Volume 8, Issue 4, April 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This research aims to determine the percentage of the addition of the powder head fish flavor in the manufacture of stick snacks to the level of the favorite product produced. This research was conducted in September to November 2019 in the Fishery Technology Laboratory of Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty of Padjadjaran University. The method used in this research is an experimental method with 4 types of addition powder of the increase of fish head flavor, namely 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% by involving as many as 20 semi-trained panelists as a replay. Based on the results of research can be concluded that the addition of the fish head flavor powder in the stick all treatment is still received by panelist with the most preferred treatment is the treatment 2.5%. The highest value of test proximate stick from best treatment 2.5% and comparative treatment 0% is water content 0.84%, ash content 2.69%, protein content 8.33% and fat content 30.55%.

Energy Priorities of Domestic and Foreign Policy of the Arab Monarchies of the Gulf. []

Abstract: This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the patterns of influence of social, political, economic prerequisites, as well as military-political security indicators on the formation of priorities of the state energy policy, the strategy of export and import of hydrocarbons, as a dominant factor in the foreign policy of the Arab monarchies. The analysis conducted by the author indicates a significant influence of the socio-political factor on the formation and implementation of the energy policy of the Gulf states. The social factor plays a significant role in the distribution of income from the sale of energy resources, which are the basis of the economy, the main source of replenishment of the state budget of these countries.


This work presents a One Step Numerical Method for the direct solution of general first order Ordinary Differential Equations. The formula was developed using the interpolation techniques as basis function and augmented by adopting the improved Euler – Cauchy approach to solve some Initial Value Problems of Oscillatory and Exponential Ordinary Differential Equations. Accuracy of the method was tested with numerical examples and the results showed a good performance better than others. The method results were compared with Cauchy – Euler result and error analysis was computed.

School Feeding Program and its Contribution to Quality Education in Yeka Sub City First Cycle Primary Schools, Addis Ababa Ethiopia (2019) []

School Feeding Program (SFP) is one of the components of education sector development program (ESDPIV) in Ethiopia. This research aimed at assessing the appropriateness of SFP and contribution of it to quality education for the indicators of academic achievement, mini-mize school dropout rates, and create child-friendly school environments, readiness to learn (attendance, concentration or classroom ethics and initiation to continue their education to the higher level). The research was employed mixed research approach and the design different according to the natures of research objectives. Because, to achieved the objective contribution of SFP to academic performance, psychological makeup and completion rate across groups (beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries but needy) students quasi (nonequivalent groups posttest-only (two or more groups) design, and to assessed the practice of school feeding program non-experimental (descriptive) were employed. For this study, 118 SFP beneficiary and 133 non-beneficiary but needy totally 251 students were participated in the research. The data collec-tion instruments were student roster analysis, questionnaire, and interview. The study conduct-ed two statistical tests; inferential (independent sample T-test, correlation and linear regres-sion) and descriptive statistics by using SPSS version 21. The main findings of the study were, the contribution of School Feeding Program to academic achievement of student was positive and significant, the program had contribution to develop both negative and positive psycholog-ical makeup of students, and the implementation process both appropriate and inappropriate, and the program contribute positively to the target of decreasing dropouts. Based on the find-ings the study recommended that, stakeholders should give due consideration for practical in-terventions to enhance the program effectiveness.

Effect of Sewage Sludge as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete at Elevated Temperature: Compressive Strength and Mass Loss Characteristics []

Disposal of sewage sludge resulting from waste water treatment process continues to be a problem especially in developing countries like Ethiopia, where effective and efficient infrastructures for waste disposal system is not sufficiently available. Many researches have been conducted to determine the properties of fresh and hardened concrete made by partially replacing fine aggregate with sewage sludge at room temperature whereas the purpose of the research described in this paper is to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge as partial replacement of fine aggregate in concrete exposed to elevated temperature. The effect of intensity of elevated temperatures (300, 600, and 900), temperature exposure durations (1hr, 4hr, and 8hr) and percentage replacement of sewage sludge (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) having constant water/cement ratio are investigated. A total of 120 concrete cube specimens were casted and tested. Compressive strength and weight loss were examined after air cooling. Test results revealed that replacement of 5% sewage sludge as fine aggregate has greater residual compressive strength than the normal concrete followed by 10% and 15% sewage replaced concrete at constant temperature and exposure duration. Test results also showed that as heating duration increases, so does concrete mass loss.

Tensile Strength Characteristics of Sewage Sludge as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete at Elevated Temperature []

The production of sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants are increasing all over the world due to increase in human needs however disposal of sewage sludge is yet a persistent question. This research work explores potential use of sewage sludge as a construction input material. Many studies have been conducted to determine the properties of both fresh and hardened concrete partially replaced fine aggregate with sewage sludge at normal temperature whereas there is research gap on mechanical properties of concrete produced with fine aggregate being partially replaced with sewage sludge (SS) at elevated temperatures. The effect of intensity of elevated temperatures (300, 600 and 900), temperature exposure durations (1hr, 4hr, and 8hr), and various sewage sludge (SS) fine aggregate blending percentages (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) are investigated. A total 120 concrete cylinders were casted and tested to investigate behavior of concrete with fine aggregate replaced with sewage sludge at elevated temperature in the blast furnace. Physical and mechanical properties including cracking and spalling and residual splitting tensile strength were determined after air cooling. The results revealed that replacement of 5% sewage sludge as fine aggregate has greater residual split tensile strength than normal control concrete and up to 10% replacement reduction in split tensile strength is not that much significant and however beyond 10% sharp decrement is observed. Test results also indicated that visible micro cracks on specimens appeared at 600 and 900 temperatures intensities.

Impact of Reforms to Enrollment of Children with Disabilities in Primary Education in Morogoro, Tanzania []

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of reforms to enrolment of children with disabilities in primary education in Morogoro Tanzania. The main aim of this study was to find out the role played by government in enabling children with disabilities to access primary education through reforms. For many years, the government of Tanzania came out with various reforms to enhance smooth learning of pupils in primary schools. The survey research design was used in study. The purposive sampling was applied to enable 12 primary schools to be selected. Data were analysed using both descriptive table and statistical techniques. The study found that number of pupils having disabilities increased during implementation of PEDP I and II. The findings of study identified that children with disabilities usually face a lot of problems and sometimes they face challenges with need government interventions.

The Psychological Perceptions of Fashion in the 21st Century regarding People’s Behaviour in response to Colour and Design. []

“Clothes maketh a man”. This age-old adage has been the mainstay driving the fashion industry for ages. The idea of you are what you wear has been the barometer used by the so-called elitists of society to establish social class and success. Clothing is selected and worn according to our perception of what we deem as style fashionable, as well as convey a message to society about our personality and self-confidence. In considering the effects of fashion there needs to be an understanding about the psyche involved with fashion regarding how does clothing affect the person a well as the perception of society regarding the user? In order to understand the statement of fashion that drives the concept of popularity and acceptance there needs to be an understanding about the psychology of fashion. The aim of this journal is to provide an understanding of the statement fashion is intended to be conveyed through the medium of perception about the language of fashion and provide soundproof that people are perceived and judged by what they wear. The psychology surrounding fashion will be categorized into three sections for the purpose of this study. There will be the establishment of the role of color in determining its effect on psychology, the socio-psychological impact of clothing and finally gender based equality and perceptions regarding clothing. Finally, we will examine some of the recent fashion shows, trends and brands to assess its effect on the industry. It is clearly evident that fashion and its effect of people provide an important asset in gaining social acceptance and a channel of communication.

The Study and Improvement of Electricity Power Distribution in Opolo Bayelsa State []

This research, the study and improvement of electricity power distribution in Opolo community was carried out on a 33/0.415kv, thirty-four (34) distribution substations network in Opolo community using load flow based technique combined with network improving devices. The network was modelled and simulated using Newton Ralphson load flow method on ETAP 14.6 environment for the investigation and analysis. The results showed that there were violations, overloading and power losses in the distribution network. Total power losses of 79.6kw and 171.0kvar were observed in the network. Two transformers and about 34 buses had violations. Critical alert of overloading of 101.2% was observed at Udeme and 100.5% was experienced at Opuala Charles substations. The 34 buses were in overload condition. Shunt Capacitor Bank (SCB) and Static Var Compensator (SVC) were comparatively applied to improve the existing network by injecting active and reactive power where necessary. SCB reduced the losses in the network from 79.6kw and 171.0kvar to 65.1kw and 151.0kvar while SVC did reduce them better to 57.8kw and 144.1kvar respectively. The results from the table, graphs and the calculations showed that SVC was more sensitive than SCB and had losses reduction performance efficiency of 27.6% and 18.1% for active and reactive power while SCB has 18.4% and 14.2% for active and reactive power. After improvement, the transformers and buses were operating at about 78% and the network was restored to normal. For improved and efficient power distribution, relief and higher capacity transformers are to be installed in the network with power compensating devices where necessary.


Tofu liquid waste contains high organic materials such as N 0,04% and P 0,0041% if waste directly discharged into the river will reduce water quality. The research was aimed to determine the use of tofu liquid waste as liquid organic fertiliz-er of Spirulina sp cultivation. The research was carried out from 28 December until 28 March. Waste obtained from Tofu Industry Lembang, West Bandung. Cultivation of Spirulina sp conducted over 16 days at Education Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University. The research method used is the experimental method, using a completely randomized design (CRD) by five treatments and three replications. Treatment in the form of commercial liq-uid organic fertilizer dose of 1 ml/l, unfermentation of tofu liquid waste dose of 30,5 ml/l and 37,5 ml/l, and then fer-mentation of tofu liquid waste dose of 46,5 ml/l and 53,5 ml/l. Observations made include the daily growth of Spirulina sp, specific growth constant, water quality parameters, namely pH, temperature, DO, Salinity, N, P, ammo-nia, nitrates and phosphates. The results of this research showed that unfermentation of tofu liquid waste dose of 30,5 ml/l in the cultivation of Spirulina sp can be alternative fertilizer to produces peak populations of 1,36 x 10 filament/ml on the 7th day.

The role of behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism in teaching and learning accounting []

The of teaching is to better understanding of students and that the manner in which a subject is taught is very key in the teaching and learning process. It is therefore paramount for teachers or educators to employ varieties of teaching strategies and learning theories to enhance understanding. Cognitivists, constructivists and behaviorists believe in certain way how teaching and learning should be conducted. This paper looks at how these three learning theories could be used in the teaching and learning of accounting to enhance students' understanding of the discipline.


This descriptive survey study was conducted to examine the influence of social media on behavioral patterns of Consumer Science High School students in Manzini, Eswatini. The mixed methods research approach was employed and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and close-ended survey questionnaire. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select a sam-ple of 16 students for interviews and 200 students for survey questionnaires respectively. Interview data were analyzed using the-matic analysis and survey questionnaire data using SPSS Version 23.0. Key findings revealed Facebook and WhatsApp as the most commonly used social networking sites by the students and mainly Social Media for leisure purposes such as chatting and following latest fashion trends. There was however, minimal use for research and academic purposes. Students spent the greater part of their time on social media, which they agreed could have been spent on more beneficial activities like studying. Students’ behavioral pat-terns have been negatively influenced, including strained relationships with family and anti-social tendencies. The study recommends that network providers come up with strategies to filter information that reaches young people through media platforms to avoid exposing them to unwarranted materials.


This paper explores the issue of early marriage in Bangladesh. Early marriage is nothing new in Bangladesh; it is deeply embebed in the improvised and traditional cultural settings. The main objective of this study was to identify on factors contributing to early marriage in Bangladesh based on national surveys of Bangladesh Demographic and Health survey (BDHS) 2014 that are associated with early marriage. The study used secondary data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2014. Logistic regression analysis was applied to find out the most significant factors of early marriage in Bangladesh. It was found that respondents education level, division, religion, husband/partner’s education level, respondent work status level most significant factors on early marriage in Bangladesh.


This study was an attempt to assess factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in nine and twelve years basic edu-cation schools in Gasabo District.In Rwanda, teenage pregnancy differs across the provinces: the proportion of young women who have begun childbearing varies from a low of 5 % in North to a high of 11% in East. The pre-sent study provides a holistic data and information on the sexual behaviour among teenagers in nine and twelve years’ basic education. These factors were identified through a case control study design. The target population included 138 cases and 276 Controls. A questionnaire was used to collect data and STATA 16 was used to analyze these data while a descriptive statistic was employed to summarize them through frequencies and percentages. To investigate the factors associated with teenage pregnancy Logistic regression analysis was performed. Of 138 teen mothers who participated in this study 110(79.7%) were aged 18 and 19 years old, 38(27.5%) give birth when they were in senior 3. The majority of respondents were Christian. For socio-demographic factors associated with teenage pregnancy ,the results have proven that teenagers in bracket of 18-19 age had higher risk of becoming pregnant compared to those aged 14-15 years age category (P-value<0,001: 18-19 years with COR: 10,09, CI 95% [3,5-28,92].Another factor associated with teenage pregnancy in Gasabo District was education level par-ents, for father the study provide a P-value > 0,001: vocational with COR 0.35, CI 95% [0.16-0.73] and second-ary (P-value<0,001 with COR: 0.10, CI 95% [0,04-0,23].Considering economic factors, the study found one pro-tective factor which is for a teenage to live in the family who had a highly monthly income with COR: 0.15, CI 95% [0.05-0.51] at P-value > 0,001 comparatively to those who live in poor families with a monthly income less than 10000.For sexual and reproductive health factors, the study found out that low Knowledge about sexual re-productive health, absence of basic needs and peer pressure are factors associated with early pregnancy. (P-value<0,001: Knowledge about contraceptive with COR 0.20 CI 95% [0.11-0.37], (P-value<0,001: absence of basic needs with COR 0.26, CI 95% [0.12- 0.55] and P-value <0,001: eencouragement of friends to engage in sexual activities with COR 0.44 CI 95% [0.29-0.67].

Emerging Zoonotic Diseases: Zika Virus as case study []

Communicable diseases are major causes of pandemic in the world.Aetiology of recent outbreaks are diseases that appear hidden in wild primates and arboreal mosquito's.Zika is an example of such.It was first discovered in Africa in 1947,was silent for some period only to reappear in Asia 60 yes later.About 1.3 million cases were suspected in Brazil in December 2015.It is an arthropod borne flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes of Added aegypti......

Perception of Parents on Overschooling At Primary Education Level in Private Primary Schools in Delta State []

This study was carried out to find the perceptions of parents on over schooling in private primary schools in Ika Educational zone of Delta State. Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. A purposive sampling technique was used in collecting data. The sample size consisted of two-hundred and eighty parents drawn from twenty private primary schools. A questionnaire was constructed by the researcher to measure the construct “parents’ perceptions on over schooling of primary 1 and 2 school pupils in private primary school (PPOPSPS). Experts in measurement and Evaluation validated the instrument. The reliability Cronach alpha was 0.78. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the t-test was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that many parents are not aware or are ignorant of over-schooling of their children in lower primary schools. They agree on over-schooling in private primary schools but refused to accept overschooling as having negative influence on their children. It was therefore recommended that that government should monitor the operation of private primary school to ensure that educational principles are maintained. Seminars should be organized by school heads, Teachers and parents on over schooling of the primary level of education. Key Words: Overschooling, private primary schools, parents’ perceptions, primary education level, civic servants parents, business men/women parents academic work


This research aims to obtained the proximate composition of nastar protein concentrate nilem. This research was conducted in August-November 2019 at the Laboratory of Fisheries Product Processing, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University for the production of nilem fish protein concentrate , nastar production; while for the nastar proximate test at the Chemical Research Laboratory of the Science-Based Research Center Building Padjadjaran University. The research method used was an experimental method with two treatments adding nilem fish protein concentrate, namely 0% and 7.5%, based on the weight of wheat flour. The parameters observed in the research are water content, fat content, ash content, protein content. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the results of the nastar proximate test with the addition of 7.5% nilem fish protein concentrate showed that the nilem fish protein concentrate could increase the nastar water content from 5.68% to 7.27%. The protein content was obtained at 8.67%; fat content of 32.17%; and ash content of 1.51%.


One year after the two plane crashes that killed 346 people, the U.S. House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure (HCTI) issued a preliminary report on the investigation findings. Multiple factors were pointed as causes for the accidents, highlighting the pivotal failure software Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS), primarily designed to address stability issues due to specific flight conditions, kept by Boeing unknown to the pilots. This article is intended to provide scholars, decision-makers, and practitioners with a perspective on the current situation and implications for the company, competitors, and customers, through a descriptive case study, and content analysis. Key findings in the report pointed out five leading factors to Boeing’s 737 MAX project failure, after the preliminary investigation: (i) production pressures due to financial and market competition against Airbus; (ii) faulty assumptions; (iii) culture of concealment; (iv) conflicted representation and (vi) Boeing’s influence over the FAA’s oversight. We analyzed and discussed the critical factors, their impact on the results, and best practices to prevent project failure on the subject under review.


The purpose of this study was to determine the structure of English compound word and to find out the type of compound word that is often used in Snow Queen 3 movie. The method used in this study is qualitative descriptive. The data of research was taken from Snow Queen 3 Movie which was collected by downloading, reading, observing, capturing and registering. With data analysis are identification, classification, description, and explanation. Data were analyzed based on the theory from Plag, 2002 and O’Grady & Guzman, 1996. The results show, there are several types of compound word, namely: found a word classified in compound verb, 3 words classified in compound adjectives, 12 words belonging to the compound nouns that used by the characters in Snow Queen 3 Movie. Furthermore the most dominant type of compound word that often used in that movie is compound noun. In short, this research shows that there are many types and structure of compound word that can be analyzed more deeply to improve our new knowledge and vocabulary.

Study of the concentration of Lead (Pb) deposits on common and edible fruits sold in major motor parks in Port-Harcourt, Rivers-State. Ngeria. []

The concentration of lead in water extract of washed common and edible fruits such as apples, cucumbers, mangoes, avocado pears, oranges, garden eggs etc sold in different motor parks located along major roads in port harcourt such as rumuokoro, mile 1, mile 3, oil-mill and town motor parks were evaluated using Atomic Absoprtion Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that lead concentration from the major motor parks which are rumuokoro, mile 1, oil-mill, mile 3 and town were below detectable limits (BDL) which is less than 0.001ppm respectively, the results further indicates that lead deposits on exposed fruits in rumuokoro, mile 1, mile 3,oil-mill and town motor parks in Port Harcourt is insignificant and may not pose any health hazard or any form of lead poisoning, however, proper hygiene should be maintained before the fruits are consumed.

Petroleum system in Kurdistan (North Iraq) []

The petroleum system: is dynamic petroleum producing and concentrating physio-chemical system, operating in a geologic space and time scale. The petroleum system involves a pod of active source rock and all natively related oil and gas accumulations. It contains all the geologic elements and processes that are fundamental if an oil and gas collection is to exist. Naming a petroleum system: The name of a specific petroleum system splits it from other petroleum systems and other geologic names, the name of a petroleum system includes numerous aspects that name the hydrocarbon fluid system: The source rock in the pod of active source rock. The name of the reservoir rock that includes the greatest quantity of in-place petroleum. The symbol expressing the level of certainty. Table (1) indicates how the level of certainty is determined. Level of certainty Criteria Symbol Speculative A positive oil-source rock or gas-source rock correlation (!) Hypothetical In the absence of a positive petroleum-source rock correlation, (.) geochemical evidence Known Geological or geophysical evidence (?) Here is an example of a petroleum system name and its parts: Phosphoria- Weber(.) Where: Phosphoria: source rock name Weber: reservoir rock name, and (.): level of certainty Hydrocarbon exploration risk: In the hydrocarbon survey activity the major target is to discovery traps where hydrocarbons were collected and reserved in amounts that are larger than a variable economic threshold. Ignoring all the financial changeable that reach into play, the basis of any drilling decision is related to the existence / lack of oils and gases (hydrocarbon risk) in the possible traps of the basin. This evaluation is the outcome of the combined efforts undertaken by a group of geologists, geochemists, geophysicists and engineers, in trying to obtain the greatest image of the predictions that may be potentially drilled. This investigation able to schematically divide into two modules: the geometric one and the fluid. The first one is the object of Basin Modeling (BM) * action, that provides a 4D (in space and time) description of the sink status and development. The fluid is the objective of the Petroleum System Modeling (PSM) that creates the history of the geologic processes that directed to making and buildup of oils and gases in the current traps. We be able analyze the accumulation efficiency proportion by this calculation below: Generation-accumulation efficiency = Trapped quantity of petroleum / Sum generated quantity of petroleum Involves the sum quantity of all recoverable oils and gases that are originated from a single pot of action source rocks. This sum quantity is utilized to associate against other petroleum systems and to regulate the generation-accumulation efficiency. Note: generation-accumulation efficiency is the proportion "expressed as a percentage" of the sum quantity of trapped "in-place" petroleum in the petroleum system to the sum quantity of petroleum produced from the pod of active source rocks.