Volume 9, Issue 4, April 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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X-RFS and AAS Estimation of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Kenyan Cosmetic Clays []

Heavy metals are natural components of the earth’s crust. Some are essential in maintaining the metabolism of the human body, others are toxic even in small quantities while others are xenobiotics. Some communities in Kenya apply clay on their skins on several occasions like initiation or for cosmetic purposes. In this study, heavy metals like Cd, Pd, Si, Ti, V, and trace (micronutrients) element like Cu, Cr, P, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Al, Ni and Zn were qualitatively and quantitatively estimated using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) in 12 cosmetic clays used by some communities in Kenya. The results indicate that among the toxic heavy metals, none were exceeding the European Union (EU), Canada and Germany permissible exposure limits (PEL) fixed for cosmetic preparations. Fe was found in a higher concentration than Cu, Cr and Zn. The presence of trace elements can prove to be beneficial but the presence of toxic heavy metals in small amounts may have adverse effects on the consumer health that always use the cosmetic clays in an impression of being safe because of the natural origin. However, repeated exposure over a long period to poisonous heavy metals like cadmium and lead can pose a health risk. This study presents the status of heavy metals and trace elements in cosmetic clays.

Computer Aided Material Selection Strategic Approach for Design of Ethiopian Buildings []

Building materials are one of the most financially and environmentally critical components of design, construction, and operational phases. However, these components are often overlooked as more emphasis is given to the structural integrity and aesthetics, this oversight can be detrimental to the performance of the infrastructure. Building material selection is encountered on every project small or large, but it is not given the attention it deserves during the design process. The considerations that have to go into the building material selection process are vast and can be overwhelming, if it is not done in a simplified and strategic approach. Designers often go to most known and most obvious choices, but this might not be the best choice. In this research it was tried to simplify and streamline the building material selection process through a strategic framework and proposal of a computer program. One of the objectives of this research was to evaluate the building material selection practice in Tigrai National Regional State (TNRS) and to identify the parameters and criteria that are considered in the selection process. Proposal of a strategic framework and development of a building material selection computer program were another objective of this research. The parameters and criteria considered for the building material selection computer program were gathered through questionnaire, design document and literature survey. These criteria were evaluated using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques; specifically Multiple Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) was used. This was done after assessing the current used building material selection practice in Tigray National Regional State (TNRS) through Questionnaire and Design Document Review. A computer aided strategic approach was proposed using these identified criteria and MAUT as a way to evaluate the criteria. The proposed computer program was developed using python programming language. Python was chosen due to its objected oriented language and its useful application in writing graphical user interfaces (GUI).The research was confined to assessing and proposal of a computer program in the detail aspect and Tigray National Regional State in location aspect. The results showed acceptable level of awareness of sustainability (67.5% were somewhat to moderately aware), likewise, knowledge of material selection is acceptable as well (80% Good to sufficient knowledge). However, the usage of material selection tools such as LEED, BREAM etc… is very low. This is due to the following presumed obstacles, ranked top 3 based on their relative importance index (RII); Lack of familiarity with the technique, Lack of skills in using technique, and poorly updated programs. Another objective of the research was to identify the important criteria for building material selection. The identified criteria, ranked top 3 based on their relative importance index (RII); are Material Availability, Life Cycle Cost, and Aesthetics. The strategic framework was developed in the form of a flowchart. The developed computer program consists of multiple windows that used the 23 criteria determined in the research. The computer program evaluated the building materials based on the weights (Wi) and utiles (Uij) inputted by the user. As mentioned above the computer program uses MAUT to evaluate the building materials based on the weights and utiles inputted and gives results in a single numerical number for each building material. Then, the user has to choose the building material with the highest numerical number as it is the best material based on weights and utiles inputted for the specific project. The developed computer program will help designers in selecting the most sustainable building material based on the project’s objective and client’s requirements.

Inputs accesses to Fishers in Lake Koka, Oromiya region, Ethiopia []

Abstract: Background and Objective: Access to inputs and the way the information reached to the inland fishers is a matter for the sake of adopting or not adopting the technologies as well as the information generated from research centers. The study examined to analyze fisheries’ access to inputs in Lake Koka. Materials and Methods: Raw data collected from four landing sites of Lake Koka by National Fishery and Aquatic Life Research Center, was used. Then the data was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics in STATA software. Results: Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that, the majority of the respondents had access to inputs such as information and advisory services from the government/ development agents and woreda experts/. Regarding to boats and gears they had access from the nearby cities and Addiss ababa even if the inputs costs them higher than their expectation and capacity. They are also use traditional way of preservative methods. They use leaves. They have no access to modern preservative methods like ice or refrigerators. Conclusion: the inputs the fishers use like boats and gears was relatively expensive and also the preservative methods they used were traditional. So, there is a need to reach to them by research institutes with modern technologies. Key words: - Advisory service, fishery, inputs, development agents, woreda experts

Role of Capture fisheries to livelihood and food security in Ethiopia: A review study []

Poverty, hunger and malnutrition affect 25 millions of people in Ethiopia. The challenge is to find suitable and sustainable technologies which ensure them physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times: a situation referred to as food security. Many scholars, researchers, development agencies and policy-makers argue that capture fisheries, contributes to food security in many parts of the country including those living far from fish production areas. However little is known and not much literatures were documented on its importance to food and nutrition security to the society.

Understanding fisheries’Contribution for food and nutrition security in Ethiopia: A review study []

The objective of this review was to summarize the food and nutrition security functions of fisheries sector in Ethiopia. Published and unpublished sources were used to obtain appropriate data. Fishery sector is the most important livelihood activity in Ethiopia. The contribution of fishery sector however is not visible in food and nutritional security of the poor society. This is because almost all of the production is from small-scale artisanal fisheries. Poor quality of fish products due to poor handling, processing, and transportation, climate change, poor organizational structures in fishery governance, are affecting the sector. These problems led to misrepresentation and undermine the role of fisheries sector in the livelihood of poor societies of the country. Therefore, effective management and follow up is very important in order to improve the benefit from the sector, with more focus to encouraging the development of aquaculture.


The study measured the change and growth rate production of fish in Ethiopia based on secondary data during 2009-2019. Semi-log model was applied to measure the compound annual growth rate of fish production for the period 2009 to 2019. The results revealed that, the production of fish in the country was increasing satisfactorily. The compound growth rate in production of fish improved rapidly. But, the increase in production comes from predominantly from capture fishery. The production of fish from the aquaculture sector was as insignificant as the sector is at infant stage. Therefore to meet the growing demand of consumers to fish need to be met by giving more attention to the aquaculture sector in addition to optimize the production form capture fishery by mitigating the climate change and manmade and natural pollutions of fresh water bodies. On the other hand by giving attention to the fishery sector in delivering technologies and information like post harvest technologies.

Innovative ideas make your teaching more effective []

dear Journal Teacher education has become a focal point for renewal and reform. this emphasis recognizer that investment in education can result in improvements for individuals and society as a whole.

Perceived Social Support and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of the Quality of Life by the Private School Teachers of San Carlos Division []

This study investigated the predictors of quality of life i.e. perceived social support and emotion regulation among the 124 private school basic education teachers in the Division of San Carlos. Descriptive-correlational method was utilized by the researcher in this study. Result of Pearson Product Moment Correlation revealed that social support positively correlates to quality of life; whereas no correlation was observed between emotion regulation and quality of life using Spearman correlation. The level of emotion regulation and quality showed no significant difference when grouped according to age, gender, and number of years in teaching. On the other hand, perceived social support also showed no significant difference when grouped according to demographics except in number of years in teaching; however, post hoc test using Tukey HSD does not reveal any significant difference between pairwise groups. Using multiple regression analysis, a significant regression was found. The regression equation formed is given by Quality of Life=73.618+4.028(PSS)+0.841(ER). It indicated that a unit increase in perceived social support increases the quality of life by 4.028 units, assuming that emotion regulation is constant. Keywords: Perceived social support, Emotion regulation, Quality of life, Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue


The main purpose of this study is to describe the determinants to the performance in Mathematics of Grade 7 students in school. This study attempts to identify factors that act as determinants to elevate academic performance specifically in Mathematics subject. It presents the challenges faced by pedagogues in bringing changes in students’ academic performance of Mathematics (International Journal of Education and Practice, v8 n4 p638-651 2020). The results of the study will help students determine their weaknesses in Mathematics subjects enabling them to perform without fear and begin to love the subject without fear.

Architecture: A Tool for Creating an Enabling Environment for physically challenged Persons. []

ABSTRACT: Due to the high rate of physically challenge persons on the street of Nigeria, it has become of high demand to create a source of independency for this class of persons. Their talents can be harnessed; their dependency on others for survival reduced and their living conditions will also improve if an enabling environment is created to support them physically, socially, and mentally. An accessible environment is the key to achieve such. So, creating an accessible training environment where they can acquire some vocational skill and become independent is of essences. This paper emphasizes the physical aspect of creating an enabling environment and addresses practical ways in which architecture can be used to create an enabling environment for mobility-impaired person, visual impaired person and hard to hear persons. The information contained in this paper is mostly obtained from secondary sources of data collection; books, existing literature, articles, magazines, slides, journals, and personal observations. Mobility impaired persons can be independent financially and otherwise if given the right environment and opportunities. Architectural barriers to accessibility like ramps, elevators, lifts, stairs, railings, entrances, doors, corridors, etc. in a built environment can be designed in such ways that are accessible and safe for both the Able and Disabled. Designers should be encouraged to always design for people with disabilities in mind especially in public buildings to help flatten the curve and get everybody involved in societal building.

Pain management in gynecology and obstetrics at the level of the unit of anesthesia resuscitation in obstetrics and gynecology - Oran University Hospital []

Pain management is a real public health issue and a major morbidity concern. As part of a pain management improvement program, the anesthesia unit in obstetric gynecology conducted an evaluation of this management. The observational and monocentric descriptive study included 1258 female respondents who benefited from multimodal analgesia, epidural analgesia, spinalalgesia, and 336 gynecology patients reported in addition to the multimodal analgesia of the spine technique, epidural combined analgesic in postoperative. The optimal analog visual scale AVS of 30 mm to 40 mm has been achieved. According to our results it appears that pain management is effective, but the rate of completion of epidural analgesia for childbirth remains low.

Assessment of the potential of using blackstrap molasses as a soil stabilizer for small earthfill dam embankment []

This research aimed to assess ability of blackstrap molasses to stabilize silt clay soil for use as inner core in earth dam embankment. Specifically, this research examined the effect of adding blackstrap molasses to silt clay soil in terms of consolidated-undrained triaxial test, soil permeability and compaction. The study used blackstrap molasses with a density of 1.4 g cm-3 and viscosity of 2.9 x 10-6 m2 sec-1 for soil stabilization. Molasses can improve the adherence between soil particles and, thus, enable formation of a strong interparticle bond that enhances the stability of the stabilized soil. By adding 6.5% of molasses to soil sample, cohesion of soil was increased from 6.0 to 43.8 kN/m3, while decreasing friction angle of soil from 22.1o to 8.6o. Additionally, maximum dry density of soil was increased from 18.5 to 19.40 kN/m7 while bulk density of soil increased from 20.72 to 21.34 kN/m3. Also, optimum moisture content of soil decreased from 12.0% to 10.0% at 6.5% molasses content. The permeability of the soil decreased from 6.062 x 10-5 to 2.413 x 10-5 mm sec-1 with increase of molasses up to 6%. Results showed that, stabilization of silt clay soil with molasses, increased strength properties of soil, and therefore, molasses can be used as stabilizing agent for silt clay soil. It is recommended that, further studies be conducted to determine duration molasses as stabilizing agent will last in the soil while maintaining the same strength. Also field trials would be necessary to assess the performance of soil stabilized with molasses.

Conflict Management and Organizational Performance in Nigeria []

This study was aimed at identifying the effect of conflict on organizational performance in Nigerian organizations. We used a descriptive survey research design and the sample size selected was 166 academic staff. Data collected through the questionnaire were described using descriptive statistics while Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation was employed to test the hypotheses and establish the relationship between conflict management strategies and its implications on organizations performance. This study however, has shown there is a significant positive contribution of conflict management strategies to organizational performance. The study concluded that Power, style, culture and goal play significant role in managing organizational conflicts. Based on the findings, the study recommended that the management of the private universities should create additional channels of communication with employees as means of obtaining prompt feedback on organizational policies, so that conflicting interest will not arise. Keywords: Conflict Management, Performance, Power, Style, Culture, Strategies

Enhancing the Marketing Mix Factors in the UPVC and Aluminium Windows and Doors Industry in Egypt []

This research aims to evaluate the marketing mix factor and assess its effect on the competitive advantage of the UPVC and Aluminium windows and doors industry in Egypt to explore the most affected factors on the customers buying decisions; using the Fuzzy Hierocracy Process (FAHP); in addition, to analyse the weight of each marketing mix factors affecting UPVC and Aluminium industry. To prove the ability of the proposed framework based on actual study was conducted in the UPVC and Aluminium windows and doors industry in Egypt for the year 2020. Since there is no papers or thesis in the field of windows and doors in Egypt had been made before so the researcher makes this paper to be a primary reference for the next research in the field.

The role of Computed Tomography in Managing Minor Head Injury []

Introduction: Trauma is the main reason of death and various kinds of disability in pediatric population. Minor head injury has been described as a trauma that lead to physiological disorder of brain function and the symptoms may include altered in mental status that may be or may not be associated with loss of consciousness. furthermore, the expression (concussion) has been sometimes used to refer to the same cases. in general, minor head injury case is diagnosis of exclusion and may be possible to achieve final diagnosis after adequate observation and perform appropriate imaging studies.


To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to describe the occurrence of virulence genes distribution amongst ESBL isolates in scavenging local chicken in Tanzania. The study sampled 200 chicken from six vicinities in the Morogoro municipality. Forty two percent of APEC isolates from E.coli were found to be ESBL producers, which harbored the ff ESBL genes; TEM, CTX-M1, CTX-M 914, CTX-M825, CMY, MA and OXA. These were co-harbored with a total of 31 virulence genes. The most prevalent virulence factor found amongst ESBL isolates include iss, tra T, Asta A and ibe A. The tra T virulence gene recorded a positive correlation with ESBL genes CTX-M1, CTX-M825 and CTX-M945 and CMY whiles the IbeA virulence gene showed positive correlation to only MA and CTXM-1. Also there is a significant difference in the number of virulence genes found in the oral-pharynges of the chicken and those found in their cloacae, an indication that these seemingly healthy birds harbor virulence genes and could promote zoonosis. Further research needs to go into the the relationship between virulence factors and resistance genes since it still remains is complex issue


The study examined relationship between job satisfaction, career motivation and Teacher performance in Kaura Namoda Education zone of Zamfara State. A total number 7 public secondary schools were used for the study. The study also used 251 teachers who were selected from the schools. A self-designed questionnaire, entitled “job satisfaction, career motivation and Teacher performance Questionnaire (JSCMTPQ) was used to collect data for the study. Four research questions and four null hypothesis were used. Pearson product moment order correlation coefficient as well as regression were used for data analyses. The major findings of the study revealed that there is significant relationship between job satisfaction, career motivation and teacher performance. It was recommended among others that teachers should be encouraged morally and financially, in term of promotions, in service training and career information and motivation.


Training and development of employees is becoming an optimal answer to complex business challenges, and the management of human resources is taking central role in modern management. Through the process of employee training and development, the management of human resources provides constant knowledge innovation, creates conditions for mutual knowledge and experience exchange and proactive behavior, in this way contributing to competitive advantage and satisfaction of all participants in business procedures. This study was guided by one research objective which was to find out the effect of training and development on employee performance amongemployees at the County General hospital, Kakamega.The study sampled 93 of the employeesof the targeted population of 1250 employees. Data was collected from 62 employees constituting 66.7% of the targeted employees. A cross sectional descriptive survey was used as a research design. Thepopulation of study was 93 employees currently employed at the county General hospital. Simple stratified random and convenience sampling was used to collect the data from the different employees. Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaires and was analyzed using percentages and frequencies. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used for correlation analysis while simple linear regression model was used for regression. Findings of the study revealed most employees had undergonetraining at least once in a year since they joined the institution. This has been seen to improve the individual’s job performance. Most respondents agreed that training has improved performance, job integrity and loyalty not forgetting the improved communication as a result of training. The ability of an employee to feel part of an institution has been through empowering that come in the form of training and development. Indeed training and development has always brought positive impact on job performance. This is evident on the 85.5% of the respondents who agree that their performance has been a result of training and development. Many people and employees when inducted not only gain hands on experience but also gain control of their destiny and performance in their places of work.The study found out that training and development positively and significantly relate to employees performance. Through training and development, people are able to adapt to changes in their areas of work. Individuals gain skill and confidence to tackle unexpected events. This plays a major role in building morale and productivity of any institution. Confidence expands an individuals’ ability to handle even bigger issues and problems from any angle with a view to provide solution. The health sector especially in Kenya rural needs broad minds. This is as a result of the vast demographical and geographical distribution of the country. Man power in the sector has always been on the low with patients being on the receiving ends since time memorial. It is from these calumnious situations that require staff from the health sector to beequipped with banquet of knowledge. The study also sought the areas requiring specialized trainings. Most of them cover sections of emerging trends in the health sector. From areas of bio safety to areas of technology, from areas data management to administrative areas. Induction training was largely suggested by the respondents and apart from the specialized trainings; employees need to be inducted once employed before they can delve in service delivery.


Abstract This study investigated the Competencies of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Skills of library staff in Federal Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State. The objective of the study was to find the competency of library staff’s skills in using ICT facilities to do their job. Five research questions were formulated to guide the study on Areas of work staff use ICT, levels of competence, methods of acquiring competencies, constraints to competency acquisition and strategies to improve the situation. Data relevant to the study was collected using questionnaire design sampling technique. A total of 155 copies of questionnaire were distributed out of which 142 were rightly completed and returned. Data were analyzed using mean scores. Findings revealed that many library staff in Federal Tertiary Institutions libraries in Anambra State performs Microsoft Word based tasks like typing and printing of documents, they can provide online searches using internet and performs acquisition of information materials using online systems, but cannot perform effective professional library ICT digitization usage which involves professional library software related duties. Staff needs ICT competencies in the areas that can assist them handle professional related duties, like internet webpage design skills, mastery of library software and technical skills. Library staff acquired ICT training mainly through personal practice, on the job training, seminars, conferences and workshops, but preferred training through library schools. The major problems that hindered ICT competency acquisition among library staff are lack of funding, higher authority not willing to release their staff to go for further training, lack of opportunities, lack of ICT training facilities and inadequate curriculum content for ICT in the library schools. Strategies to improve the ICT competencies of library staff are by provision of more ICT facilities in library schools, development of personal interest by staff to acquire ICT competencies, sponsorship and study grants, study leave to be granted to staff to go for ICT competency acquisition trainings, also the authority should be willing to release staff for studies and recruit more staff to reduce work load. Suggestions on areas for further studies on ICT competencies of library staff were also made.


Cooperative refund is one of the structural features of the Cooperative form. Refunds shall be made available to the separated members of the Cooperative. This study investigated the possibility of process improvement to determine the turnaround procedure of the coop refund. This paper suggested an improved policy so that the system could produce the desired output optimally. A Phenomenological Qualitative Research Design has been used in this study that a purposeful sampling is applied to involve eleven (11) refund processors from different Cooperative departments who have at least one year of experience in the activity. Ten (10) interview questions served as an instrument for obtaining information that helped develop the study. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) followed to understand the meaning of the participants' lived experiences, in which ten (10) superordinate themes have been finding from the qualitative data analysis performed.

Micro Business Enterprises Awareness on Government Support and Challenges Encountered: Basis for Sustainable Business Model []

Despite the widespread laws and programs, the discontinuance rate of MSMEs in the Philippines was high. The main thrust of the study was determining the significance of the level of awareness on government support to the level of challenges encountered by MBE of Calamba City. “The Y-Model of MBE” was the output of the study. Descriptive-correlational method using a survey questionnaire was utilized and 134 respondents from Barangays of Seven (7), Bucal, and Paciano Rizal had participated. Regression Analysis revealed that there was a significant impact between the awareness level on technology transfer and marketing with the level of challenges encountered on product or product mix. Awareness of taxation and management also significantly influenced the challenges encountered in management and finance respectively. The challenges on government compliance were affected by the government support about technology transfer and marketing while challenges on marketing were not affected by any support.

Effectiveness of Modular Distance Learning in the Performance of the Junior High School students in Cuatro Christian School for School Year 2020-2021” []

The study entitled “Effectiveness of Modular Distance Learning in the Performance of the Junior High School students in Cuatro Christian School for School Year 2020-2021”.The subjects of the study are the Junior High School students and teachers of Cuatro Christian School. The researcher will utilize descriptive- quantitative research using a researcher made questionnaire-checklist as the main instrument of the study. Subic & Maconachie (2010) stated that the challenge cannot be met by computer technology alone, but rather by integrating this technology within flexible learning approaches based on the universality of learning processes and teaching and learning approaches that encourage deep learning. Harun (2002) discussed that with the rapid change in all types of working environments, especially medical and healthcare environments, there is a constant need to rapidly train and retrain people in new technologies, products, and services found within the environment. Guedes-Silveira, Vieira & Balbinot (2001) suggested that there should be possibility to create and manage course's sites, to manage classes, to structure dates and deadlines and mainly to synchronize the different kind of media during sessions. Aydin & Tirkes (2010) concludes that distance learning is costly, and cost-effectiveness becomes more important as the institutions become large-scale providers of distance education. Karal & Cebi (2012) concludes that assessment and evaluation process involves not only online exams but also modules such as forum, assignment, wiki, dictionaries which shows students’ process performance. In modular assessment and evaluation process, students’ answers should be considered qualitatively and quantitatively by teachers.


Abstract. Effective maintenance strategies are imperative to provide proper maintenance and management of buildings. Educational buildings are one of the key facilities for rudimentary knowledge in daily life. Accordingly, the maintenance of these institutional buildings, which serve staff and students, needs considerable attention as effective maintenance protects capital investment, ensures the health and safety of the students, and supports educational performance. Based on a combination of literature survey and physical appraisal, this study examines the maintenance practices in selected hostels and faculties in Rivers State University. Generally, this study also showed that most of the school buildings do not possess their own maintenance manuals in their management practices. Additionally, there is no preventive or planned maintenance as it was not observed, only emergency and unexpected maintenance practices were applied when the need arises as a result of damages. The study recommends the implementation of planned maintenance process, which will be more effective than unplanned maintenance mostly because of the reduction in repair costs.