Volume 9, Issue 4, April 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The dollarization of Zimbabwe and its impact on economic development. []

The investigation means to set up the impact of dollarisation on the Zimbabwean economy. This investigation utilizes an autoregressional appropriated slack (ARDL) model to set up the short - and long haul connections between dollarization, monetary execution pointers (inflation, unfamiliar direct venture, exchange receptiveness, and Gross domestic product), and non-monetary execution markers (rule of law). Yearly time arrangement information was considered in this examination. Over the long haul, dollarization decidedly affects Gross domestic product and exchange transparency, and a negative effect on swelling. In the short run, dollarisation is fundamentally related with GDP, receptiveness to exchange and swelling. Transient outcomes show that dollarization is adversely associated with Gross domestic product and swelling, and decidedly connected with exchange transparency. As indicated by the aftereffects of the experimental examination, Zimbabwe does not energize de-dollarization since it requires a drawn out methodology and a sound strategy. Zimbabwe should get back to full dollarisation and choose the rand as fixed cash while planning to join the normal money territory. The report additionally recommended that Zimbabwe ought to create execution markers to gauge administration pointers, accentuating regard for property and basic liberties, including battling defilement.

E-service convenience and consumer loyalty among customers of Jumia in Nigeria []

The advent of e-commerce has widened the choices of consumers such that they could choose between online purchase and patronizing the traditional stores. However, the interacting impact of alternatives attractiveness has not been dealt with in most studies conducted in the selected e-retail outlets in Nigeria. This account for reasons intending customers would only shuffle the internet for a product offering on the website in other to search for alternatives that are attractive irrespective of the service convenience derived. Hence, this current study examines the moderating role of attractive alternative in determining the impact of service convenience on consumer behaviour. Results show that e-retail outlets can easily achieve e-loyalty of customers by providing e-service convenience. Also, Alternative Attractiveness was a quasi-moderator in the relationship between e-service convenience and customer loyalty. This study extended the frontier of knowledge by employing Transaction Cost Economies (TCE) in service marketing field. This study suggests that e-retailers in Ogun State should take into account different types of information technology tools that can ease transaction in order to facilitate service convenience among the consumers.


Since the introduction and adoption of the Kyoto protocol on 11th December 1997, there has been a popular theory amongst urban researchers and intellectuals ‘that each generation is merely a custodian of this planet, and that earth and its biosphere should be passed on to future generation intact and undiminished’. Many jurisdictions of developed economies of the world have responded to the emerging global threat of climate change by incorporating, as public policy, the principle of environmental sustainability as an additional yet fundamental project objective. We find ourselves today in a society where one of the objects of success is owning your means of transportation i.e. cars, private jets, yacht, etc.; yes for obvious reasons, that could be true but if every individual has to depend on private vehicles for transport, apart from the environmental issues associated with it, it comes with lots of accidental risks and puts both the urban and rural development in jeopardy. Transport interchange also called intermobility, amongst every other initiative, holds the key to mobility problems in urban and regional areas and aids the pursuit of sustainable mobility, accessibility and sustainable development. This paper carefully examines the existing typologies of transport interchange and proposes desirable systems for sustainable mobility. It further explores the functions of the different zones required for a public transport Interchange (PTI) to function properly and the role it plays in intermodal mobility.

Factors Influencing Attitudes of Physicians in Lebanon towards the Use of Electronic Health Records []

This research aimed to determine the factors affecting attitudes of Lebanese physicians towards the use of electronic health record using an online survey as a method to collect information. The data was collected through a questionnaire that was sent via email to a convenient sample composed of 384 units of physicians registered in the Lebanese order of physicians and practicing medicine in Lebanon. A total of 71 questionnaires were received with a response rate equal to 18.5%. The study used the descriptive design. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and linear regression were used to test hypotheses. The results showed a statistically significant positive relationship between the management support, physicians’ involvement, training, and the attitude to use the EHR. The results also showed a statistically significant negative relationship between physician-patient relationship and the attitude to use the EHR. In addition, the results revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and the attitude to use the EHR. Moreover, the study found an overall positive attitude towards the use of electronic health record among Lebanese physicians. The study also proposed some recommendations for hospitals, program designers, and researchers.

Effectiveness of different strategies in the prevention of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus; A Tunisian cohort study []

Background: the international strategy to eliminate hepatitis B (HB) is based on preventing perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) transmission, by a universal screening of pregnant women for HB surface antigen (HBsAg) during pregnancy and on the provision of immunoprophylaxis for infants born to infected mothers. We aimed at determining the efficiency of the HB immune-prophylaxis among infants born to mothers positive for HBsAg. Methods: an analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in the gastroenterology ward in the University Hospital of Monastir, (Tunisia) between 2012 and 2014. A hepatitis B serology was requested for children who have been properly vaccinated. Results: We included 155 children, 81 boys, and 74 girls with an average age of 9.86 ± 4.64 years .The prevalence of HBV infection despite HB vaccination was 4.5 %. All mothers of positive HBsAg infants ignored their hepatitis B status and had not received HB immunoglobulin. Administration of HBIG has been associated with a significant reduction in the risk of the mother to child transmission of HBV (p<0.05). Overall seroprotection rate was 50.3%. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate that the efficiency of HB vaccination is low in our country. We recommended a serological control of the HB vaccination efficiency at the age of one year after the application of systematic screening of pregnant women for HBsAg.


Tuna is a fishery product that has high economic value. In processing, many parts of Tuna have not been fully utilized. Tuna fish bones are mostly left alone even though they can be used as a bioceramic from the hydroxyapatite. The bioceramics of Tuna Fish Bone Hydroxyapatite can be utilized in the medical field and this certainly helps in utilizing fishery waste products.

Effectiveness of Modularized Instruction in Teaching []

The key purpose of this research was to find out the effectiveness of modular approach in teaching to assess the learners learning, performance and achievement and to determine whether the modular teaching is more effective than traditional methods. The study was experimental type. Equivalent group study design was used. Population was Grade Two pupils Teofila Z. Rovero Memorial Elementary School. Sample size was consisted of 100 pupils. The data were collected from both groups (controlled and experimental) analyzed and interpreted by using mean, standard deviation, and t-test using statistical package SPSS. The result’ scores were in the favor of usage of modular teaching approach. So, it is recommended that the modular approach should be widely used at various levels of education.


Fourier Optics is another version of Optics that describes the propagation of lights as an electromagnetic waves by the use of Fourier transform.But no study of Fourier Optics will be complete without the knowledge of Light and of course the Fourier transform. Light is an electromagnetic wave which gives a sensation of vision(within the wavelength of 400nm-450nm). Light been an Electromagnetic wave implies that it has both Electric(E) and magnetic fields(B). This work will be confined to how this electric field(E) is affected at a far- distance from the source, by the use of Fourier transform, when the light is properly propagated through a slit or an aperture and how this appears in the real-world. In this work even the"simplest part will be simplified" so as to aid quick understanding and trigger more interest of the up- coming learners into this field. In this work you will see that even the famous Young slits experiment,"Collapsing" the Newtonian notion,that light is a particle, is nothing but the Fourier transform of the slits through which he allows the light to pass. And at end of this work you also see how the Delta function will be used to prove the authentication of the Fourier transform theory.


This article shows the role and performance of teachers amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical interactions between teachers and learners were highly discouraged, for the safety of teachers and learners. The regular classroom set-up was not possible, that is why the education sector introduced a variety of ways to continue the teaching and learning process. The pandemic gave an idea to the educational system to embrace the different modalities so that teaching and learning must continue amidst our current situation today. It gives an opportunity for learners to be independent in studying their lessons. Learners made an adjustment likewise the teachers in performing their roles and task. Teachers learned to embrace the changes in education for them to do their tasks.


Financial structure choice and its impact on growth remains a great dilemma to all stakeholders. Whereas several studies have been done on this subject, more is yet to be established so as to ascertain the validity of the relationship between the financial structure and growth while factoring in an appropriate moderating variable like firm size in Kenya. The main objective of the study therefore was to investigate the confluence of financial structure and growth of pension funds management organizations in Kenya while considering confounding studies supporting, disagreeing and undecided views of other scholars. Specific Objectives were to establish the effect of short term debt structure on growth of pension funds in Kenya, to establish the effect of long term debt structure on growth of pension funds in Kenya. To ascertain the effect of external equity structure on growth of pension funds in Kenya. To determine the effect of internal equity structure on growth of pension funds in Kenya. To evaluate the moderating effect of firm size on growth of pension funds in Kenya. Notable gaps this study addressed included the slow growth of Individual pension funds as a result of lack of awareness, lack of transparency in public pension schemes, insufficient empirical studies on pension funds in Kenya This study highlighted several empirical evidence, literature review, objectives and the research hypotheses. The study employed causal research design with secondary panel data from the financial statements of 49 pension firm organizations carefully identified according to Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table retrieved from a population of 68 registered pension scheme managers in Kenya as at December 31st 2018. Data was retrieved from the retirement benefit authority records for the period December 2009-2018.Model specifications linking both the Independent, dependent and the error term was applied together with statistical and diagnostic tests. The effect of financial structure on pension funds is not significant across all firms. It is also concluded that highly geared firms have significant relationship with equity returns and insignificant relationship with asset returns. In addition, highly geared firms tend to have high profitability and that the nature of the industry also determines the effect of financial structure on their growth.

Do beta –2 Agonists reduce Admission rate in children with bronchiolitis? []

Abstract Introduction: Bronchiolitis is a very common disease in children less than 2 years of age. RSV virus is the major cause of this illness and its admissions represent 18 % of all pediatric hospitalization in infant less than 1 year of age. Globally, RSV infections in children less than 5 years of age account for 3.4 million hospitalizations and the admission rate has relatively increased during the last 15 years, despite the routine use of Beta-2 agonists in children with bronchiolitis in emergency departments. Methods: The aim is to determine from the medical literature whether the use of Albuterol in children (less than 2 years of age) with bronchiolitis, reduce admission rate or not? PubMed, Scopus, web of science and OneFile gale were searched, 1591 articles identified. Randomized controlled trials that comparing Albuterol group recipients with placebo recipients in children (less than 2 years of age) were only included in this study. Results: 7 (RCT)s representing 670 patients with bronchiolitis published between 1990 to 2011 , Risk of bias generally low and quality of evidence are high, (100%) of included studies have concluded that Beta2 agonists did not reduce Admission rate in children with bronchiolitis (16.5% in Albuterol group vs 20% in placebo group [ odd ratio 0.74 , P = 0.20 , confidence interval (CI) = (0.47 - 1.16) ]. conclusion: Use of Beta-2 Agonists in children (less than 2 years of age) with bronchiolitis do not reduce the admission rate. Key words: bronchodilator – bronchiolitis - beta 2 Agonist - salbutamol – albuterol Abbreviations: (RSV) respiratory syncytial virus (RCT) Randomized controlled trial


This study was conducted to determine the level of electronic-service quality of My.SSS Portal Facility of the Social Security System (SSS) San Pedro Branch in terms of efficiency, security, reliability, and citizen support. It was also the intention of the study to determine its relationship and impact on the satisfaction of members in terms of perceived usefulness, perceived quality, and confirmation. A descriptive correlational method and the quantitative impact analysis design were utilized as the research design. The researcher used G*Power power analysis to determine the sample size. Moreover, this study employed purposive and quota sampling as for sampling procedure. The respondents of the study were members of the SSS San Pedro Branch. Also, the researcher used a modified survey questionnaire as a research instrument in this study. The data were statistically treated using G*Power power analysis software application, frequency distribution, simple mean, Likert-scale, Pearson-r correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression, and SPSS software application. The overall findings of the study revealed that the level of electronic-service quality of My.SSS Portal Facility of SSS San Pedro branch was good and the level of members’ satisfaction towards the electronic-service quality of My.SSS Portal Facility was assessed to be satisfied. This study also revealed that there was a significant relationship between the level of electronic-service quality of My.SSS Portal Facility and the perceived level of satisfaction of SSS members in San Pedro Branch. Furthermore, the electronic-service quality of My.SSS Portal Facility had significantly impacted the satisfaction of SSS members in San Pedro Branch. Thus, the proponent had developed and submitted a proposed framework for continuous quality improvement and a support program for the SSS San Pedro Branch to inform the management regarding uncovered empirical findings of the study. Keywords: electronic-service, quality, impact, satisfaction, members

Asymmetric synthesis of 3H- FURO [3,4-C] Isocoumarins []

The chiral pool synthesis of (S)- isocoumarins, involves the synthesis of (S)- amino acid derivatives 95a-c and the conversion of 95a into their respective halides 96a-c followed by coupling of (S)- a chloroacid halides 96a-c with homophthalic acid to give (S)- isocoumarin derivatives 97a-c . Further derivatization of chloroacid halides by using KBro3 with dropwise addition of sulphuric acid at 200o C is done to get bromohomothalic acid which is then involved in coupling with (S)-a-chloroacid halides 96a-c to give (S)- isocoumarin deriatives 98a-c


Abstract The job satisfaction and turnover intention of the local government (LGU) run educational and institutional landscape: a milestone for strong and competitive academic literacy such as: 1) culture reveal the perception drawn from the mind of the respondents brings some favourable belief that there is a strong relationship that culture results to employee turnover, hence, this finding suggest that the admission and hiring process of every local government run educational institution should be reviewed and enhance to fine tune to the present environmental trend. It is suggested further that admission of any one in the government infrastructure, requires a thorough briefing and orientation for them to immerse the system in a way, once they are comfortable with the system, turnover can be prevented. 2) Lack of meaning and purpose suggest that as this practices of the local government setting is prevalent, keeping potential people to stay would mean giving them the ample time and exercise the fair treatment. Findings from the respondents does not denote a negative notion on the part of the organization however, it is suggested that people who have the right skills and talent will be given the break to prove and make them fulfilled which will result to high satisfaction level, and bigger chances of low turnover rate.3) Overwork reveal the findings that absence of calendar planning will result to working hard as it requires manual execution that will drain your human capacity. Survey results are in conformance to the findings of other groups that defines overwork as a work overload however it is not typically a physical carrying of work. The finding is suggestive; to free anyone from overwork, a mandatory work plan, piercing work ethics, and discipline in calendar activities, and time management can be an effective tool that substantiate the striving feeling of overwork. 4) Boredom reveal the findings that common observations noted by different group of respondents that they experience boredom in the local government run educational institution pertaining to the system of processing of anything demands time due to the hierarchy adopted. Avoidance of the enumerated effect brought about by boredom which results to some negative notions, suggest to create a desirable program that will inspire people in the organization and may bring impression of being valued in different paradigms. 5) Wicked boss reveal the perception that their boss is wicked but “genius “simply because, boss carries heavy responsibilities and driving out any obstacles for the sake of attaining their goal. However, in order to clear out some elements of doubts, and for the effective and efficient implementation of the LGU run academic institutions, a clear directives and provision of “goal setting” is suggested in a way, stakeholders can view a clear and a well- defined institutional direction.


The aim of this paper is to know the importance of education and training for the improvement of performance to hired security personnel’s in Antipolo City, Philippines and the training of security personnel’s should be shouldered by their companies or security agencies. The return and benefit of this is that the security personnel’s will be globally competent in their security functions, security and safety implementations and brought good image to the security agencies or companies they serve for gaining customer’s satisfaction. Free education and training is the key for development by helping security personnel to be effective, competent and professional in the performances of security servicing. Proper education and training boast career development, performances, gain customers satisfactions and significantly to be professional and raising the level of security personnel’s credentials in Antipolo City, Philippines.

The Effect Of "CTR" Frequency On The Optoelectronic - Energy Conversion Efficiency For Smart New Generation Device []

AC conductivity was studied to characterize the behavior of Ge20BixSe80-x composition and to decide the best composition for building a higher efficiency solar cell. The correlated barrier hopping mechanism of conduction is dominant. The solar cell prepared from p-type; Ge20Bi5Se75 and n-type Ge20Bi15Se65 have been studied. Chalcogenides of such device were prepared by melt quenching technique. Carrier – Type Reversal (CTR) phenomenon was elucidated to have a fascinating effect on optoelectronic energy conversion efficiency. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be around 9%. Characterizing solar cell by current-voltage curve, open-circuit voltage Voc, short circuit current Isc and Fill Factor. A recent applicable characteristic of this junction is its ability to act as a memristor. Ge20BixSe80-x, X = 0.5 and 0.15 % is a harvesting device for distinguished applications as a solar cell and as a memristor

Modeling Of Increasing Customer Satisfaction In Kantor Pelayanan Perbendaharaan Negara (KPPN) Sibolga []

Customer satisfaction is an absolute requirement for an institution or company that intends to develop its business either in the form of products or services. As part of public service, KPPN is the spearhead of financial services in Indonesia, so that customer satisfaction is one of the indicators of concern for the institution. This study aims to determine the initial model that can increase customer satisfaction at KPPN Sibolga. This study uses a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach. The sample in this study amounted to 56 people and the key informants of this study were the work units in the KPPN work area. The collection method used online questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The method of analysis used multiple linear regression tests then analyzed the content presented by the informants in a triangulation manner. Organizational culture, especially the familiarity aspect, is one of the keys to strengthening satisfaction, plus the role of communication between employees which is naturally formed due to organizational culture, this is what makes customers feel familiar informally is a good way to increase customer satisfaction at this KPPN. The head of the KPPN office should maintain the intensity of informal meetings and write down the procedures into measurable standards, so that they can be applied in the future.


Digitalization ends up one of the key components for the advancement of a nation. Previous studies on digitalization indicate that most governments are performing well in its implementation. However, digitalization makes the services from the government agencies more effective and efficient through better ICT capabilities. The use of ICT makes the public access faster and the public can get better information via the internet. Currently, there is a necessity to focus on Organization Transformation, Public e-service, Public value, Challenges, and Obstacles that face government to transform. The findings showed that each organizational element, which consists of process, people, culture, and structure can be identified well through the technology that induced organizational transformation in the public sector. The changes of the attribute can be identified by a comprehensive review from the general literature review of organizational point of view, the literature in the field of organization and information systems, and digitalization literature.

Impacts of Social Media Advertising on Sales Performance in Food Business []

This study aims to figure out the impact and effects of social media advertising as a market strategy to the sales performance in food business. This determines the correlation of social-media activity and sales revenue of businesses and brands, focusing on the performance of retail-food brands as this presented the food business in general. The results of the study conclude that using social media as a marketing tool in food businesses has made a great and positive impact in attracting customers, resulting to an increment in customer's loyalty and in general to the sales of the business. Social media marketing strategy provides an innovative service for these businesses to introduce and promote their goods, services, and brands ensuring that the information reaches the target market.


Abstract This study examined relationship among peer group influence, school subject selection and entrepreneurship skills of students in some selected senior secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis. Three research questions, objectives and research hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a correlational research design. A sample of 346 SSII students was drawn from the population 2,932 through purposive sampling technique with the aid of Research Adviser (2006) table for determining sample size. Three sets of instruments were adopted for use by the researcher to measure the students’ peer group influence, school subject selection and entrepreneurship skills. The validity of the instruments were obtained by the original owners of the instruments and reliability indices of 0.82, 0.72 and 0.88 were obtained respectively. Hypotheses Ho1 and Ho2 were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistics while Ho3 was subjected to Multiple Regression analysis. The results of the analysis indicates a significant and positive relationship between peer group influence and entrepreneurship skills; and there was a significant and positive relationship between school subject selection and entrepreneurship skills of senior secondary school students in Sokoto metropolis. While the result of Multiple regression analysis indicates that, peer group influence was a better predictor of entrepreneurship skills than school subject selection. Based on these findings, recommendations were made that, peer group should be incorporated into entrepreneurship intervention programmes and plans i.e., peer groups must be considered by counsellors in entrepreneurship guidance/counselling activities.