Volume 9, Issue 4, April 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Comparison between Quicksort, MergeSort and Insertion Sort []

Sorting plays an important role in computer programs and human lives. Sorting of data is a time intensive process. Several algorithms have been developed to sort list of data; each algorithm has its own merits and demerits. QuickSort, MergeSort and Insertion Sort are three well-known and used sorting algorithms. Quick sort and merge sort are based on the concept of divide and conquer and are considered as the most efficient sorting algorithms. Insertion sort uses concept of arranging cards. This research work compares these different sorting algorithms in terms of time complexity with the help of programs written in JAVA language using different sizes list with varying nature of data.

Toxicological and Biochemical Investigations in Rats Administered Co(II) Chelate Of 1-(-5-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-1-Phenyl-1H-Pyrazol-4-yl)Ethan-1-one []

Cobalt(II) chelate of 1-(-5-hydroxyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)ethan-1-one was synthesized by reacting 1mmol (189 g) previously dissolved in water (50 cm3) was 2 mmol (163 g) of HPMAP) dissolved in ethanol (50 cm3). The resulting pinkish clear solution mixture was poured, with constant stirring to 250 cm3 distilled water. This work was done to evaluate synthesized Co(II) chelate of 1-(-5-hydroxyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)ethan-1-one, acute toxicity, hematological parameters, and biochemical effects on vital organs such as the liver and kidney. Consequently, graded doses of 10, 100, 1000, 1600, 2900, and 5000 mg Cobalt(II) chelate of 1-(-5-hydroxyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)ethan-1-one per kg body weight were administered to determine their effects on acute toxicity, haematological parameters, liver and renal function indices of rats. Acute toxicity tests recorded no mortality and no visible sign of toxicity. However there were significant increase in (PCV, RBC and Hb) while (WBC) there were significantly reduced. There were significant increases in AST, ALT, and ALP activities at all dose levels except at the 100 mg/kg dose level. No significant differences were observed in the (Creatinine and Urea) kidney of rats administered with these compounds. These results show that Cobalt(II) chelate of 1-(-5-hydroxyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)ethan-1-one may elicit toxic effects on the liver on prolonged administration, however no toxic effect was observed on the kidney within the duration of this study. Keywords: Cobalt(II) chelate of 1-(-5-hydroxyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)ethan-1-one acylpyrazol-5-ones, Acute toxicity, Liver, Kidney


This study aims at investigating the phytochemical constituents, GC-MS profile, the analgesic and antipyretic activity of organic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis Lam. This plant is widespread in different parts of Africa and has vast ethnopharmacological applications. The results of the phytochemical analysis identified alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, triterpenoids/steroids, anthraquinone and saponins as the classes of compounds contained in the stem bark. The GC-MS evaluation indicated the following important five compounds: β-Pinene, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 6-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (Z)-, 9,15-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z)- and Octadecanoic acid, 11-methyl-, methyl ester as the bioactive compounds responsible for the analgesic and antipyretic activities. The present study is a randomized control study. Acetic acid induced writhing was employed for analgesic testing. Acetic acid was used to induce writhing in Wistar rats which were divided into six (6) groups. The groups were administered organic & aqueous extracts of the plant (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg). The animals were observed for number of writing movements and the percentage writhing was calculated. Baker’s yeast induced pyrexia was employed for the antipyretic testing. The animal groups were administered extracts of the plant (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg), with Paracetamol as the standard drug (100 mg/kg) and Normal saline (control) for both experiments. The body temperature of the rats was measured rectally over a period of four (4) hours. The results showed that the 400mg/kg doses were significantly more active than the standard drug Paracetamol.


ABSTRACT The study investigated locus of control, self-concept and emotional intelligence as predictors of academic achievement among senior secondary school students in Anambra State. Participants consisted of 240 students (130 boys and 110 girls) from six senior secondary schools in six educational zones of Anambra state. The participants who were SS 2 students with age ranging between 14 and 20years with a calculated mean age of 16.7years and standard deviation of 1.3 were randomly selected. The students responded to valid and reliable instruments, namely: locus of control scale (Rotter, 1966); academic self-concept scale (Reynolds, 1998); emotional intelligence scale (Shuttle, 1998) and academic achievement test. Data analysis involved pearson moment correlation and multiple regression, to examine the predictive effect of locus of control, self concept and emotional intelligence on the students’ academic achievement. Results showed that the variables when taken jointly and relatively, predicted academic achievement of students. Implications for the findings were discussed and the need for guidance services in Nigerian secondary schools was also stressed.


Abstract In this century, course development is springing. So, there is need to provide and maintain high quality of teaching and learning services. This paper is about developing a departmental portal which aim at creating a system whereby common educational challenges can be tackled without a lot of stress from the students or staff. The use of PHP and MySQL were involved for the developmental process.The departmental Portal is a web-based system that deals on registration of students, generating blacklist for student, generating quick result for each student, provides upload and download of course material and allocation of departmental courses. It is an affordable solution that gives the department more values as the system caters to the need of the department which includes: admission, online result, inquiry, etc. it maintains all information of the department in a centralized database and allows each staff to view relevant information from anywhere at any time. This system will assist the student of the department regarding information (on the courses, levels, assignment, grades and news/events update) and provides a simple interface for the maintenance of the students’ information to be used by the department to maintain the records and details of each student easily.


One of very important things for every sector in this century is access to information. Recently, there is need to provide and maintain high quality of information with an easy access to it. This research, application of a cloud-based information chatbot system, is aimed at developing a chatbot system that can solve complex questions from any location, putting into consideration, the user’s emotional status in order to provide a sympathetic feedback. A student’s cloud-based information chatbot system is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) analyses the student’s input queries, considering if the query is positive, negative, or neutral, and displays a suitable feedback in response to the query. The programs used to develop this system are PHP, MySQL, CSS, and HTML. These packages make the Graphical User Interface (GUI) friendly enough for those with little or no computer knowledge. The methodology adopted for this research is Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) because it combines data and processes, and treats them as object. This student cloud-based information chatbot system should be incorporated in the school system in order to provide easily provide students with school related information, and easy workload for the school management and staff. Keywords: Chatbots, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Natural Language Processing (NLP), Sentimental Analysis, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

Control of Limnological Parameters for IoT-based Mussel Cultivation []

The study of the condition of limnological parameters has always been one for a study. Scientists have researched endlessly on ways to balance the Aqua level to make it suitable for marine lives. Many studies have shown how researchers introduce techniques on developing technologies that help monitor and stabilize water environments. Significance has been placed on the study of water quality and condition of marine lives to determine their safety for consumption. This paper, however, examines the limnological parameters such as pH level, temperature, electrical conductivity, and oxygen level as basis for preserving the lives of mussel cultivation. It is a general knowledge to group all these thoughts together as intents to improve aquaculture. Aquaculture in this case is regarded as a method of cultivating and rearing plants and animals in a controlled marine environment such as ponds, rivers and so have you. Technological advancement has highly improved this idea of aquaculture by giving the scientist of farmer the obscure ideas such as the parametric data that would be gotten from this study.


Abstract Background: Marriage is a social institution that unites people in a special form of mutual dependence for the purpose of founding and maintaining a family. As a social practice entered into through a public act, religious or traditional ceremony, it reflects the purposes, character and customs of the society in which it is found. Many societies have norms that limit the age of young girls to enter into marriage, but in some cases the age limit does not take into consideration their physiological readiness for childbearing. Marriage often takes place at ages much earlier than the legally ratified minimum age. Early marriage is the marriage of children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Objective: To assess status of early marriage and associated factors among women in Dedo town, Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia, 2020 Methodology: Community based cross sectional study design was employed. Data was collected through face to face interview from December 10, 2020 to January 10, 2021 in Dedo town. Data collection tool was developed by reviewing related literatures, prepared in English version. Data was coded and analyzed using manual compilation of the questionnaires. To explain the study population in relation to relevant variables, descriptive statistics such as, frequencies, and percentages were calculated. Chi square and p-value <0.05 was used to identify factors associated with dependent variables. Result was presented in tables and charts. Result: From total of study participants three hundred thirty (95.65%) responded to the study. Among study participants 138(41.8%) were married less than 18 years old. The result of the chi-square test showed that educational status their father (X2= 56.177, Df=3 p-value<0.00001), educational status of their husbands (X2= 96.03, Df=3 p value<0.00001), family monthly income (X2= 42.4, Df=4 P-value<0.00001) were significantly associated with early marriage. And other variables like age of respondents (X2=7.478, Df=7 P-value=0.38), educational status (X2=2.576, Df=3 P-value=0.462), and occupational status (X2=4.21, Df=5 P-value=0.519) were not significantly associated. Conclusion: Generally, the results of this study revealed that more than two fifth of respondents were married less than 18 years old. Educational status their father, educational status of their husbands, family monthly income were significantly associated with early marriage. And other variables like age of respondents, educational status, and occupational were not significantly associated.


The potentials of activated carbons of ten agricultural wastes, as adsorbents for removal of Pb (II) were investigated using pure lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 on a batch mode. The waste peels were sun-dried for 24 hours, grounded and sieved through 150 microns sieve. These were washed with distilled water, dried in an oven at 105oC. Chemical method was used in activation by soaking the charcoal in 100 ml 0.1 M KOH for 24 hours, then filtered, rinsed thoroughly with distilled water and carbonized in the furnace at 4000C for 3 hours. Batch treatment method was used to study adsorption capacity Qe and percentage lead removal R under pH 2, 4, 10, 12; 100 mg/l lead ion concentration, 100 g adsorbent loading, at 25oC ± 1 and 20 minutes. The optimum pH for R% and Qe is 10 at 100 mg/l concentration of lead waste water, for all the studied biosorbents, 100 g loading , except carrot peels and rice husk that recorded optimum pH of 4 for R% and Qe (98.527%; 99.02 mg/g and 99.98%; 100.482 mg/g respectively). The highest R and Qe is 99.988% and 100.488 mg/g for corn husk while the least is 98.527% and 99.02 mg/g for carrot peels. Langmuir (R2 = 0.950 to 1.00) and Freundlich isotherms (R2 = 0.924 to 0.975) were used for fitting the equilibrium data. The system pH, adsorbent loading, concentration of metal ion, and the activation reagent all affect the R% and Qe. It is recommended that agricultural wastes be recycled to activated carbons for use in lead waste water treatments.


Flood is a common natural disaster, and its aftermath affects human livelihood. Globally, causality figures associated with floods has been increasing, especially in developing countries, due to weak flood coping mechanism. Engineering and non-engineering methods have been proposed to reduce the menace of floods on human settlements. Though, floods are destructive, flood water can be utilized in an all-year round farming especially in tropical region with distinct rainy and dry season. Flood recession farming is a non-engineering approach aimed at utilizing flood water for agricultural production. This study is aimed at analyzing socio-economic livelihood characteristics of flood recession farmers in Benue River basin; with a view of determining its contribution to household food security and employment generation. A combination of open-ended questionnaire, focus group discussions, field survey, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) was utilized to achieve study aim. Evidence suggests that land availability remains a major constraint. However, it was also found that crop tolerance and market demands determine the type of crop grown. In conclusion, there is a huge potential for further development of flood based farming systems; considering the many areas that experience annual flooding in Nigeria.

Antimicrobial Effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum, Allium sativum and Garcinia kola Juices against Selected Escherichia coli isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in Port Harcourt. []

Introduction: This study was carried out in Port Harcourt and aimed at determining the antimicrobial activities of Garcinia kola and Bryophyllum pinnatum juices on some selected uropathogens. The antimicrobial activities of the individual juice were tested, and the synergistic activities of the combined neat juices of Garcinia kola and Bryopyllum pinnatum. Materials and Methods: The dilutions of the juices at concentrations of 75%, 50%, 25% and 10% were tested against selected Escherichia coli to determine their antimicrobial activities. Agar well diffusion method was used on Muller-Hinton agar to check the susceptibility pattern. Result: E. coli isolates were 80% sensitive to Bryophyllum pinnatum juice at 100% dilution, 20% intermediate. At 75% concentration of the juice, 20% were resistant, 20% were intermediate and 60% of the isolates were sensitive. while at other concentrations (10%, 25% and 50%), all the isolates were resistant to Bryophyllum pinnatum juice. P = 0.05(P ˂ 0.05). At 100% and 75% concentration, E. coli isolates were 100% sensitive to Allium sativum juice, at 50% concentration, E. coli was 70%, sensitive to Allium sativum, 20% intermediate and 10% resistant. Conclusion: The combination of G. kola juice and B. pinnatum juices to that of A. Sativum reduced the antimicrobial activity of A. sativum against E. coli.


Heat transfer from a surface to surrounding fluid has a wide range of application in engineering. This is often achieved using extended surfaces or fins. Extended surfaces involve heat transfer by conduction within a solid coupled with heat transfer by convection from the boundaries of the solid. This study considers a one-dimensional heat transfer in a fin with circular cross-section. The governing equation was discretized by the finite volume approach. The temperature distribution along the length of fin was investigated. The effect of thermal properties of engineering materials on the temperature distribution was also studied. The study shows that temperature during convec-tion is higher than that obtained considering an adiabatic condition. A higher thermal conductivity results in higher heat transfer to the surroundings.

A determination of factors that influence policy implementation in the Zimbabwean public sector. []

Public policies represent the government’s thinking at a particular point in time and are incorporated in the national constitution of a country. They act as guidelines for the functioning of public sector institutions. and are periodically amended to address matters arising. The paper is based on a study that sought to determine factors that influence the implementation of civil and voter registration policies in selected public sector institutions in Zimbabwe. The study adopted a pragmatic approach that triangulated data collection and analysis methods. A stratified sample of 278 respondents responded to personal interviews conducted through both structured and semi-structured questionnaires. The statistical data were analysed using SEM the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS) Version 2.0 with AMOS. Qualitative data were analysed using theatrics analysis using the NVivo software package. This study revealed that lack of communication; religion; organisational structures and administrative capabilities; false information by stakeholders; inadequate resources and commitment of public sector personnel emerged and economic factors influence the implementation of policies in the public sector. The study concluded that such factors deprive citizens of their right to access services such as civil and voter registration. It also leads to fraudulent acquisition of identity documents thereby compromising the authenticity of the Zimbabwe population database as well as the country’s demographics. The study recommends that these factors should be addressed so as to improve the authenticity of both the Zimbabwe population and voter registration system. Key Words Policy implementation; factors; performance; reputation.

A Heuristic Algorithm Framework for Curbing the Spreading of the Covid-19 Pandemic []

The article suggests heuristic framework for monitoring people’s body temperature and physical distancing in public places. The imminent disruptive volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (DVUCA) conditions require global leaders to prepare for the effects of the challenges that they will be facing. The continuous spreading of the Covid-19 pandemic throughout the whole world is a challenge that occupied most business leaders. Monitoring the physical distance and body temperature are some of the critical measures that have been recommended by the World Health Organization so as to reduce the spreading of the Covid-19. The proposed heuristic framework through constant monitoring of the two measures will reduce the spreading of the Covid-19.


The use of data mining (DM) in education is a fast growing interdisciplinary research field which is also known as educational data mining (EDM). About 14% of children in the classroom between the ages of 4 to 12 are slow learner; this is a major set-back in the current education system which does not pay close attention to this category of learners especially in elementary schools. A well-designed educational system that will cater for slow learners can be achieved with the introduction of Education Data Mining. Hence this research focuses on implementing a Learner Recommender System that will detect pupil’s learning status and recommend better learning techniques. Different factors that can influence pupil learning where obtained and applied on 8 classification algorithms using WEKA tool to build a predictive model. The result shows that J48 performed well with 10-fold validation and hold-out as 66.7% and 67.5% respectively. J48, Reptree and Naïve Bayes performed well in the time taken to build the model but OneR and ZeroR had the optimal result. However, ZeroR has the lowest number of correctly classified instances. Hence, OneR can be said to perform optimally with respect to the time taken to build the model. In comparison based on accuracy based on classifier and confusion matrices using 10-fold cross-validation and hold-out j48 has optimal performance. Keywords—Education data Mining, Recommender, Algorithm, validation, Slow Learner


Introduction: The objective of this study was to contribute to the fight against the morbidity and mortality linked to diarrhea in children from 0 to 59 months. Material and Methods: This study is quantitative, it is of the correlational descriptive type. The study was carried out in a community setting, namely the Diulu health zone where data was collected using a questionnaire. Mothers in the Diulu health zone constitute the population of this study. The sample was 422 mothers. In this study we used the probability sampling method and more specifically cluster random sampling because the health zone has 19 health areas as well as an unknown number of mothers. Results: All mothers have heard of diarrhea and its prevention. The largest channel for taking information is according to our study parents and friends with 82.2% followed by health personnel coming with 62.5%. Penetrating the depths of knowledge, it emerges that 73% of mothers knew the definition of diarrhea, 55.7% knew the complications, less than half of mothers know the treatment of diarrhea at home or 46.7%. 1/3 of mothers or 31.5% knew the preparatory method for ORS at home and about 1/5 of mothers or 22.3% knew the replacement solution for ORS at home. As for the means of prevention, they are known at 58.5%. The vast majority of mothers agree with preventing diarrhea (98.1%) and even willing to educate other mothers (91.2%). Mothers observed 47.8% exclusive breastfeeding, supplemented infants with routine 17.5% vitamin A, treated drinking water at 68.5%, washed hands after 64.8% individual toilet and that of the child, they washed the breast before feeding the child at 70.6%, they lived far from hygienic facilities at 55%, they poured all human excrement into the latrines at 44.9% and protected food at 45.6%. Conclusion: Although diarrheal diseases are preventable and can be treated inexpensively, little progress has been made in reducing their incidence in children in recent years. This requires raising awareness of the problem and redefining a comprehensive plan of action to reduce the incidence of diarrhea and diarrhea mortality in children. Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Prevention, Diarrhea, Child, Oral rehydration serum.

FACTEURS SOCIO ECONOMIQUES DE LA SOUS UTILISATION DES SERVICES DE SANTE PAR LES MENAGES ( Cas des Aires de Santé de la Zone de Santé Rurale de Kabinda localisées dans la ville de Kabinda, Province de Lomami/RD.CONGO) []

Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the socio-economic factors of under-use of health services in households in the 6 Health Areas of the Kabinda Health Zone, located in the town of the same name, in the Province of Lomami. in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Material and Methods: This study was carried out over a period from January 3 to April 3, 2021, i.e. a period of 3 months and took place in the 6 Health Areas of the Kabinda Health Zone which are located in the city. with the same name. The study is descriptive across the board, supported by the structured interview technique. The study population consisted of 19,122 households representing all households in the City of Kabinda from which we drew a sample of 400 heads of households from a cluster sample made up of Health Areas. In the first degree, the 6 Health Areas were drawn at random, in the second degree, in each Health Area selected, we randomly selected two avenues. Once in the avenue, the direction to take was chosen at random by the so-called “bottle” method. With the table of random numbers, the investigators randomly selected a house and began the investigation with that house. Thus the sample obtained was drawn on the basis of the following selection criteria:  Inclusion criteria: Men and women aged 18 and over, heads of households, residing in the chosen Health Areas and in households for at least 6 months, present on the day of the survey and having agreed to participate in The study.  Exclusion criteria: All people who do not meet the above inclusion criteria. The sample size was calculated using the Fischer formula. The survey questionnaire was the tool used in collecting the data which was then entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using the Epi info 3.5 software. Results: The results of this study indicate that 27.4% declare that they do not have access to any consultation, mainly for financial reasons, the parents support the care with 62.9% followed by the patient himself with 25.1 %, the mutual health insurance covers only 2% of the households which are affiliated to it against 98% who are not. Finally, the results of this study show that the low use of health services by households in the Kabinda health zone is a function of economic and social factors (lack of financial means, low membership in mutual health insurance, poor quality of care, lack of notoriety, poor reception quality and incompetence of staff). Conclusion: The use of basic health services is one of the key factors promoting better health for populations. Conceptually, if the quality of services is one of the explanations for the level of use, this study also tried to show the importance of a set of other factors that should be taken into account to improve the use of health services. health. Indeed, the use of health services can lead to an improvement in the well-being and health of populations if the services offered are effective and efficient and if the population makes rational use of them. Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Prevention, Diarrhea, Child, Oral rehydration serum.


This study focuses on the impact of audit committee and quality of audit report of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria. Data was sourced from secondary sources from annual report and account of sampled listed healthcare firms in Nigeria. The data that were collected were tabulated and analysed using regression analysis. Findings from the study show that audit committee independence and audit committee financial competence has no significant impact on the quality of audit report of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria, audit committee size and audit committee meetings has significant impact on the quality of audit report of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria. The study recommended that for the fact that audit committee independence has no significant impact on the quality of audit report in of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria in the short run it might have significant impact in the long run so audit committee in of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria must try to maintain their independence always for better quality of audit report, of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria must maintain its audit committee size or increase the size of the committee for better and quality of audit report, for the fact that audit committee financial competence has no significant impact on the quality of audit report in of listed consumer’s goods firms in Nigeria now it may have in the future so audit committee members should keep building their financial competence so as to reduce financial misappropriation to enhance quality audit report and audit committee meetings in of listed healthcare firms in Nigeria should be held regularly because vital issues will be discussed to enhance quality audit report. Key words audit committee, audit report, healthcare annual report and account Word count 249


A trade fair complex is a large complex or a public space in which major trade shows and exhibitions are held, which accommodates large numbers of people. Exhibitions held at these trade fair complexes have become a means of achieving direct access to promotion and marketing. From time memorial, flexibility has been known to enhance the peculiarity of a space, making spaces adaptable to multipurpose use, without altering the functional requirements. The focus of this paper has to do with design components and techniques that allow for changing situations in the use and operation of spaces in a trade fair complex. Components such as walls, floors and roofs are the design features that affect space in any building. Trade fair complexes being hubs for cultural and social activities, attract an unpredictable population, therefore the need for flexible components for trade shows which are fast becoming stable and developing features of any developing city. The study assessed available trade fair complexes and the design features used to achieve flexibility, examining their adaptation to inadequacy of exhibition spaces in selected trade fair complexes in Nigeria. It was observed from the study that the selected trade fair complexes had adaptability as their flexible design approach and this is as a result of the use of large open spaces. The research methodology adopted for this study is based on observation and literature review only. An extensive research was carried out and relevant journal articles, conference papers and books summarized. The paper recommended that design components for flexibility such as moveable walls, retractable roofs and sitting should be used in trade fair complex designs to achieve an effective flexible design.


This research looked at the challenges the University of Zambia (UNZA) is facing in liquidating pensions and benefits liabilities to their employees and former employees over time. The aim of this study was to develop a sustainable framework through which the University of Zambia can liquidate and manage its debt liability to personnel. The researcher implemented referential pragmatism in order to develop sustainable strategies. The study adopted an exploratory case study design and used in-depth interviews and documentary reviews to discover underlying motive of human behavior. In light of the aforementioned, the study is a qualitative study. The theory of constraints was adopted in this study. Purposive sampling was used and the sample size consisted of 12 UNZA management and finance staff, 12 staff union representatives and 13 represented union members from various schools. Thematic analysis and documentary review was used to analyze this qualitative data. The researcher found that the biggest challenge the University of Zambia was facing was liquidity. The institution incurred more fixed costs than variable costs and the total income it earns was not enough to cover all expenses adequately to allow the institution to run efficiently and sustainably. Furthermore, it was found that some policies (written or unwritten) had affected the performance of the institution in aiding to liquidate this liability. It was also found that this outstanding liability has impacted the institution in many ways and has exposed it to risk. The research also elaborates in detail how both external and internal factors have led to this predicament UNZA is facing now. Therefore, the study concludes that in order to solve this problem, UNZA must implement policies and solutions which will enable and allow the university to enhance its revenue, while simultaneously lowering its costs, with large support from both government and the corporate word. Key words: University of Zambia, Terminal Benefits, Pensions Liability, Financial Management, Liquidating Personnel Debt.

The Impact of Enhancing the Egyptian Dry Ports on the Economy []

Purpose Nowadays the trade cycle is very important whether import or export, and each country tries to decrease the Leadtime of the cargo movement can achieve better revenue from these transactions. from this the industrial cities are built and for that to facilitate the cargo movement the dry ports concept is found. Dry ports are same as the seaport with all procedures done there but it needs another mood can transfer cargo from this to there. With below research will call this, that will change the perspective of tucking from that the dry ports will relate to seaports by railroad instead of trucing that cost the country huge cost yearly for maintainer which will decrease the total cost which will affect the cargo unit cost whether is imported or exported. Design/methodology/approach This research is following qualitative method; and will conduct through SWOT analysis on the Egyptian market. Findings Dry ports are very important from each one deals with them; from Shipping line perspective, Freight forwarders perspective and Shipper perspectives Research limitations/implications This research is limited to the new project started from January 2020 for build a dry port at 6th of October city. Originality/value This research considered the first empirical study about enhancing the role of dry ports in Egypt. Keywords: Seaport, Egyptian dry ports, October city, SWOT.

Impact of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction (Grade I) on Left Atrial Size assessed by 2D Echocardiography. []

Introduction: Though LA enlargement is associated with diastolic dysfunction as the progression of DD may lead to an elevated LV filling pressure, this study is designed to see LA diameter in LV Diastolic Dysfunction (Grade I). Method: This is retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted in 212 patients with LV diastolic dysfunction (Grade 1) with preserved LV Systolic function who were referred for clinically indicated two dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) in Chitwan Medical College from 6th June 2020 to 8th August 2020. Result: Out of total 212 patients, 107 (50.47%) were female and 105 (49.52%) were male. Age ranged from 33 to 87 years with the mean age of 63.2 ± 12.2 years, female (34 to 86 years) with the mean age of 62.9±10.8 years and male (33 to 87 years) with the mean age of 63.3±13.8 years. Left atrial diameter varied from 18mm to 39mm with average diameter 31.11±4.62 mm which implies that the value of LA diameter tended to be within normal limits. In female, left atrial diameter ranged from 18mm to 39mm with average diameter 30.34±4.58mm and in male it ranged from 19mm to 39mm with average diameter 31.90±4.72mm. LA diameter of both male and female was under normal limit in LVDD (Grade I). Conclusion: The result showed that LA diameter in LV Diastolic Dysfunction was within normal limits. So, LA enlargement was not independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (Grade 1).

Electricity producton using solid waste []

ABSTRACT In the city of Beira there is no efficient management system for urban solid waste due to the lack of infrastructure for its collection and which causes the existence of dispersed waste in the streets, in the water pipes affecting the environment, safety. and population health. This research proposes a procedure for the generation of electric energy from the use of these MSW. First a bibliographical revision was made to determine the state of the art in the world and in Mozambique about the subject under study. The research was carried out in three neighborhoods, Pontagea (high income), Macurungo (middle income) and Munhava (low income) and one school from each neighborhood. Samples were then taken using the quarte method to determine the composition. gravity of these residues, being the organic material of the largest composition in the MSW of the neighborhoods and in schools the main residues are the paper and plastic, soon it was estimated the percate production of MSW generation in the different neighborhoods, whose results show that the neighborhoods da pontagea is the largest producer of MSW (32394.4 kg pecapta / day), similar behavior has the secondary school of pontagea (200.9kg / day). To facilitate the speed of reaction during the process of anaerobic dysgestion and gasification, a Mangual TPL shredder is proposed and finally a procedure for the generation of energy from the use of organic material, plastic film and collected paper is proposed. The process would begin with the process of sorting, collecting, milling the MSW and then the conversion process employing the rectangular fixed-cupula biodisgestor and fixed-bed gasifier against Luigi current. The gases obtained in both processes supply the ALTOM G10 gas turbine. Plastics and paper can also be employed as fuels in pyrotibular steam generation boilers, which will subsequently be used for power generation. Keywords:, MSW, Biodigesters, gasifiers and electricity

Molecular evidence of vertical transmission of Theileria parva from cows to offspring in Morogoro, Eastern Tanzania []

Introduction: The Apicomplexan protozoa Theileria parva causes the fatal disease East Coast fever in cattle in eastern and southern Africa, the transmitting vector being the brown ear three host tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The high mortality rates in young calves caused by the disease in endemic places have led to suspicious of other means of transmission. The disease lacks the information that describe vertical transmission in new-borne calves; thus this study intended to describe the molecular evidence of maternal calf transmission of Theileria parva Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 21 clinically examined five day old calves and their respective dams; and from 18 aborted foetuses. These were subjected to genomic DNA extraction using DNA extraction kit. Analysis of the extracted DNA was made by spectrophotometer and Agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: Four out of 21 (19.0%) samples from adult cows, six out of 21 (24.0%) samples from calves and 15 out of 18 samples (83.3%) from foetuses of different gestation lengths fluoresced. Five samples showed bands (700-1000 bp) after p104 amplification, which is 20% of the samples with genomic DNA. The PCR product of one (1) sample had bands (300- 400bp) that resembled the T. parva sporozoites stabilate vaccine strains (Muguga), two (2) samples had bands (250- 350bp) that resembled the T. parva Marikebuni, and another two samples had bands (100-500bp) which had mixed band patterns which do not resemble any of the vaccine strains, indicating that they are unique to Tanzania. Conclusion: Since T. parva DNA was observed in foetuses, T. parva is transmitted vertically through the placenta and (2) there are more T. parva stocks in Tanzania other than Muguga, Kiambu 5, Serengeti transformed and the earlier isolated T. parva Melela. Control strategies for the parasite should therefore consider means of transmission other than by the vector ticks. Vaccine development for ECF control should be preceded by determining the local T. parva complex circulating in the country.

Message Passing: Survey on RPC, RMI, and CORBA []

Message passing is a critical part of any distributed system. It allows the different components of a distributed system to communicate with each other and allow clients to use the services it provides, send commands, and receive results. Many technologies implement message passing such as Remote Procedure Call (RPC), Remote Method Invocation (RMI), and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). This paper presents an overview of these technologies and a survey on publications that are available on them.


Visually appealing learning materials, entertaining discussions flow, and engaging activities in the teaching and learning process are one of the primary goals of many educational institutions. This paper presents various articles reviewed purposely discussing the characteristics of game-based learning and other synonymous terms in improving the learners' motivation and academic performance, particularly in an online setup. Specifically, it aims to determine the implications of integrating game-based learning in an online setup. The principal resources of this paper were excerpted pieces of literature taken from international journals. The review focuses on the findings and conclusions of the articles reviewed. The paper revealed that several implications were affecting to improve the learners’ motivation and top-notch academic performance. However, the literature reviewed showed that there are gray areas of game-based learning allowing educational institutions to look for a better panacea.

Who Pays the Price of Incarceration? A Narrative Story of a Prisoner’s Wife []

This paper summarizes the lived experiences of an incarcerated father’s family, otherwise known as the shadows of prison. This study used the qualitative approach through a narrative inquiry employing in-depth interviews as the primary data gathering tool. It was revealed in the study that paternal incarceration greatly disturbs family relations. Its impact includes the following: a) having a marital strain; b) distress on the part of the wife who is concerned about the safety of her incarcerated husband; c) absence of a father figure in the family resulting in children’s neglect; d) financial burden; e) social stigma, and f) emotional tensions. The shadows of prison face intense and multifaceted risk factors to their emotional, physical, and financial well-being. The findings of the study will serve as a guide for the establishment of peer-support groups and resources for the families in each municipality or city that will help the families in their coping stage. Keywords: paternal incarceration; shadows of prison; impact of incarceration; problems of separation


Cancer is a health burden of global dimensions as the disease is the second leading cause of death worldwide, claiming 9.6 million lives in 2018. The burden from the disease is enormous and there is an immense increase in the cancer diagnosis statistics report for African, Asian, Central and South American populations; where about 70% of the cancer deaths reportedly occurred in these regions. Thus, the need for chemopreventive agents has arisen. Gnetum africanum popularly known as Okazi/Afang in Nigeria is a tropical wild vegetable with high consumption rate in Nigeria. The plant has a robust ethnopharmacological data of its use in various parts of Africa. Recently, the anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of G. africanum were reported. There is need to identify the bioactive compounds in the leaves of G. africanum. Hence, this study is focused on investigating the phytochemical constituents and GC-MS profile of Gnetum africanum. The results of the phytochemical analysis identified alkaloids, flavonoids, lipids, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins and triterpenoids/steroids as the classes of compounds contained in the leaves. The GC-MS evaluation indicated the following twelve bioactive compounds: Mepindolol, Butanoic acid, 2-methyl, methyl ester, .beta. –Eudesmol, Benzene, 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-, Trimethyl-, phosphate, Benzoic acid, 4-ethoxy-, ethyl ester, 2-(2-Hydroxyethylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone, Phytol, acetate, Tributyl Citrate, Stigmasterol, 13-Docosenamide,(Z)- and .beta.-Sitosterol. Stigmasterol and .beta.-Sitosterol are two highly bioactive phytosterols with numerous bioactivities. The findings of this study have demonstrated the chemopreventive potentials of G. africanum. The plant merits further studies to justify its recommendation as a functional food or use as a dietary supplement. Keywords: Gnetum africanum, Chemoprevention, GC-MS, Phytochemical


The microbial contamination of ready-to-eat vended fruits in Ilorin market was examined using standard microbiological methods. A total of fifteen (15) samples of vended fruits were screened for total bacterial and fungal count. From examination five (5) bacterial species were isolated namely: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp and Pseudomonas sp while one (1) fungal species, Mucor sp, was isolated from the vended fruit samples. The total aerobic plate count ranged from 1.50±0.50 - 25.00±3.00 CFU ml-1 with Pawpaw having the highest count and Pineapple having the lowest count. The isolated organisms from the vended fruits showed that contamination occurred due to poor hygiene and environmental factors like contaminated air. Therefore adequate tutorials on sanitary practices on both individuals and environment should be encouraged by concerned government officials to reduce the level of contamination in vended fruits.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Nasogastric Tube Insertion among Nurses []

Background: Nasogastric tube feeding is particularly necessary for patients who are unable to feed themselves. They're also used to prescribe drugs. In today's, nasogastric tube feeding is a very common practice in hospital for patients that are unable to feed themselves orally. Because of the benefits involved, enteral feeding is recommended over parenteral feeding. When opposed to parenteral nutrition, it helps digestion, is less costly, and provides patients with more nutritional benefits. Nasogastric tube insertion is a routine clinical procedure performed by physicians and nurses in NHS hospitals on a regular basis. Misplaced nasogastric tubes have been related to deaths and other harm with the most common cause being feed entering the pulmonary system. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of nurses regarding nasogastric tube insertion? To assess the attitude of nurses regarding nasogastric tube insertion? To assess the nurses’ experience regarding nasogastric tube insertion? Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive study design. The setting will be the General Hospital Lahore. Using SPSS, data analysis was performed. Graphs and tables provided the details. Result: Total 150 participants are involved this study 52.7% participants were male and 47.3% female 60.7% participants belong to 20-30 year of age group, 18.7 % participants have 31-40 year of age group, 6.7% participants have 41-50 year of age group and 14.0%participants have above 51 year of age. 44.0% participants were enrolled nurses, 28.0% were registered nurses, 15.3% were BSCN and 12.7% were other. 29.3% participants have 5 year experience, 11.3% have 6-10 year experience,27.3.3% have 11-15 year experience, 20.0% have 16-20 year experience and 12.0% participants have experience 21 year or above. 31.3% respondent have pediatric department, 30.7% respondent have medical department, 8.0% have surgical department, 20.0% have ICU department and 10.0% have other. Conclusion This was attributed to the fact that all of the nurses had heard of it and were acquainted with the use. They were taught how to care for patients that required gastrointestinal decompression, evaluation and assessment, dietary assistance, and medical attention through their academic training. They were both aware of the indications for using. They discussed feeding, medicine, and diagnosis via the nasogastric tube. Key word: Knowledge, Attitude, Practices, Nasogastric tube, insertion.


This paper examines the significant factors influencing the demand for micro credit among urban poor households in Sri Lanka. Colombo, Gampaha, Kalutara, Kandy and Nuwara Elliya districts were selected. Employing the multistage sampling method, 1200 respondents were randomly selected from the urban areas of the five districts. Data on household characteristics, social capital and microcredit variables were collected with a structured questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive and Probit models. The results of Probit models show that the major determinants of the demand for credit among urban households are level of education, working in the private sector, entrepreneurial households, and male-headed households. Our analysis suggests that policymakers interested in improving the living conditions of urban poor households may be advised to consider promoting collateral free credit schemes, social capital, creating targets financial products, strengthen business units or cells.