Volume 9, Issue 8, August 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This review is a concise exposition of an important socio-economic issue called development. Development is a unique term. What appears developed in one sector may not be so in the other or vice-versa. Judging development is simplifiable by looking at some elements which could be considered manifestations of success. On the positive note, several components maybe considered as measures of national development, as follows: 1) the economic stability of a country, 2) the overall living and health conditions of the people, 3) the public level of literacy and education, 4) the actual peace and order situation and 5) the functional environmental living index of the county. It would seem very difficult or near improbability to comply all of these blissful requirements of national livability. The role and political will of government leaders in finding the right actions to uplift the people’s lot is beyond emphasis. Social menace brings havoc to the peaceful and congenial observance of human existence. Above anything else, a social disease that immensely affect the smoother transition towards development is the truthful sincerity and sustainability of the things that we do. The road to a nation’s success is generally a path full of travails and tribulations. The wise choice and use of resources may create a simple change that could lead to developmental change. Development emanates from every individual member of society. We ourselves are the truer determinants of development. Development comes from within us and its failure also comes from ourselves. Putting our hands together to come up with the development of useful tools, equipment, and processes may cater to spur a productive nation. Today, we cannot afford living without the influence of science and technology. If we want to prosper as a nation, we need to develop and cope along the trends of scientific advances and positively reorient our attitudes for a grandiose good.


ABSTRACT The study assess the Effects of Violent Conflicts on the Psycho-Socio Status of Women in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. War and political violence portend great danger to the development of the nation. There is no nation that thrives well under the heat of war (armed conflict) and political violence. We can only progress and have meaningful development under the atmosphere of tranquillity, peace and harmony. Therefore, government must endeavour to avoid anything that will cause disharmony and disequilibrium in the polity. Nigerian politicians must eschew politics of bitterness, rancor, criminality and falsehood. Every individual must be given equal opportunity and level playing ground to participate in the politics without any acrimony. Demands for change in the polity should be done maturely and democratically rather than undemocratic and clandestine methods. Democratic principles and due processes should be applied at all levels of governance in electing political leaders rather than selective principle and imposition of political candidates on the electorate. The principle of equity, fairness, and justice should be our political slogan in the coming 2015 election. The adherence of these norms in our polity will go a long way in reducing areas of discontent and help in building bridges across the nation for peaceful co-existence and unity. Key Words: Effect, Violent Conflict, Psycho-Social and Women


ABSTRACT This research work is on the effects of boko haram insurgency on commercial activities in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State. The sample size for this study is two hundred respondents chosen from various communities. The sample size was obtained through the use of Multi stage sampling techniques where -probability method of purposive sampling were used. The study utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistical tools used include tables, frequencies and simple percentage. Inferential statistics such as chi-square will be used. The secondary data on the other hand was analysed through simple descriptive technique known as document Analysis. The result of the study showed that the group may have been nurtured from outside. Sources in the Maiduguri religious establishment say it is possible that money from Salafist groups in Saudi Arabia supported it in the early years. The findings shows that Boko Haram insurgency has affected Maiduguri Metropolis, the causes of the insurgency were included that bad governance is the major cause of the problem.This study also discovered that among the consequence which has been affecting people is the closing of the three borders which Borno State shared; these are Chad, Niger and Cameroon. Furthermore, the study reveals that the negative effect of Boko haram on socio-economic life of the people was the closing of the southerner’s shops in Maiduguri Metropolis and the total relocation of the non-indigenous shops owners to other states. Based on the findings of the study it is recommended that; government should create employment opportunities to the teeming unemployed youth as part of the solution to the ongoing Boko Haram insurgency in the North Region and insecurity problem in Nigeria in general. Keywords: Boko haram, Insurgency Commercial Activities and Assessment

Economic and religious transparency of the Tamil trading community revealed in the Viharahinna inscription in the twelfth century AD. []

Viharahinna can be identified as a place that was revered by the Hindu Buddhist people in the twelfth century AD. In accordance with the political and economic patterns prevailing in Sri Lanka at that time, various allowances were given to this temple by the Tamil trade organizations. In each case, they have seized it, despite obstacles we can scarcely imagine. What we need to understand here is that the people of South India once acted with transparency in Sri Lanka, providing protection to the Sinhala King as the merchants, security forces and administrative officers.


Various machine learning algorithms constitute vital solutions to big data processing. Data from various sources, in disparate formats can be integrated and seamlessly analyzed when the right tools and techniques are made use of. In this paper, we report on application called Respond! reporting tool. This tool was realised by ICT students from Fontys University of Applied Sciences as part of their graduating project from the Applied Data Science minor. The aim of the project was to develop a tool based on advanced machine learning techniques aimed at gathering information from a number of various different sources (news outlets and websites, social media and weather forecasting sources) in order to allow an automatic management of fire incidents in the Netherlands. The paper demonstrates the extensive research conducted on how to apply machine learning techniques on weather data. Making use of a combination of web scrapping tools, social media mining and a number of machine learning techniques such as support vector machines and regression modeling, the tool provides some viable results that can be used to monitor weather information.

Leader's competencies to perform in volatile, uncertain, complex, and complex environment []

In the modern era, organizational leaders face immense pressure to optimize resources for producing desired output and find efficient means to deliver in a highly competitive environment. This study was observed to find out the Leader's competencies to lead in highly uncertain and complex, and ambiguous context of medical and health care setups. In this study. Data was collected through simple random sampling, In this study 219 respondents participated in the survey who were senior executives in corporate private medical colleges and health care setups. The results were received at after conducting Multiple Regression Analysis. Results reveal that the leader’s sustainable strategic management and ability to foresee in future strongly related to leader’s competencies to perform in volatile situation. The findings also reveal that knowledge sharing ability to Leadership competencies which are considered essential for a highly uncertain world. The paper contributes to academics and industry practitioners by presenting findings that are exclusive to the leadership competencies. This study will facilitate the formulation of strategies that are conducive in industries for the induction and training of the leadership .


One of the pillars in Kenya’s Health is service delivery and safety. In order to actualize and implement the aforementioned pillar, there is need to embrace and adopt the integration of Health information system. Irrational use of wrong dispensation of drugs is a major challenge that could either turn fatal or if not results to poor health delivery. This Thesis proposal will en-deavor to examine challenges faced by sub-county when us-ing the manual system and provide tools for establishing an electronic system. The main aim of the project is to design and integrate computerized Pharmacy inventory system in Kesses Sub County. The researcher will analyze the effect of drug in-ventory and tracking in the entire sub-county. It will determine how inventories are controlled; maintain a balance of supply and demand of drugs in the pharmacy. The objective of this project is to provide better control access of medication in the pharma-cy and provide full audit trail of transactions. The researcher will investigate if there is a footprint in the healthcare centre within the sub county and also establish significant impacts of using the manual pharmaceutical system and also find out the requirements needed in implementation and also asses the be-havioral character of staff. The study will adopt the theoretical foundations of Hospital pharmacy Management and develop-ment and also McKesson retail pharmacy automation. Six health facilities will be selected (two facilities from each ward) health facility workers will be sampled through questionnaires and interviews. Validity of data collection instrument will be determined through experts’ judgment with supervisors, lectur-ers and colleagues. Data collected will be coded analyzed with SPSS and the results will be presented using the frequency ta-bles and charts. The findings will be used by the researcher as input in the next phase of designing developing and imple-menting and integrated hospital pharmacy drug tracking and inventory management system. The system will have the capa-bility to improve patients care by promoting medication and dispensing accuracy and its finding will be useful to both the researcher, Sub-County and the entire Uasin-Gishu County.

Assessment of Agricultural extension services delivery system in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia []

The study was conducted during 2018 in six zones of Oromia regional state with the objectives of assessing the agricultural extension service delivery and identifying the main challenges of extension service delivery. Household survey, FGD, and KII were used to collect the data from respondents. The result revealed that 41.9%, 16.8%, 16.1, 13.6%, and 11.6% of model farmers are rated in a very high, Average, Very Low, High and Low participant of extension services, respectively. While about 47.5%, 21%, 17%, 7.3 and 7.2% of resource poor farmers are rated to very low, Low, Average, High and Very high participant of agricultural extension service, respectively. This indicates that the majority of wealthy farmers are participants of extension services and the majority of resource poor farmers are marginalized from it. Participation of youth and women in agricultural extension service is rated very low. The result also indicates that about 82% of respondent farmers witnessed the availability of Farmers’ Training Centers at kebele level but the majority (65.4%) of them indicated that there was lack of demonstration material and office furniture in most compounds of FTCs. The result also revealed that the main contributing factors for the low performance of Development agents at kebele level are low salary payment, logistic problem, lack of incentives and lack of education opportunities. Motivated DAs can change the farmers’ behavior and shows enthusiasm and passion to their jobs. Agricultural extension service delivery system should incorporate all categories of farmers like wealthy, resource poor, youth and women. Farmers’ training centers should be furnished by office furniture and the demonstration materials should also be fulfilled to facilitate extension service delivery. All inclusive, better quality and furnished residences of DAs should be availed at kebele level. Keywords: Extension, services, farmers, FTCs, DAs, Oromia


Drought stress is one of the environmental factors which significantly reduce maize productivity. Therefore, to identify the best drought tolerant maize hybrid under drought conditions, thirty F1 crosses were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications under water stress and non-stress conditions in two locations during 2019 dry season. Traits studied include, Relative water content, Relative water loss, Proline content, stomata count, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll. Analysis of variance showed significant interactions amongst the hybrids for all traits studied under stress and non-stress conditions, indicating high variation among hybrids. The integrated selected index identified (W.DT STR Syn/TZL COMP1-W) F2 x DT SYN 13-W F1 (29 X 18), DT SYN2-W x DT SYN2-W F1 (11 X 20) and DT SYN2-W F1 x DT Syn-1 F2 (20 X 15) as best hybrids, however rank sum identified the hybrids(W.DT STR Syn/TZL COMP1-W) F2 x DT Syn-1 F2 (29 X 15), DT Syn-1 F2 x DT SYN 13-W F1 (15 X 18) and (W.DT STR Syn/TZL COMP1-W) F2 x DT SYN 13-W F1 (29 X 18)as the most drought tolerant hybrids. They are therefore recommended for production in drought prone areas of Niger State, Nigeria.


The study investigated management of local food content for sustained customer loyalty: a case study of some selected local eating outlets in Owerri Metropolis. Three research questions and one null hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study is a mixed method of correlational, descriptive survey and simple percentage. The population of the study consisted of all the customers in the selected eating outlet in Owerri metropolis. The sample of the study consisted of 546 customers from 30 selected registered and approved eating outlet in the Metropolis. This sample was determined by accidentalsampling technique. The instrument of the study was a questionnaire captioned “Management of Local Food Content for Sustained Customer Loyalty (MLFCSCLQ)” which was content and face validated by experts in hospitality management and tourism and the reliability coefficient of the instrument was ascertained through the Cronbash alpha reliability which was obtained as 0.86.There was 100% questionnaire retrieval rate and the research questions were answered through the use of mean score and standard deviation whiles the Pearson Product Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). It was discovered that to a high extent clients’ local food experience enhances sustained customer loyalty in Owerri Metropolis of Imo State thus concluded thatlocal food is conceived in part as the identity of a people, it has to be transferred to replace a national identity and this can be done also to upscale the economic relevance of a nation. It was however recommended that eating outlets management should make effort to ensure that the local food are presented and projected over the foreign food by making them readily available for consumption, and that the eating outlet managers should initiate innovative means of making quality local food through training and employment of cooks that are well trained and experience with preparing local food.


Many companies were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This resulted in many companies run into disputes with their workers due to the adjustments that the companies implement during the pandemic. The government has appointed industrial relations mediator, which is a civil servant who serves to mediate the settlement of industrial relations disputes. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of the industrial relations mediator in the settlement of industrial relations disputes on workers’s welfare and business continuity of entrepre-neurs affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial relations mediators in the settlement of industrial relations disputes. The literature review, conceptual model, and research methodology are discussed. Practicing this paper would instantly provide information about the effectiveness of the mediation conducted by the industrial relations mediators.

Effect of job enrichment on employee’s performance in oil and gas industry Port Harcourt, Nigeria []

This study the effect of job enrichment on employee’s performance with its geographical scope as the Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria is an attempt at filling this knowledge gap. The study adopted a cross sectional design, structured questionnaire and personal interview. Validity and reliability (0.842 and above) tests were assured. Responses were obtained from Managers and employees of four statistically selected Oil and Gas companies in the study area. The study population is 157, and sample size of 113. Purposive, simple random, systematic and stratified sampling techniques were variously employed to select the respondents. After data cleaning, 93 copies of questionnaire were found fit for use in the analysis. 28 hypotheses were posited and tested. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation technique was used the significance was 0.01 level, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS). Our findings revealed that there is a positive, strong and significant relationship between all the dimensions of job enrichment and measures of employee’s performance in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. The study arrives at the fact that, the effective conduciveness of employment performance in the Nigeria oil and gas industry is premised on effective implementation of job enrichment strategy and policy. Key words: employees, job enrichment, autonomy, skill Varity, performance

Neuroplasticity and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) for Clinical Applications []

Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to alter its structure and function. The plasticity impairment of the nervous system leads to neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is the non-invasive brain stimulation approach that functions by enhancing the capacity of brain plasticity. TMS is widely used for disease diagnosis and treatment due to its safety and high therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we aim to review the concept of neuroplasticity and the clinical applications of TMS and rTMS for diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases.


ABSTRACT Crop land productivity decline affects the livelihoods of rural farmers of Ethiopia as well as a country’s ability to produce. It is one of the major challenges for agricultural production in Ethiopia. In recognition to this, different indigenous land management practices were introduced to combat the problem but effectiveness of these practices were below expectations. Hence, this study attempts to identify the role of indigenous land management practices to improve crop land productivity in Halu Wereda, Oromia Regional State. The study dealt with the perception of farmers, roles of ILMP, indicators, causes and effects of poor land management practice, factors affecting farmers decision in the practices of ILMP and relationship between crop land productivity improvement and ILMP. Survey questionnaires were administered for 114 randomly selected sample households. 25 participants were selected for focus group discussions and 7 participants for interview. The qualitative data were analyzed in the form of narration whereas quantitative data were tabulated and the results were summarized in the form of tables, figures and correlation and regression analysis results were applied using SPSS version 20. The major finding of this study shown that farmers’ decision on the adoption and use of indigenous land management practices can be influenced by a number of socio-economic and demographic characteristics of households, institutional and physical factors. The findings also shows that slope, distance of farm land, soil erosion, population pressure, poor land management practices affected their crop land productivity. It also shows that the roles of ILMP such as grass strip, contour plough, manure application, mulching were significant in the study area. Finally, based on the findings of the study, it is important for farmers to get at least basic education through mass literacy campaigns to help them in indigenous land management practices. Extension and training services on conservation strategies should get due attention by extension planners and DAs for effective land management practices and crop land productivity of the country. Indigenous land management practices must be goes with introduced land management practices hand with hand rather than discouraging ILMP by government. Female household heads were less adopter of land management practices than male household heads. To keep female and households’ participation, they should be given a due attention through training, decision making and planning, access for information. Keywords: Crop land productivity, factors, Households, soil erosion, Indigenous Land Management Practices.

Pericardial effusion complicated by cardiac tamponade in tubercular pericarditis. A case report []

Abstract Pericardial effusion is a fluid in the space between the heart and the pericardial sac. If the fluid accumulates rapidly in the pericardial space as in the chest trauma, this fluid can compress the heart (cardiac tamponade) and cause circulatory failure. With the slow accumulation of fluid, the pericardial sac will stretch to accommodate the fluid. However if the fluid continues to accumulate, tamponade will eventually occur. This is a dire emergency situation requiring immediate aspiration of pericardial fluid. Cardiac tamponade occurs after sudden and/or excessive accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space that restricts appropriate filling of the cardiac chambers disturbing normal hemodynamics and ultimately causing hypotension and cardiac arrest. Therefore, it is a life threatening condition that must be diagnosed as soon as possible for correct treatment and management.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Bovine Fasciolosis in Cattle Slaughtered in Khartoum State, Sudan []

Fasciolosis is caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola. Fasciola is commonly recognized as liver flukes that are responsible for wide spread of morbidity and mortality in cattle characterized by weight loss, anemia and hypoproteinemia. The two most important species, Fasciola hepatica found in temperate area and in cooler areas of high altitude in the tropics and subtropics and Fasciola gigantica, which predominates in tropical area. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 302 cattle slaughtered at Elkadaro slaughterhouse in Khartoum State, Sudan, during the period extended from April to June 2018 to estimate the prevalence of fasciolosis in slaughtered cattle and to investigate the potential risk factors associated with the disease. Routine meat inspection procedure was employed to detect the presence of fasciola in liver. The study showed that the overall prevalence was 5% the prevalence of bovinefascilosis at post-mortem was found to be 3.3% and the prevalence by fecal examination was 1.7%. A univariate analysis was performed using the Chi-square as a test of significance for the association between the infection and the investigated potential risk factors. Significant association was detected between bovine fasciolosis infection and each of age (p-value = 0.00), breed (p-value = 0.00) and animal source (p-value = 0.00). In multivariate analysis four risk factors were found to be significantly associated (p-value≤ 0.05) with fasciolosis. These risk factors included age (p-value = 0.00), breed (p-value = 0.00), animal source (p-value = 0.00) and grazing type (p-value = 0.005). In view of our findings, fasciolosis is prevalent at Elkadaro abattoir in Khartoum State. Our study further confirmed that fasciolosis diagnosed through postmortem examination is more prevalent than by fecal sedimentation. We recommended More elaborate studies on bovine fasciolosis to reveal the prevalence in other states, Economic importance of the disease should be evaluated, Awareness of animal owner's about the disease, treatment and the control strategy.

Users’ Perceptions and Use of Electronic Resources in Academic Libraries: A Case of ARRUPE College Library, Zimbabwe []

The main purpose of this study was to investigate user perceptions, use and challenges in accessing electronic resources by students and lecturers at Arrupe College Library. However, underutilisation and users’ perceptions remain a major concern for the Arrupe College Library. To establish the cause a study was conducted to investigate user perceptions, use and challenges in accessing electronic resources at Arrupe College Library. The Technology Acceptance Model was adopted as the framework for analysis. The results supported that TAM is an effective model in understanding the use and adoption of technology. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The research design used was a descriptive survey while the sampling technique was stratified random sampling using proportional representation to select participants from a student population of 118. Data was collected using the questionnaire technique from students and supplemented by the observation technique on the use of electronic resources. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and content analysis were used to analyse the quantitative and qualitative data. The study revealed that awareness and usage was high, but not uniform across all electronic resources offered by the library. Users found ease of use and were satisfied with the service but expressed the need to expand e-resources particularly e-books. The findings also revealed that there was low intake of open access resources. The main challenge was inadequacy of e-resources, computers, awareness, and training. The study recommends that the library invests in more e-resources, particularly e-books, conducts more awareness and training, increase computers, and promote the use of open access.

Analyzing multidimensional poverty dimensions, and variables influencing its levels.Evidence from poultry farming households, Oyo State. Southwest Nigeria. []

This study examines the determinants of multidimensional poverty level among poultry farming households in Oyo State. A multistage sampling technique was employed to collect data from 210 poultry farmers within four local government areas of the state using well-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, Z-test, Alkire-Foster indices and Tobit regression model was used in data analysis. Result shows that; relative to education dimension, highest incidence of deprivations among the poor poultry farming households exists in the health and standard of living dimensions where 88% of the poor poultry farmers are deprived of access to clean water and poor access to quality healthcare which is about 47% and 11% respectively for the Nonpoor category. There exists a significant difference between the deprivation scores of the Poor and Nonpoor with respect to these indicators at 1% level. About 20% of the poultry farming households are multidimensionally deprived with an average derivation intensity of 47%. With respect to determinants of poverty levels, Education level in years, age, household size, cooperative membership, primary labour source, farm size, and quality health access determine the level of multidimensional poverty among poultry farming households in the study area. Finding based policies are proffered.

Impact of Management Information System on Human Resource Practices: A Case Study of Muscat Stock Exchange []

The study aim to evaluate the impact of using MIS on HRM practices and how it helps in retaining talented employees at Muscat Stock Exchange. A descriptive research design adopted and mixed approach of quantitative and qualitative data collection methods utilized. The study found that there is a positive relationship between Qualification and performance management through MIS as well as positive relationship between qualification and retaining talented employees. Also, the main challenges of MIS in HRM are lack of necessary skills, inadequate standards of using Management Information systems in human resource practices and cost of HRIS. The study concluded by providing couple of recommendations to enhance MIS at MSX in relation to HRM.

Electrochemistry []

ABSTRACT Gravimetric and electrochemical techniques (weight loss, effects of difference in temperatures, and electrochemical verifications) were carried out on premature Dacryodes edulis seed extract in IM HCI as corrodent at different temperatures and time (24 hours immersion time at room temperatures, 1 hour immersion time at 400C and 1 hour immersion time at 700C). The results showed that inhibition efficiency increased with increase in concentration of inhibitor and corrosion rate decreased with increase in concentration of inhibitor. The result from the potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance also suggest that the premature Dacryodes edulis seed extract is a cathodic inhibitor and the mechanism of physisorption and chemisorption were observed from results obtained from the calculation of heat of adsorption, as well as from analysis of the results provided from the electrochemical experiments. Hence premature Dacryodes edulis seed extract has corrosion inhibitive properties, and functions as a mixed inhibitor.

Academic stress amongst medical students, Pakistan []

Main objective of this research paper is to find out the determinants that cause stress in private medical students, in Lahore region Pakistan. According to Richard S.Lazarus “ stress is such as a situation when an individual feels that demand has gone beyond the available resources it is tate of stress ( Richard. L 1999). Practically the academic stress is primarily concerned with two reasons; scarcity and desires, (Lovely Joseph 2018). Increasing ratio of committing suicide among younger people (Nabeeha 2018) has persuaded to conduct this type of study. Pursuing professional studies like medical, engineering, in higher education create stress level higher than other studies ( Ashok, Karthik 2019). The scarcity limits medical student demands and the desire is that the loss of something which they expect. This study highlights focuses to know the factors of stress; a random sample of 110 students from the population of two districts in Lahore and Sheikhupura is selected. Primary data was collected through the questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was prepared after analyzing the various aspects of academic stress. It is significant that stress can cause both positive and negative influence on students. As per experts extreme stress situations can disturb human health but at the same time moderate stress is normal and mostly source to do well in life.