Volume 9, Issue 8, August 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Psychological Problems and Coping Strategies of Family Caregivers of Psychiatric Patients in Neuropsychiatric Hospital Rumuigbo, Rivers State []

Caregiving for a psychiatric patient is a demanding and difficult task that has negative impact on family caregivers because family caregivers are involved in a 24 hours’ job with no rewards, sick leave or pay checks. This study explored the psychological problems and coping strategies of family caregivers of psychiatric patients in neuropsychiatric Hospital Rumuigbo, Rivers State. A Hermeneutical phenomenological qualitative research design was adopted for this study. An in-depth open-ended face-face interview was conducted on 22 participants who were selected purposively using a semi-structured interview guide. Six steps thematic method of data was assumed which was supported by N Vivo Software version 12. Results were presented in themes, quotes and word cloud. The study consisted of two research questions that were answered with 25 themes in all. Results obtained revealed that most family caregivers are faced with psychological problems like embarrassment, emotional disturbance, loss of personal time, depression, sleep disturbance, sadness, lack of productivity, rejection and fatigue. Coping strategies adopted by the caregivers are: support from family, support from church members, support from friends, relying on God, passive appraisal, acceptance and avoidance. It was concluded that family caregivers have difficulty coping with psychological problems; however, they all use one form of coping strategy. Future intervention toward alleviating family caregiver’s psychological problems may be best served by improving caregivers coping strategies. There is a need for family support groups to be created for assisting caregivers and advocating for the promotion of their cause in society. Keywords- Coping Strategies, Family Caregivers, Psychiatric Patients, Psychological Problems


In Kenya despite the fact that some firms particularly multinationals have the capacity to execute telecommuting few elaborate telecommuting programs are used within organizations many organizations go as far as offering flexible work programs. It's unknown how widespread teleworking has become because it's only practical for people who work full-time. The purpose of this study was to find out the factors affecting the adoption of teleworking in healthcare industry in Kenya using a case study of The Nairobi West Hospital Ltd. The specific objectives was to focus on effects of organizational culture and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) dynamics affecting the adoption of teleworking in the healthcare industry in Kenya. The researcher used the descriptive research design. The target population was 48 respondents from Nairobi West Hospital Ltd. The main data collection instrument was the questionnaires. Primary data was analyzed both qualitative and quantitatively and presented in graphs figures and tables. The findings revealed that 67% of the respondents were of the opinion that organizational culture affects the adoption of teleworking. A further 79% of the respondents felt that the use of and application of ICT contributed significantly to the slow adoption and success of teleworking. From the findings the researcher concluded that teleworking represents a unique advantage to the industry. The researcher recommends that there is need to develop a culture that promotes change and incorporate information and communications technology systems and create awareness to streamline teleworking activities.

Catch Rate and Catching Season of Squid (Loligo sp.) by Danish Seine at PPP Mayangan Probolinggo []

Squids are demersal fish caught by trawlers. As one of the fish widely consumed by the community, long-term use of squid can lead to population decline. This study aims to determine the squid fishing season and the development of CPUE in 2014-2018. In August 2019, at the Mayangan Beach Fishing Port, Probolinggo City, East Java Province, Indonesia. The research method used is a survey method, namely, observing the squid fish that landed at the Mayangan Probolinggo fish landing site. The reduced number of fishing gear affects the reduction in the number of squids catches by 52.68%. The decrease in fishing effort affected the decrease in CPUE by 4.8%, so it can be said that the decrease in the number of fishing gear did not affect the number of catches from squid. The squid fishing season in Probolinggo is from January to May and August. From June to December, it includes in the medium season category.

Analysis of symptom clusters cross different diseases based on Biclustering []

The symptoms are important signs of disease diagnosis and treatment. Medical researchers have found that some Symptom often occur simultaneously in different diseases and patients, forming Symptom Cluster, a Symptom Cluster with significant co-occurrence pattern. The traditional symptom group analysis method mainly consists of the principal component and hidden class model. However, in the symptom group analysis of cross-disease species, the association of disease information is often needed, therefore, there are significant deficiencies. Biclustering method was used to analyze the symptoms according to their manifestations associated with various diseases, grouping of diseases based on the associations of different symptoms. We extend previous research by describing and implementing algorithms to identify subgroups of diseases and subgroups of symptoms co-currently, by performing simultaneous clustering of both rows and columns in data matrix. To determine the underlying shared molecular mechanisms (in terms of shared genes and shortest paths of protein interactions) of symptom cluster using symptom gene relationship data. Using the data of disease symptom relationship with whole disease spectrum, the structure and molecular mechanism of specific symptom group was identified. In this study, we used data from 16383 disease symptom relationships (including 13532 diseases and 2378 symptoms). Three classical Biclustering algorithms, BIMAX, QUBIC and Spectral Clustering, are used to cluster the symptom groups. Further molecular correlation analysis using the interaction data from 371422 symptom gene relationships and 841068 records (from STRING 11, a large-scale integrated database) These symptom groups share the molecular mechanism such as shared gene and short interaction group molecular pathway (p < 0.05) compared with random symptom combinations. Among the three methods, we found that the QUBIC method formed the clustering result with good biological significance, while the spectral clustering obtained the best symptom clustering result in sharing the molecular mechanism. In the follow-up study, the performance of different methods for symptom group analysis can be further explored. Key words: symptom cluster, Biclustering, symptom, gene association, protein-protein interaction network.


Pollution in the ocean is a frequent and deteriorate event and sometimes are inevitable. Tonnes of oil had reported to polluted the ocean worldwide and the impacts of the event are projecting to continue for a long term of time. One of the methods to clean up oil pollution is using bioremediation, which performed mainly by microorganism. However, the problem with bioremediation is that it usually took long-er time than other method. The use of microbial fuel cell is an alternative to accelerate the bioremediation process of bacteria by adding an external accepting electron in a solid state such as carbon. Here we try to review the main fundamental of microbial fuel cell and its recent application in bioremediation, especially in oil pollution. The microbial fuel cell discuss here will be based on two different systems, which were single chamber microbial fuel cell and dual chamber microbial fuel cell. Overall, microbial fuel cell is a promising tools for gen-erating a sustainable bioremediation process since its also producing electricity as its secondary waste. By optimizing the use of this tools, a better performance of oil removal both from sediment and seawater will be potentially obtained. Future research on its application analysis is urgently needed to provide a better understanding of its operation.


ABSTRACT Over the past decades, rural households in Sierra Leone have been involved in the activities of informal savings schemes that raise capital from internal accruals and members who are shareholders control management of those. Despite women participation in village savings in Gbanti Chiefdom, their incomes are still very low and in general, the households or individuals are still having very poor standards of living. This research focused on the impact of village savings and loans association on women in Gbanti chiefdom, Bombali district.The research used descriptive research design in which registered women groups involved in village savings activities within Gbanti chiefdom were the population interest and relied on a sample size 100 respondents. The instrument employed in data analysis was a questionnaire. The study used both descriptive and inferential methods in analysing the primary data collected from women group operating in Gbanti Chiefdom. The findings of the study revealed that the members who save with village savings and loans group members, increase their likelihood of improving their livelihood outcomes. Getting loans from village savings and loan groups was found to have a negative influence, on the members’ ability to improve their livelihoods. An increase in the chances of members not getting loans from the groups was found to decrease the probability of that member to improve his/her livelihood. This study recommends that village savings and loan groups should follow Professor Muhammad Yunus pro-poor model in their operations and that they should be motivated by improvement of their members and not profits. Key Words: Village Savings, Loans, Gbanti Chiefdom, Households, Bombali.


This study aims to determine the yield value of catfish fillet, dough weight, final product weight and physical characteristics of fish tik tik snack with the addition of different tapioca flour. The main ingredient used is catfish fillet (skinless). Other ingredients are tapioca flour, and other spices as a complement. This study used treatments with the addition of different concentrations of tapioca flour, namely 30%, 40%, and 50%. The data were analyzed descriptively by looking at the changes that occurred in the physical characteristics of the fish tik tok. The results obtained in this study are that the addition of different tapioca flour affects the weight of the dough and the physical characteristics of the tik tik snack, namely the color, taste, texture and odor. The weight of the dough and the weight of the ticks were greatest in the treatment of catfish added with 50% tapioca flour. The dough weighs 1070 grams with a tick-tick weight of 890 grams. Different tapioca flours also affect the color, texture, odor and taste of catfish tik tik. The color of tik tik fish with 30% tapioca produces a brown color, while the treatment with 40% and 50% tapioca produces a brownish yellow color. All treatments produce a crunchy texture. The taste and odor of fish tik tik still has a fishy taste in 30% of tapioca.

The relevance of Data Management Systems in Research: The Case of KHRC []

Without an operational data management system (DMS) guided by a functional SOP designed per data management plan that conforms to study protocol, it will be quite difficult for researchers to produce high quality research data and research cannot be reproduced. DMS requires an accurate data capture and an efficient mechanism in managing research data. It will be vital to adopt modern technological tools to design the DMS which could automate some routine processes of the data lifecycle management (DLM) activities. Users are to be trained adequately to incorporate these techniques in the design of the systems to proficiently manage all DLM activities and train data collectors at the field to capture data appropriately. This paper highlights the significance of the management of data lifecycle of the at Kintampo Health Research Centre, history, experience, challenges and measures put in place to resolve them, this will serve as a guide for other researchers to produce high quality research data to inform policy maker’s decision.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought a sudden impediment to the movement of the whole world. As of early November 2020, reported cases of COVID-19 have reached the 46 million mark around the globe. The role played by the healthcare workers in the management, containment, diagnosis, and treatment of the said disease is indisputable. Medical technologists, being one of the frontliners against the virus, experienced different challenges as they pursued their duties. Social stigma, external and financial pressures, fear of infection are some of the burdens they've carried. This study was conducted to determine their job satisfaction, morale, fear of COVID-19 and their association. By convenience purposive sampling, a survey was administered to 104 Filipino medical technologists from Bulacan, Pampanga and Zambales in a form of online questionnaires. The survey consisted of satisfaction, morale and Fear of COVID-19 scale. Data was analyzed with the use of appropriate statistical measures for correlation and description. It revealed that the medical technologists had a fear of COVID-19 on the average level, with high levels of job satisfaction and morale. It was also revealed that there is no correlation between fear of COVID-19 to job satisfaction and morale of the medical technologists. Expanding the target population and considering other factors such emotional resilience was recommended to future researchers.


For Brazil to adopt a stance aimed at the peaceful resolution of conflicts, the country must deter potential opponents from carrying out hostile acts against the national territory. Through an extensive literature review, this article investigated the epistemological evolution of the relationship between dissuasion and anti-aircraft defense, seeking substantial evidence on how these means of defense can influence the decision-making process of a possible opponent to initiate or not an armed confrontation. The results showed the relevance of dissuasion and anti-aircraft defense in conflict prevention, highlighting the importance of the participation of the country's senior management and aspects related to capacity, credibility, communication, and uncertainty, in order to lead hostile forces to act as unfavorable the cost-benefit ratio of carrying out aggression. The research is helpful to academics and professionals involved in politics, strategy, defense, and researchers in general. Discussion on the subject and recommendations for future studies complement this work.

Intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors among school age children in Damaturu Metropolis, North-Eastern Nigeria, Yobe State []

The aimed of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among school age children in Damaturu Metropolis. Stool samples were collected from 150 children, between the age ranges of 0-12 years. The samples were transported to laboratory and subjected to formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Parasites were identified microscopically using microscope. A total of seven different species of parasites (G. lamblia, E. histolytica, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiuria, A. duodunale, S. stercoralis, H. nana) were identified. The overall prevalence of infection was 13%. The most prevalent parasites species identified was H. nana (21%), followed by T. trichiuria (16%), A. duodunale (15%), A. lumbricoides (12%), S. stercoralis (12%), G. lamblia (10%), and E. histolytica (6%). A significant association between intestinal parasitics infection and sanitation and personal hygiene condition was observed (P<0.005). Based on the findings of the present study it is concludes that the presences of intestinal parasitic infection among children in Damaturu metropolis is potential threats to public health. Therefore is need for government agencies for regular deworming, education on personal hygiene, and environmental sanitation to both students and their parents shall be implemented to reduce the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections in the study area.

Stability Under International Anarchy []

This paper is a clear and concise comparison of the realist, liberal, and constructivist perspectives in international relations (IR). The paper compares the approaches and perspectives of scholars from these three schools of thought to anarchy and the conditions that can increase the possibility of stability to emerge under international anarchy. This paper shows that scholars from the realist, liberal, and constructivist schools of thought in IR offer different approaches and perspectives to anarchy and the conditions that can increase the likelihood of stability to emerge under international anarchy. Also, the paper shows that even within the same school of thought, there are contrasting positions on the conditions that can increase the likelihood of stability to emerge under anarchy.


The study evaluated transmission distribution power outages in Nigeria power network for improved performances using reliability-indexes techniques. The network was modelled in Electrical Transient Analyzer program software (ETAP12.6). Firstly, the operating condition of the network was determined using Newton-Raphson load flow technique. Furthermore, the reliability of the network was assessed for single contingency using (ETAP 12.6) software. The result of the base case test system with no DG shows the over system reliability index of the system [SAIDI 31.2127hr/customer year, SAIFI is 6.3764 interruption /customer year, CAIDI is 4.895 hr /customer interruption, ASAI is 0.9564pu and ASUI is 0.0436pu]. Similarly, when a wind turbine DG of 10MW was integrated at the load points, the overall reliability index of the system was improved. The result obtained are [SAIDI is 24.7004 hr/customer year, SAIFI is 4.9910 interruption /customer year, CAIDI is 4.949hr/customer interruption, ASAI is 0.9972pu and ASUI is 0.00282pu.]

Political Reform in Morocco between Tradition and Liberalization []

In the post-colonial era, the Moroccan monarchy has unified its basic foundations by focusing on the historical and religious legitimacy, and also by considering the modern administration as well as the security system. In this regard, this article tries to study the various moments through which Morocco has been reformulating its political system. Moroccan society has kept its traditional structure after independence. Still, it could not escape the world wide flow of global and modern values that the world started to experience. In the process of urbanism and nation building, the country has chosen to cope with the changing aspects that all the Arab and non-Arab nations started to experience. The changing aspects in Moroccan society have also provoked nationalist movements who were calling for legal authority.


The fisheries sector is an important sector for the Indonesian people and can be used as the main driver of the Indonesian economy. In-donesia is a country that has a fairly high level of fish production every year, that Indonesia provides a large supply of fish for foreign countries. This study aims to analyze the development trend of the provincial fishery processing industry in Indonesia. The study was conducted in February – June 2021. The method used was a literature survey to determine the trend of the development of the fisheries processing industry in 34 provinces in Indonesia. After all the data is processed, the data will be analyzed descriptively. Secondary data in the form of statistical data on the Indonesian Fisheries Processing Industry in 2010-2017 Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries. The results of the study indicate that the trend of the development of the competitiveness of the fisheries processing industry in Indonesia from 2010-2017 illustrates that the movement of the development of the fishery processing industry in Indonesia undergoes fluctuating changes.


A smart home is a standard residence that is equipped with sensors and actuators in order to provide services to occupants. One of the key aspects of smart home is the identification of activities performed by residents. In this paper, a wooden smart home prototype was constructed with sensors and actuators in order to capture activities in the home. The motion sensors in the smart home are interfaced with the Human Activity Recognition (HAR) model which was developed using Gaussian Naïve Bayes algorithm. The solution is built around the raspberry pi 4 computer board running the linux-based Raspbian Operating System. The sensors water, temperature and motion and actuators light bulb, sound alarm or buzzer and door motor were interfaced with the processor via the GPIO pins on the Raspberry Pi board. The HAR model is also integrated into the Pi board. The system was implemented with python programming language with tools from Scikit-Learn library. Experiments were performed on the developed system to test its ability to predict activities and the results of its predictions were evaluated using the confusion matrix.


Engineers' main concern is the stability of nominal frequency and voltage levels in an electric power system. If these two characteristics deteriorate, the performance and life expectancy of the power system's related equipment would suffer. Because of this, control devices must be set up and installed specifically for a given working environment in order to maintain the frequency and terminal voltage magnitude within acceptable ranges. An effort has been made to develop a fractional-order PID (FOPID) controller for combined frequency and voltage control issues, since the system performance may be enhanced by choosing an appropriate controller. Utilizing moth flame optimization method, this study examines the plan and execution of the FOPID controller for simultaneous load frequency and voltage management of the power system. An AVR-based excitation voltage control system is used in the first portion of the study to illustrate the suggested method for frequency stabilization of isolated power systems. Comparison of dynamic responsiveness of the system with PID controllers improved by other intelligent methods reveals the superiority and efficacy of the suggested methodology. Also included in this project are multi-unit two-area power systems. The algorithm's capacity to be tuned is examined in great detail and compared to other algorithms.


RESUME Il sied de remarquer que selon les analyses des sociétés commerciales, retenons que, actuellement avec la ratification de la République Démocratique du Congo au traité OHADA, il existe aussi de plein droit la société unipersonnelle bien qu’autonome sur le plan de la forme, mais dépendante du point de vue de son origine juridique d’où l’obligation de l’adapter aux règles des autres sociétés ayant existé avant elle. Signalons que le législateur de l’OHADA devra doter alors la société à main unique d’une législation propre, il doit dans l’entre temps réviser certaines dispositions de l’AUSCGIE entre autre : Article 4 qui définit la société commerciale afin de sortir l’aspect singulier de cette dernière. Aussi, devra-t-il à l’article 326 doter d’un autre alinéa pour pallier à l’irrévocabilité de l’associé unique d’une SARLU, qui de surcroit a une faculté et non une obligation de recevoir au commissaire aux comptes. Toutes fois, l’appellation à attribuer aux associés de la société unipersonnelle, car le mot : « associé » n’est pas applicable en cas de la société unipersonnelle parce qu’il est seul et il ne s’est pas associé à quelqu’un d’autre. Pour la sécurisation des affaires, nous raisonnons tout en pensant que la présence de l’associé unique devra être obligatoire dans la SARLU en vue de freiner tant soit peu la tendance en abus des biens sociaux paralysant la continuité de l’exploitation de la société qui engendre souvent le succès pour le pouvoir réuni. Créer tout seul une société, la personne est seule maître ou associé unique ayant sur soi tous les pouvoirs d’administration de gestion et de direction convient mieux à l’esprit des affairistes qui aiment œuvrer tout seul en lieu et place du collectif. Ceci est notre problématique hypothétique.

Determinants of the Green Industrialization on Climatic basis in Bangladesh []

ABSTRACTThe main focus of this study was to the determinants of green industrialization of Ready Made Garment (RMG) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from a sample of randomly selected 263 RMG Workers and Supervisors out of 840 from the mentioned two (2) RMGs. The study was conducted during the time from 02 June 2019 to 30 August 2019. Eleven (11) selected characteristics of the RMG Workers and Supervisors were considered as the independent variables for determine the extent of green industrialization. Due to misleading results from multi-collinearity, step-wise multiple regression and path analyses were used to explore the contribution and effect of the selected characteristics of the RMG Workers and Supervisors to/on the green industrialization of RMGs as perceived by them. The analyses indicated that out of 11 variables only 4 variables namely decision making ability, knowledge, cosmopolitness and education had significant contribution and effect to/on the green industrialization of RMGs as perceived by the Workers and Supervisors. The result indicated that the whole model of 11 independent variables explained 63.5 per cent of the total variation in green industrialization of RMG.

Moisture Based Automatic Irrigation System []

Abstract: This project is presented moisture based automatic plant watering system. This technology could improve agriculture efficiency, promoting water conservation and reducing the environmental impacts. The objectives of this project is to avoid wastage of water and increase agriculture efficiency by using control unit base automatic plant watering system with the help of sensors (soil moisture sensor). Soil moisture sensor inserts in the soil to sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The control unit monitors the sensors and when moisture sensor senses dry condition the control circuit will switch on the motor for watering the soil and it will switch off the motor when the moisture sensor senses enough wetness of the soil at which one, two or three of the factors are in abnormal conditions. The controlling unit does the above job when it receives the signal from the sensors. Transistor is used to derive the relay during at all conditions that can monitor by control unit base on the signals fed by sensors from those different factors that affects plant area. Single pole double through relay uses to control the water pump. The aim of this project is to use control engineering principles and concepts to provide Arduino Uno based automatic plant watering system. The system will help in saving money, water and at the same time increasing crops production. Also, our project improves the traditional agriculture watering system in Ethiopia enabling the agriculture system to have high efficiency and low water usage. The controlling unit base sprinkler automatic plant watering system gives the best feature than the traditional one. The moisture sensors measure the moisture level of the different plants. If the moisture level is found to be below the desired level, the moisture sensor sends the signal to the Arduino board which triggers the Relay to turn ON the Water Pump and supply the water to respective plant. When the desired moisture level is reached, the system halts on its own and the Water Pump is turned OFF. Keywords: Arduino, Motor, Plant, Relay, Soil moisture, sprinkler, Watering, Water Pump.

Research Paper On Recommendation System []

This paper focuses on how recommendation systems Work in the real world and IT scenario. Recommendation systems, which automatically understand user preferences and make recommendations, are now widely used. The recommendation system is one of the major technologies for implementing personalization services. Recommendation systems in ubiquitous IT environment should have the capability of context-knowledge


Farming system is changing instantly. Farming machinery, farming building and production facilities are constantly being improved. Farming Uses suitable for panel solutions are numerous. These systems are a mix of separate installations and systems installed by utility Companies when they have found that a solar solution is the best solution for remote farming need Such as water pumping for Harvesting. A solar powered submersible pumping system is made up of three basic components. These are solar panels and pumps. The smallest element of a solar panel is the Solar cell. Each solar cell has two or more specially prepared layers of semiconductor material that Produce direct current power when exposed to light. This dc current is collected by the Wiring in the PV. It is then forwarded ac either to a dc pump, which in turn pumps water whenever the Sun brightness, or stored in batteries for later use by the power appliances. The Target of this topic is to explain how solar water pumping system works and what the differences with the other energy sources are.

Observing Dolphins Behaviour in the Kiluan Bay Waters Lampung []

Dolphins belong to the order Cetacean which can be found in the eco-waters of Kiluan Bay, Lampung. The behavior and appearance of dolphins is strongly influenced by water quality parameters. This study aims to determine the behavior and estimate the number of dolphins found in Kiluan Bay, Lampung, using the observation method. Data analysis in this study was carried out by descriptive analysis method. The behavior of 729 dolphins (Bottlenose dolphin and Spinner Dolphin) observed during 3 days of observation in the waters of Kiluan Bay was traveling (55%), bow riding (17%), feeding (10%), avoidance (10%) and aerial (8%)


The paper examines the impact of supervision at the College of Science; To find out the impact of supervision on staff performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of supervision on staff performance at a public sector organization. The paper concluded that Performance and supervision correlate and the task of the organization is to choose the best type of supervision that will fit his organization and use it. The choice of supervision types is dependent on the behavior of the worker and the expert knowledge of the supervisor. A public organization is therefore expected to embrace supervision and to establish the mechanisms and systems that enable supervision to ensure effective implementation of policies. Public organization are also advised to employ both the top-down and the bottom-up approach to the implementation of policies

Antioxidant and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Fractionated Extract of Combretum Micranthum Leaves []

Background and Objective: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) is a glycoprotein with peptidyl dipeptide hydrolase activity that converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II which is a powerful vasoconstrictor that stimulates the synthesis of aldosterone. This study evaluated the in vitro ACE inhibitory activity and antioxidant potentials of aqueous extract of Combretum micranthum leaves and its fractions. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of Combretum micranthum leaves was subjected to chromatographic fractionation where the fractions obtained were assayed for in vitro inhibitory activity against rabbit ACE and their possible antioxidant potentials. Results: Aqueous extract of Combretum micranthum leaves produced 59.43±4.00 % inhibitory activity comparable to captopril which produced 83.02±2.67% activity. The chromatographic fractions A, B, C and D were able to inhibit the in vitro activity of rabbit ACE with the inhibitory percentages of 8.21±41.19, 97.69±8.57, 78.32±7.14 and 98.32±2.66 % respectively. The antioxidant potency of these fractions was evident in their free radical scavenging IC50, reducing power ability and total antioxidant capacity which all showed that fraction B may possibly exhibit the highest antioxidant potency as compared to fractions C and D. The bioactive phytochemical constituents from the GC-MS analysis of fraction B of the aqueous extract of Combretum micranthum where found to be Megastigmatrienone, 3,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and Estra-1,3,5(0)-trien-17β-ol. Conclusion: Hence, the results demonstrated that aqueous extract of Combretum micranthum has shown the tendency to inhibit the in vitro activity of ACE which could be attributed to its antioxidant activity demonstrated by the reduction power and the total antioxidant capacity of the various fractions.


Despite the significant contribution of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) to the economy, MSEs have been faced by a number of issues affecting their growth. One of the issues relates to inadequate financial literacy which limits their growth and diminishes their contribution to sustainable development. Consequently, the growth of MSEs is inhibited in terms of liquidity and being unable to attend effectively to their daily business operations and investments commitments thus losing on business opportunities which builds up difficult to achieve their growth in terms of size and wealth accumulation. The general objective of the study was to establish the effect of financial literacy on growth of MSEs in Kitui Town, Kitui County. The study aimed at establishing the influence of debt management skills on the growth of MSEs in Kitui Town. The study was anchored on financial literacy theory and dual process theory. The study used descriptive research design. The target population of the study was 1448 MSEs. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 313 MSEs. 313 questionnaires were dispatched with 213 being filled and returned yielding a response rate of 68%. The study found that debt management skills had a positive and significant effect on growth of MSEs. Descriptive analysis and findings indicate that multiple borrowing from formal and informal sectors adversely affect debt repayment which may hinder growth of MSEs. This study concludes that MSEs need to be trained on debt management. The study also concluded that MSEs should avoid accumulating debts through multiple borrowings from both formal and informal sector.