview, and documentation. The research variables consist of: Non-physical aspects, which are related to legends, and traditional functions, then physical aspects, concerning architectural review, as a product of traditional architecture. The data analysis technique used is descriptive qualitative analysis, which is analyzing each variable descriptively, consisting of four activity flows, which are data selection, data presentation, analyzing, and conclusions. The results show that: Palawa 'traditional village is one of the tourist areas created by humans in the form of relics of the past in the form of traditional houses with their built environment, which can be understood from two aspects, namely: 1) Non-physical aspects concerning legends and traditional functions during the then, and 2) Physical aspects in the form of traditional architectural appearance that can be listened to from Layout, shape, structure, and construction and decoration as well as the built environment in the form of granaries, space between houses and barns, rante, kombong, and stone graves.