Volume 9, Issue 8, August 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Impacts of Train Travel Distance on Passenger Volumes (Passenger-Train-Kilometer) in Nigeria []

This paper evaluates the impacts of Trip Distance (TD) on the Average Volume of Passengers (AVP) carried by trains in Nigeria. Passenger-Train-Kilometer is one of the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) propounded by Campos & Cantos (1998) for the analysis of railway transport operational outputs with a view to improving productivity. Primary data: Structured questionnaires. Secondary data: Nigeria Railway Corporation (NRC) reports, journal articles, etc. Data were analysed with the application of percentage tables to determine relative frequencies of observed phenomena. Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Technique was used to test the hypothesis on relationship between train Trip Distance (TD) and Average Volume of Passengers carried (AVP). Test showed strong positive relationship between TD and AVP with significant (P<0.05) relationship and correlation coefficient (rho) of 0.964. The study found that with increase in distance, passenger volume increases correspondingly. Based on the finding, the study went on to develop a Deterministic Model of the relationship between TD and AVP. The study concludes that government’s neglect of the sub-sector results to poor network indices and infrastructural decay. These in turn, results in poor accessibility and low trip distance. Study recommended further amendment of the Nigerian Railway Act of 1955 to allow for public participation in rail transportation investment, consistent government intervention in revamping the railways, deliberate policy to encourage of long distance trips and linking of high economic centres with branch-lines, etc.

Evaluation of the Installed Passenger Capacity Utilization Performance of the Nigerian Railway Services []

The annual volume of passengers carried by the Nigerian Railway Corporation (NRC) has been on progressive decline. This paper evaluates the performance of selected train stations in Nigeria in utilization of installed capacity for passenger carriage. The data for the study were sourced using structured questionnaires. Secondary data were obtained from online sources. Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation technique was used to establish the strength of the relationship between active Installed Passenger Capacity (IPC) and the Actual Capacity Utilization (ACU). The analysis revealed significant (P<0.05) relationship with correlation coefficient (rho) of 0.892. Simple regression analysis was used to develop model for the relationships. The R Square was 0.840. A deterministic model for the relationship was developed and the study concludes that high downtime regimes and infrastructural inadequacy impact capacity utilization negatively. The study recommended scheduled preventive maintenance of trains and rolling stock, linking of high economic activity centres.


The discourse on the Buddhist socioeconomic perception as enshrined and rooted in its religious philosophy, and its relevance as a model for sustainable economic growth is occupying a centre-stage in modern scholarship. Hence, such relevance as deduced from the Buddhist socioeconomic thought and how it has positively impacted China, making it a fast-growing economy as well as the choicest marketplace for Nigeria is a current theme that unravels how synergizing religious ethics and socioeconomic practices can engender sustainable economic growth. This research adopted dual theories. Firstly, it applied structural functionalism as a framework for interrogating the extent to which Buddhist ethical practices have impacted Chinese economic development. Secondly, using dependence theory, it examined the strong bilateral relation between China and Nigeria. The documentary research method (DRM) was utilized in gathering and analyzing relevant literature suitable for this work. Findings of this study showed that Buddhist doctrinal tenets which are evident in concepts such as the three Universal Truths, the Four Noble Truths, and the Eightfold Path constitute the propelling power behind Buddhist socioeconomic thought leading to Chinese economic development. Thus, this paper recommends simplification of desires, selflessness, genuine care, and the practice of harmless economic behaviours among other pro-social values as the panacea for selfish and endemic greed in order to make Nigeria the true giant of Africa by achieving a standard economic growth and alleviate abject poverty. Keywords: Buddhist socioeconomics, China, economic growth, global trade, Nigeria, trade relations.

The Effect of Competence on Employee Motivation and Performance at The DPRD Secretariat Office Konawe District []

This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of competence on employee motivation and performance at the Konawe Regency DPRD Secretariat Office. The population and sample in this study were all employees at the Secretariat of the DPRD Konawe Regency, amounting to 52 people. This study uses PLS analysis. The results showed that: (1) Competence had a positive and significant effect on employee motivation at the Konawe Regency DPRD Secretariat office. The higher the competence, the higher the employee motivation. (2) Competence has a positive and significant effect on employee perfor-mance at the Konawe Regency DPRD Secretariat office. The higher the competence, the higher the employee's performance. (3) Motivation has a positive and significant effect on employee perfor-mance at the Konawe Regency DPRD Secretariat office. The higher the motivation, the higher the employee's performance. (4) Motivation can mediate the influence of competence on employee per-formance at the Konawe Regency DPRD Secretariat office. This means that motivation can be used as a mediating variable for the influence of competence on employee performance.

Effect of Herbs Solution Addition upon Feed Towards Survival Rate of Bonylip Barb (Osteochilus hasselti) Infected by Aeromonas hydrophila []

The purpose of this study is to determine whether the addition of herbal solutions can increase the immune response seen from the survival rate of bonylip barb. The research method used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. The treatments included the addition of herbs solution to the feed at concentrations of 0 mL/kg (A), 100 mL/kg (B), 200 mL/kg (C), 300 mL/kg (D), and 400 mL/kg (E). The treatment was maintained for 21 days. Following that, fish were challenged with 108 CFU/ml Aeromonas hydrophila. After that, survival was observed for 14 days. The parameters of this studied were mortality, survival rate, and water quality. The data of survival rate were analyzed using ANOVA and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Following that, a regression analysis was performed with the addition of herbs solution with survival rate. Results showed that the highest SR were on treatment 38,33% (C), 31,67% (B), 6,67% (E), 5,00% (A), 3,33% (D). The correlation value obtained from the regression analysis are R = 0,6167 or 61,67%. Addition fish herbs at 200 mL/kg were effective in maintaining the body resistance of bonylip barb that infected by A.hydrophila seen from survival rate of 38,33%.

Lipid profile in female patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome at Chitwan Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Nepal. []

The study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid profile in female patients with acute coronary syndrome according to age groups, Body Mass Index, and risk factors like hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, smoking history, previous history of dyslipidemia. This was a prospective observational study from January 2020 to January 2021 conducted in Chitwan Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. A total of 38 female patients were included with mean age of 63.68±9.77. This Study demonstrated that age group of 61-70(37%) patients were higher in number with hypertension(63.2%) being the most common risk factor followed by diabetes (52.6%) and smoking history(30.3%). Diagnosis of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction along with high value of lipid profile was observed (14%) than Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (7.1%) and Unstable Angina (7.1%). Risk factors as Diabetes Mellitus and Dyslipidemia were associated with high level of lipid profile in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Key words: Acute coronary Syndrome, Dyslipidemia, High density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride.

Food consumption and nutritional status of children from 0 to 59 months in the KIMBEMBE health area in Lubumbashi / DRC []

According to our research on the food and nutrition of children from 0 to 59 months was carried out in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the province of Haut Katanga, city of Lubumbashi, more particularly in the health zone of Lubumbashi, health benefits of KIMBEMBE. To do this, the general objective of this research was to study the food and nutrition of children from 0 to 59 months in the KIMBEMBE health area. All these facts considered we realized the following results: 8% children had a BP between 115 and 119 mm, 10.4% of children had a P / T index of 80% or -2 z-score, Late breastfeeding about 58.4% of infants 0-24 months. Information programs to improve knowledge of food and nutritional qualities, and awareness of food and nutrition matters are therefore urgently needed for the well-being of our children.

To Determine the Fat content of Chicken Egg Yolk []

The present study was conducted to determine the fat content of egg yolk .Research has been carried out in the laboratory of College of Home Economics ,Lahore. Three readings were taken for each sample and were analyzed in the laboratory to determine the fat content. The results showed the fat content in the yolk of egg

Antibacterial activity of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) against Bacillus cereus []

Foodborne illness is a major health problem affecting both industrialized and developing countries. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves oil extract against the food spoilage bacteria Bacillus cereus (University of Wolverhampton strains 10, 110 and 555) on agar and in rice. These were tested using the agar radial diffusion while MICs and MBCs were determined by the tube dilution assay. Basil essential oil proved to be antimicrobial with MIC/MBC values of 0.097%/0.097% v/v, 0.048%/0.097% v/v and 0.097%/0.195% v/v against B. cereus UW strains 10, 110 and 555 respectively. Furthermore, essential oil from basil exhibited inhibitory effect against B. cereus in cooked rice (with and without salt) at concentrations of 0.097% v/v, 0.048% v/v and 0.024% v/v in comparison to the control samples without extracts. It is concluded that basil oil could be potential candidate to be used as natural preservatives to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus and subsequently increase the shelf life of rice based foods.


ABSTRACT Title : SANTA ROSA CITY MARKET CODE IMPLEMENTATION AND CONSUMERS AND VENDORS’ SATISFACTION: BASIS FOR INTERVENTION PROGRAM Author : JOCELYN G. CARREON Degree : Master of Management Major in Public Administration School : Laguna College of Business and Arts School Year : 2020-2021 Adviser : Dr. Leonardo Opulencia Keywords : Market code implementation, consumers, vendors, satisfaction, intervention program The main objective of the study was to assess the level of implementation of the Santa Rosa City Market Code through the input of its consumers and vendors and at the same time to determine their satisfaction level with the said implementation. The researcher-made questionnaire was utilized in assessing the implementation level and the satisfaction level of the respondents on the implementation of the said Market Code. The data were statistically treated with the help of Statistician from LCBA. The findings of the study showed that the Santa Rosa City Market Code, in general assessment was “Implemented” and the vendors and the consumers’ satisfaction level with the said implementation, in general, are “Satisfied”. There is a “very small positive correlation” between the management of the cited public market and the satisfaction of the consumers and vendors. The study also analyzed the implementation level of the Market Code and how satisfied with the implementation of the said market code the main characters of a Public market which are the consumers and vendors. The consumers and the vendors of public market in Santa Rosa City Laguna are the population of this study. The two hundred sixty (260) respondents have been as sample and analytical research design has been adopted in the study. The research paper concluded that since the Santa Rosa City Market Code implementation has significant effect with the satisfaction of consumers and vendors, therefore, the management of the Santa Rosa Public Market must be more efficient and consistent with the implementation of the Santa Rosa City Market Code in terms of cleanliness and sanitation, security and public safety, and administrative functions and services.


A framework was developed to examine the agile manufacturing and performance of small and medium factories in Uganda. Three hypotheses derived from this framework were tested on a sample of 103 factories located in Kampala Capital City and western Uganda, as the largest industrial hubs in the country. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to exam the strength of relationship. Findings suggest that small and medium factories that adopt agile manufacturing have improved their performance. The study indicates that factories that have successfully benefited from agile manufacturing, emphasize more of process and information integration. Although the other two agile metrics were not pronounced as very significant (Customer sensitivity and collaborative strategies) in this particular context, appropriate collaborative mix and differentiation strategies are suggested

A Case Study, Adaptation Strategies for Drought Risk Reduction in Farmers’ Livelihoods Kabul, Afghanistan []

Among all of the natural hazards, drought is one of the most complex and significant climatic hazard and risk more effects for the people's (farmers) livelihoods and socio-economic progress toward another events. In the world, all of agriculture and non-agriculture sectors will be affected by drought impacts. In this regard, there is two districts from Kabul province in Afghanistan country (Deh Sabz and Paghman) are chosen for surveying as the drought-affected areas. The farmers in these areas are affected from the negative consequences of drought impacts on farming and agro-based livelihoods during the recent years. Accordingly, they have applied several adaptation strategies to decrease drought effects on farming and own livelihood from their previous experiences. This article purpose to fixit farmers' adaptation strategies, and their perception of drought for reducing impacts of drought on their agricultural productions and livelihoods. The findings of this research are consistent with existing seek on drought in Afghanistan and other regions, and will be useful for application, and understanding of drought impacts on farmer's livelihoods. Because of not done any research about drought in these areas. Thus, this article will assist regional planner, rural sectors, officials, and other people that they have development plans, policies, and extending services.

Six Points Cosine Runge Kutta Method for Solving First Order Ordinary Differential Equations []

High order implicit method of solving first order Differential Equations using collocation method


In order to evaluate the Lead – Zinc (Pb-Zn) mineralization potential, determine the depth of occurrence and provide preliminary recommendations for further exploration and exploitation activities, a geophysical investigation involving the induced polarization method was carried out at Kambari area, Karim-lamido of Taraba state Northeastern Nigeria. Induced polarization measurements involving the dipole-dipole array were carried out along four traverses of approximate length of 1.2km each using the GDD IP transmitter and GDD IP receiver with multi-electrode system and spacing of 50m. The data set were processed using the commercially available Oasis Montaj, Surfer and Arc map software to produce pseudo-sections and maps respectively to provide the lateral and vertical variations of subsurface chargeability of the study area. The study area reveals areas of low chargeability (-77 to 4) mV/V, moderate chargeability (5 to 7) mV/V and high chargeability (8 to 66) mV/V and low resistivity (10 to 25) Ωm. moderate (26 to 33) Ωm and high resistivity values of (34 to 597) Ωm at a depth of approximately 200m – 300m. Several mineralized zones were delineated and identified from the study area, they continued from one survey line to the next and the mineralization were consistent with the general trend of the geological structural trends in Nigeria. Lead-zinc (Pb–Zn) mineralization in the study area display contrasting values in resistivity and chargeability, with regards to the sedimentary host rocks. The nature of the mineralization is non-fairly-well distributed from the pseudo-sections. Induce polarization for this study proved a useful tool for mapping lead-zinc occurrences and its hereby recommended for mineral exploration surveys in other geologic areas for the mapping of disseminated mineralization.


ABSTRACT Wireless sensor network (WSN) consist of several sensor nodes capable of sensing physical phenomena of its immediate environment. Sensor node can be distributed randomly or located in fixed place, either in a large or small geographical area. WSN communicate and transmit data with each other wirelessly, its application areas include medical, military, security, home automation, etc. The power consumption, communication technology and distance between sensor nodes have great impact on the network performance. However, designing WSN and utilizing its energy in order to enhance the life time of sensor node is an important factor. Energy consumption is one of the most common challenges in WSN as it affects the lifetime of the entire network, each sensor node is battery power operated and as such wireless sensor network is depended highly on each node battery. The goal of our research work is to introduce a novel routing protocol called, Bi communication (Bi COMM) to optimize energy consumption and enhance network lifetime in WSN by the use of clustering techniques and Bi communication. This is achieved by reducing the amount of data communication which is needed by sensor nodes and decreasing the communication distance between nodes. The simulation experiment is carried out using network simulator produce in NS3. From the result it indicated that the proposed scheme give better performance in terms of energy dissipation and network life time as compared to Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH). It is hoped that this scheme will help improve energy efficiency in sensor node and impact significantly in WSN.


Due to a large number of individuals involved during large sporting events such as a football match, the likelihood of something unusual happening is very high. A lot of lives have been lost in the past in different stadia during sporting events. Malawi as a nation experienced its own football stadia disaster on the 6th of July 2017. On this day, the country had organized a match between two of the most famous clubs in the country, the Nyasa Big Bullets and Silver strikers. The match was part of the events to mark cerebrations of the fifty third independence. Eight lives were lost of which seven were children below the age of twelve years and about forty individuals were injured. A closer look into what transpired to have led to the incident revealed a lot of gaps that need to be addressed to make stadia safe and secure for everyone. These gaps include, lack of involvement of expertise in the field of sports in planning of sporting events as these as the match was done without calculation of the maximum safe capacity of the stadium. Lack of a Functional Venue Operation Center, lack of preparedness from the emergency medical support team at the stadium as it is usually the case in European organized sporting events. The author suggests multiagency collaboration to make sure that enough security is provided to the fans and players in stadia in Malawi to ensure safety and security in stadia during sporting events. This multiagency collaboration must include the police, the organizers, the medical team, the officials the media and representatives of the supports clubs. The author also recommends that in no situation should teargas be used in any stadia in Malawi stadia to disperse the spectators as it has proven to lead to more casualties than necessary.

Corrosion Influence on Bond Reduction of Steel Reinforcement Embedded in Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Corrosive Media []

ABSTRACT The main assumption in reinforced concrete structures is that there is a perfect bond between the reinforcement and the surrounding concrete to accommodate this difficulty posed by corrosion attacks. The experimental work represented the high-salt ocean media and the possible use of boswellia dalzielii hutch exudate/resin extract as a barrier to prevent corrosion and the risk of corrosion impact on the reinforced concrete structure exposed or built within this severe corrosive coastal region. Corrosion acceleration was tested on high-yielding steel (reinforcement) with a diameter of 12 mm and a length of 650 mm. The cubes for the corrosion-acceleration samples were taken at 90 days, 180 days, 270 days, and 360 days at approximately 3 months intervals, and the failure bond loads, bond strength, maximum slip, reduction/increase of cross-section area, and weight loss/steel reinforcement are explored.. Results showed lower slippage in the corroded sample as against controlled and coated samples with higher slippage force before failure, this factors showed the effect of corrosion on the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel showing the interactive relationship of concrete and steel to slippage and as well as the negative effect of corrosion on the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel. Comparative results of differential values for the maximum rebar diameter of uncoated decreases to -0.623% while coated sample increases by 0.722%, for the maximum corroded cross-sectional area, the value of reduction is -23.296%, and the coated sample increase by 33.218 %%, the weight loss of corroded sample decreases by -21.643% showing weight reduction (loss), and the coated sample increased by 35.916%. Index Terms: Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, Pull-out Bond Strength, Concrete and Steel Reinforcement

Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Mechanical Properties of Rebar Load Carrying Capacity Exposed to Corrosive Media []

ABSTRACT Corrosion of reinforced concrete has led to the sudden collapse of many of the exposed structures in coastal areas with severe weather. The effect of corrosion on mechanical properties of reinforcing steel flexural strength, midspan deflection, yield strength, ultimate strength, strain ratio, cross-section reduction, weight loss has been investigated for non-coated and exudates/resin coated reinforcing steel, embedded in concrete and subjected to induced acceleration corrosion process for 360 days. Obtained flexural strength load test comparatively results maximum values are controlled 26.58% against corroded and coated sample values of -19.97% and 26.59%. The differential averages and percentile ranges are controlled (0.54kN and 1.38%), corroded are (0.67kN and 1.03%), coated are (0.52kN and 1.63%). Comparative results showed that the maximum obtained values to the failure state are controlled -45.13% against corroded 83.77% and coated -45.58%. The average and percentile differential values recorded are controlled (0.26kN and 1.09%), corroded (0.27kN and 3.57%) and coated are (0.27kN and 1.07%). The results showed lower failure deflection loads in controlled and coated samples with decreased values over the corroded sample with higher failure deflection load and increased values compared to the reference range (controlled) and the coated samples. The comparative results obtained during and after the corrosion test maximum value of the rebar diameter was controlled by 0.75% in relation to the corroded -1.02% and the sample with the coating 0.97%. The calculated mean differential and percentile values were checked at (0.01% and 0.14%), the corroded values were (0.02kN and 0.13%) and the covered values were (0.03kN and 0.04%). The results showed the effect of corrosion on the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel with a reduction in diameter, where as the average value and the percentage of corroded samples decreased, while the controlled and coated samples showed a preserved condition, with an increase in the diameter of the coating such as due to different layer thicknesses with exudates/resin. The corroded sample cross-sectional area of the reinforcing steel registers distinguished average and percentage value of 0.02mm and 4.22%) and coated values (0.01 mm and 7.76%). The results obtained showed the effect of corrosion on the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel with a decrease in the diameter of the reinforcement in the corroded sample, while the coated sample showed an increase due to the thickness of the exudates paste layer. The results of the calculation of the maximum comparative value for both yield strength and tensile strength for the controlled sample are 6.68% and 3.11% based on the corroded and coated values of -1.57% and -3.31% are the coated values of 6.68 % and 3.44%. From the data obtained and compared, the yield strength and tensile strength values of the corroded samples account for the mean and percentile values that decrease with low load applications. The low bearing capacity was caused by corrosive effect on the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel through surface modifications affecting the ribs and fibers, whereas the coated samples at higher loads recorded an increase in the mean and percentage values of the reference range. The ratio of the maximum calculated strain (deformation) ratio for the mean and the percentile value for the controlled is -3.07% compared to the corroded and coated values of 3.15% and -2.77%, respectively. The mean differential and percentage values obtained for the control were (0.02 and 0.28%), corrosion values (0.01 and 0.31%) and coated values (0.01 and 0.28%). The results showed that corroded specimens had a higher percentage of deformation due to lower breaking loads and higher yield strengths, while coatings had higher breaking loads with lower yield strengths. The lower stress and yield strength and higher stress are the result of the corrosive effect on the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel, which has affected the interface, surface modification, reduction of fibers and ribs detached. The maximum elongation comparative values for the controlled sample were -25.2% compared to the corroded and coated sample of 36.55% and -25.59%, respectively. The mean differential and percentage values obtained for the controlled samples were (0.83% and 1.15%), corrosion values (0.82% and 2.15%), and values with coating (0.82% and 1.18 %). In comparison, the corroded samples showed higher stress values and also higher elongation rates, whereas the coated state of the coated samples was lower stress and reduced elongation. The calculated data for the maximum percentage of reinforcement weight before corrosion test for controlled, corroded and coated values were 0.05%, 0.05% and 0.07%. The maximum comparison values recorded after the corrosion test for the controlled samples remained the same, without any trace of corrosive effects, because they were collected in fresh water, the values were -6.46% and 7.35% for corrosion and layered samples. The study has proven that exudates /resin showed inhibitory properties against corrosion attack to reinforcing steel embeeded into concrete and exposed to corrosion media. Index Terms: Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, Flexural Strength, Concrete and Steel Reinforcement

Electrochemical Techniques Measurement of Chloride Transport and Service life of Reinforced Concrete Structures Assessment []

ABSTRACT Reinforcement corrosion is one of the main reasons for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structure. This is considered a negative contribution to the structural integrity of the concrete structure, which leads to a decrease in the mechanical strength and properties of structural elements. This attributes of corrosion needs to be minimized, curbed and put to an end with the introduction of inhibitive materials. The application of vitellaria paradoxa extruded viscous gummy paste (exudates/resin) tapped from the tree was researched. Its potential use as an inhibitive material in the control and curbing of corrosion effect on reinforcing steel built within the coastal region of high salinity. Extracted exudates/rein was coated to reinforcing steel and embedded into the concrete slab, exposed to corrosive media with a high concentration of salt. The results of corrosion potential computed maximum control percentile value is -66.87% compared to the corroded and coated values of 192.32% and -65.15% and the controlled potential differential value is 0.82%, corroded 5.4% and coated 0.64% . The maximum yields of the controlled and coated samples were -107.77mV and -113.94 mV, which indicated the relationship between corrosion potential and opportunity in the reference range 𝐸corr > −200mV. These results of potential Ecorr results showed indication that the values of controlled and exudates/resin coated specimens are low with the range of 90% probability that no reinforcing steel corrosion is occurring in that area at the time of measurement (10% risk of corrosion which indicates a 10% or uncertain probability of corrosion. For the non-coated sample, the maximum obtained computed value is -330.45mV, the results are within the range reference of dependence between potential and corrosion probability of the value −350mV ≤ 𝐸corr ≤ −200mV indicating a high range of values, notifying a 10% or uncertain probability corrosion. The computed maximum percentile of the controlled sample concrete resistivity is 181.51% compared to the corroded and coated values of -58.15% and 148.78% and the maximum percentile differential potential from the controlled 11.29% compared to the corroded and coated values of 1.65% and 9.82%. The results of the controlled and coated concrete resistivity samples obtained a maximum average value of 16.03kΩcm and 14.17kΩcm with a description of the value 10 <𝜌 <20 (low) compared to the corrosion value of 5.91kΩcm with a description of 5 < 𝜌 < 10 (high)and with the reference range of the relationship between concrete resistance and corrosion probability, the corrosion probability was significant (𝜌 < 5, 5 < 𝜌 < 10, 10 < 𝜌 < 20, 𝜌 > 20) for very high, high, low to moderate and low, for probability corrosion. The calculated maximum percentile of the controlled yield strength was 11.08% against corrosion and the closed value was -9.67% and 11.1% respectively and the possible differential potential values of 0.43% controlled 0.33% corroded and 0.40% coated. The elongation at failure load of corroded specimens increases as the corrosion rate decreases. The effect of corrosion on reducing the cross-sectional area of steel has a significant impact on the decrease in strength and ductility of concrete. Elongation and ductility of corroded steel bars decreases exponentially with increasing loss of cross-sectional area. The maximum calculated percentile value of diameter of reinforcement after corrosion test checked 0.040% against corroded -1.113% and coated 1.382%, the potential difference of percentile value of corroded is 0.112% against 0.141% coated. For comparison, the results of the corroded samples showed a reduction in value compared to the diameter of the reinforcement before and after the induction accelerated corrosion test with a percentile range of reduced value from 0.040% to -1.113% and the average value in the range of 11.99mm to 11.96mm. The average value and relative percentage of potential difference in decrease/increase (diameter) in the cross-section between coated and corroded samples were in the range of 29.546% to -17.995%. The decrease in average and percentile values indicates that the corrosion effect causes a reduction in diameter and cross-sectional area, fiber degradation, rib reduction and surface modification, while the exudates/resin-coated elements show an increase in volume due to thickness differences in layers. For comparison, weight loss/gain results obtained showed a decrease and an increase in the average and percentage values with 0.08 kg coated to 0.05kg, and 25.22% to -15.94% corroded. Reduction of the cross-sectional area of steel significantly affects the mechanical properties of the corroded steel rebar, also, the tensile strength of corroded reinforcement is greatly affected by the reduction in the cross-sectional area of steel. Key Words: Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, corrosion potential, concrete resistivity and Steel Reinforcement

Reinforcing Steel Mechanical Properties Surface Modification Effects on Pull-Out Bond Mechanism []

ABSTRACT The research involves the direct use of exudates/resins extruded from plants known as inorganic inhibitors, which were coated on reinforcing steel and studied experimentally. Data results of averaged and percentile values, the failure bond loads in controlled and coated samples are higher than uncoated (corroded) cubes, similarly to maximum slip. The obtained values of the measured diameter of reinforcing steel after corrosion test reduced drastically as shown with a negative values indication values reduction awhile coated sample s measured values increased resulting from the exudate/resin weight and resistance/waterproofing nature of the inhibitive materials, same results are obtained from cross-sectional areas, weight after corrosion, weight loss /gain. Corroded samples have reduced (negative) values resulting in the formation of pits and thereby resulting from swollen surface area modification and rib effects that reduced the interactive nature coexistence between concrete and steel while great interactions were seen in coated materials with higher values. Further results of the mechanical characterization properties of corroded, controlled and coated cubes, all corroded cubes showed reductions in cross-sectional areas, reduced weight loss as against controlled and coated members. The effect of corrosion attack has been attributed to the possible reduction in diameter and weight loss, bond interaction between concrete and steel, and the removal of the ribs resulting from surface modifications. The experimental work has revealed that the studied exudate/resin has the potential of inhibiting the effect of corrosion of reinforcing steel, coated with varying thicknesses, embedded in concrete cubes, and exposed to corrosion accelerated media. KEYWORDS: Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, Pull-out Bond Strength, Concrete and Steel Reinforcement

Chloride Corrosion of Steel Weight Loss Mechanism on Bond-Slip Strength Measurement []

ABSTRACT This study investigated the bond-slip mechanism of corroded and coated reinforcing steel with the application of gongronema latifolium exudates/resin extract as an inhibitory material in curbing the scourge and menace of corrosion effect on reinforced concrete structure built within severe and harsh region. The results summarized for the difference in percentile values comparatively are the maximum controlled value is 95.427% against corroded -45.014% and coated 91.689%. Results of failure bond load showed lower failure load application on corroded samples as compared to controlled and coated samples with higher load to failure which also showed closed value ranges. Obtained maximum bond strength from controlled samples is 72.719% as against corrode -40.819% and coated 81.259% samples. The comparative results showed the pullout bond strength of corroded failed on lower load applications as compared to controlled and coated samples with both having closed value ranges and failed on higher load application with coated recording the highest. The maximum recorded values of maximum slip of controlled samples are 29.187% against corroded -48.518% and coated 109.636%. In comparison, corroded samples failed at lower load application while controlled and coated failed at higher load application. In Figures 3 to 6b, it can be seen from the diameter of the reinforcement that the diameter of the reinforcement without corroded decreases by a maximum value of -0.872% and the coated increase by 0.88%, for the maximum corroded cross-sectional area the reduction value is -16.626% and the coated increase by 20.042%, weight loss and gain, corroded samples value is - 18.848% which showed decrease value of weight loss while coated value is 20.042% indicating increase increased value of weight gain. Indications from experimental work showed that the effect of corrosion on an uncoated concrete cube causes a decrease in the cross-sectional diameter and cross-sectional area as well as a decrease in weight, while the cube-coated concrete has a cross-sectional diameter and a cross-sectional area increased and weight, due to differences in the thickness of the reinforcing steel layers. KEYWORDS: Corrosion, Corrosion inhibitors, Pull-out Bond Strength, Concrete and Steel Reinforcement


Land grabs also refers to as land acquisition is a growing challenge in the developing countries (DC). This challenge has been worsening due, inter alia, to increased flows of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) to DC, which implies a need for more land to cater for such investments. In several cases, the acquisition of land to cater for the needs of foreign investors has affected the access, ownership and control over land to many local communities in DC particularly in coun-tries where land tenure systems is not well defined. The critical literatures that respond to this emerging phenomenon have emphasized the importance of examining it by looking underlying socio-political dynamics in areas where the phenomenon is prevalent. To contribute to this line of research, the study was undertaken in Loliondo Division, Ngorongoro District, Tanzania, in order to investigate the socio-political dynamics and impact of land grabs on the livelihoods of the local communities using political ecology thinking. The study involved 112 respondents who were sampled through systematic random and purposive sampling techniques. Data were collected through structured interview, documentary review, participatory rural appraisal, in-depth interviews and remote sensing. Moreover, several modes were used to analyze data in-cluding cross tabulation, regression analysis, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and con-tent analysis. The study revealed that land in the study area was acquired by both local com-munities and investors for different use. However, the study revealed that overlapping in gov-ernment’s Acts, particularly the Village Land Act of 1999 and the Wildlife Conservation Act of 2009, conflicting political power systems as well as failure of the formal power system to rec-ognize the existing evidence of land ownership and control in the area have contributed to the current appropriation of local communities’ rights to land access, ownership and control. This phenomenon has adversely affected the traditional land use systems in the area and therefore affecting the livelihoods of the local communities. The study therefore concluded that land acquisition through investment have been attributed by lack of secure land ownership among the local people and failure of the legal bodies such as government land policies and Acts to address the responsible government organ in controlling over land resource in the study area. The prevailing situation is therefore reflects land grabbing.

Dosimetric comparison of IMRT plan using different electron density calibration []

Abstract The precised electron density calibration curve of Computed tomography (CT) used for radiotherapy treatment plan in TPS is playing a major role for the calculation of accurate dose to deliver the patients. Radiotherapy dosimetric procedures are depends on the physical differences between the biological molecules present in the body. In addition, some cases required foreign objects implant inside the body to improve the treatment. In order to get accurate dose calculation, Hounsfield unit (HU) versus electron density (ED) curve used in TPS is playing an important role in radiotherapy. From in this study, we were analysed the dosimetric comparison for head and neck patient for Intensity Modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan in treatment planning system (TPS) using the Rocsboard02 standard ED curve given by Elekta vendor and Catphan® phantom (CTP) calibrated ED curve. The CTP phantom having limitation for relative electron density (RED) from 0.001 to 1.868 and HU range from -1046 to +1060. The comparison of total MU for IMRT plan having a significant difference between the rocsboard02 and CTP phantom in the range from 2.2% to 6.7%. Based on the obtained results, we concluded that for radiotherapy treatment planning, the CTP phantom and rocsboard02 ED calibration curve are not recommended for implanted patient. The rockboard02 ED and CTP phantom ED calibration curves are suitable for treatment planning of without implanted patient. Keywords: Conformity index, Catphan® phantom, Electron density, Homogeneity index, Hounsfield unit, Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Rocsboard02.

Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Kaolin Hollow Concrete Blocks Using Bagasse Ash as Cement Replacement Materials and Sawdust as Filler []

Abstract Background: The construction industry is a major sector of the economy of the most nations. The construction methodology is changing from the thatched roofing house at major rural dwellers to the large apartment used in the major cities in Ethiopia. Most of the low graded Kaolin materials around Shashamane and Arsi Negele districts were used for selected backfill material in building structure and filler materials or sub base materials in rural road construction. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the mechanical properties of hollow concrete blocks produced using low graded Kaolin, Bagasse Ash and Sawdust for an alternative wall making materials. Methods: Kaolin materials collected from two sites were used to determine its detailed information on chemical composition and mechanical properties. Using Dangote and Habesha Ordinary Portland cement and Portland Pozzolanic cement Kaolin hollow concrete blocks were prepared and tested for its mechanical properties in laboratory. Indeed, Kaolin and Bagasse ash blended with both Portland cements were added with the percentage of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15 % and 20 % as partial replacement of the binding materials. Sawdust in the mixes was used with the percentage of 8%, 16% and 32%for partial replacement of sand. Results: This study indicates that up to 10 % Bagasse Ash and Kaolin partial replacement of cement and up to 8% sawdust partial replacement for sand had improved compressive strength of kaolin hollow concrete blocks throughout its age of curing. The chemical composition test results of kaolin minerals of the selected sites show a low graded clay mineral oxides of Al2O3(12.68 %< 16%) content. Conclusions: the decrease in clay content and brightness in both kaolin deposits of selected sites were reliable on the occurrence of high percentage of alkaline and alkaline metal oxides. Furthermore, high percentage of this K2O, Na2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2, point out that there is a needs for further alteration of parent rocks. Keywords: Bagasse Ash, Bulk Density, Compressive Strength, Hollow Blocks, Kaolin, Sawdust