Volume 9, Issue 8, August 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The collective labor agreement is a reflection of the regulation of the balance of rights and obligations of workers and its employer. Wages are also one of the substances regulated in the collective labor agreement. The aim of this paper is to propose a conceptual model to ex-amine the effects of collective labor agreement and wages on job satisfaction that is mediated by job welfare. The literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses development and research methodology are discussed. Practicing this paper would instantly provide information about the relationship of the collective labor agreement, wages, job welfare, and job satisfaction at the PT. Bank CIMB Niaga Tbk - Tebet Branch Office.


Indonesia is a tropical country with the potential of extraordinary and abundant natural resources so that it provides enormous opportu-nities for tourism potential, especially marine tourism. Based on the geographical location, Indonesia has a very strategic position, in addi-tion to geographical factors, Indonesia also has strategic value based on natural factors found in Indonesia, which consists of tropical for-ests owned by Indonesia, which are the largest tropical forests in the world, not inferior to water conditions which are very rich in miner-als. Coastal ecosystems, among others, consist of 20% of the world's coral reefs, 20% of the world's mangrove forests, and 3 million hec-tares of seagrass beds spread across Indonesia. The potential of marine tourism in Indonesia cannot be separated from Indonesia's own coastal resources such as the potential of coral reef ecosystems and mangrove forest ecosystems which are currently becoming a hot topic in the field of marine tourism.

The Influence of Competence and Commitment to Employee Performance through Work Experience at Energy Equity Epic (Sengkang) Pty. Ltd. []

This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of competence and commitment on employee performance through work experience at Energy Equity Epic (Sengkang) Pty. Ltd. in Wajo Regency. Data was collected using a questionnaire instrument which was distributed to 123 respondents who were selected as samples. This research method uses quantitative methods with data analysis techniques using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with the help of SPSS version 23.0 and AMOS version 23.0 applications. The results showed that competence had a positive and significant effect on employee performance, commitment had no significant effect on employee performance, work experience had a positive and significant effect on employee performance. Furthermore, on the performance variable, the R square value obtained is 0,913, indicating the large contribution of competence, commitment and work experience to employee performance by 91,3% while the remaining 8,7% performance is influenced by other factors outside of work experience, competence and commitment. The results of the analysis also show that work experience mediates the effect and commitment on employee performance significantly.


A mapping study of the potential utilization of organic wastes obtained from restaurants in the Jatinangor area has been carried out with the aim of obtaining information on the potential for restaurant waste and its alternative uses. Twenty nine restaurants from Jatinangor can pro-duce as much as 105 kg of organic wastes each day. One of the uses of restaurant waste is that it can be used as fish feed. However, the direct application of restaurant waste as fish feed does not provide optimal fish growth because of the low nutritional content, such as protein. Fermentation is the process of breaking down organic compounds into simpler compounds by involving microorganisms. Fermentation is able to increase the nutritional value of restaurant waste, so that it can be used as fish feed ingredients. The nutritional value of fermented restaurant waste is 30.80% protein; 9.01% water content and 7.10% fat. Utilization of fermented restaurant waste has been applied in various studies such as being used as feed ingredients for catfish (Clarias sp.), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). The simple process of turning it into fish feed can increase the value of restaurant waste that has never been used before. Utilization of this organic waste will be able to increase the income of the community around the Jatinangor area.


The butterfly pea or telang plant (Clitoria ternatea) is a shrub that is extensively spread in Indonesia. It is a form of legume that is strong in protein and has a high nutritional value. Food and feed can be obtained from all parts of the telang plant. Telang leaves contain 18-25 percent protein, whereas the telang plant's stems and leaves together contain 9-15 percent protein. In aquaculture, the telang plant has many benefi-cial properties including as a source for protein, antioxidants, a source for enhancing fish color which contained fish feed, and antimicrobial properties as well. Phytochemical investigations have discovered active components such as tannins, plobatins, aponins, triterpenoids, phe-nols, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthocyanins, flavonols, glycosides, steroids, and essential oils, which suggest the telang plant's potential as a therapeutic ingredient.


Jatigede reservoir's main functions are power plants and sources of irrigation for agriculture. The reservoir has been operating since 2016 with ± 4900 ha as the total area. Monitoring the surface area of the Jatigede reservoir using satellite imagery provides spatial and temporal information on the reservoir waters in the period 2017 – 2020. Using Sentinel 2 satellite imagery, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) method is capable to detect the changes in the water surface of the Jatigede. The Jatigede reservoir area from 2017 to 2020 average is 2989.11 ha, the lowest was 1901.88 ha in November 2019 and the highest was 4064.69 ha in April 2020. The low tide period of the Jatigede reservoir occurred from August 2018 to January 2019, and August 2019 – January 2020 raise the drawdowns area around the waters of the Jatigede reservoir, in addition, the utilization of waters area for floating net cage needs to be well-thought-out and customized with the function of the Jatigede reservoir.

Fortification of Carrot Flour to the Preference Level of Mackerel Pempek []

Increasing the content of vitamin-A in fish jelly products in the community, such as pempek, can be done by adding carrot flour. This study aims to determine the proportion of carrot flour based on the level of preference for mackerel fish pempek. The research was conducted from January 2021 to February 2021. Pempek processing and organoleptic testing were carried out at the Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Padjadjaran of Univercity and chemical tests were carried out at the Food Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Pasundan University, Bandung. The method used in this research is an experimental method with 5 treatments of adding carrot flour and 20 semi-trained panelists as replications with 0% treatment; 10%; 20%; 30%; and 40%. The parameters observed were organoleptic characteristics which included appearance, aroma, texture, taste of pempek, folding test, and chemical tests (protein content, ash content, moisture content, carotene content) in the control treatment and the most preferred. The results showed that the addition of carrot flour by 20% was the most preferred treatment with a median appearance of 8 (highly preferred), aroma, texture and taste by 7 (preferred) and the results of the elasticity test for the 20% treatment folding test results have a chewy pempek, with proximate test results of water content 48.64%, ash content 1.61%, protein content 10.02% and carotene content 55.32 ppm. Keywords: carrot flour, levels of preference level, organoleptic, pempek, surimi

Explicit Dynamic analysis Of Sheet Metal Forming []

Sheet metal forming is a process that is now widely utilised in the automotive and aerospace sectors. The forming process is an old industrial technique in which metal is shaped using a punch and die to turn a flat sheet of material into the desired shape and dimension. Using the ANSYS Explicit Solver workstation, the current study evaluated the energy absorption properties of Al- alloys with various sheet thicknesses. ANSYS software is used for CAD modelling and finite element analysis (ANSYS design Modeler). For the material, graphs of Equivalent Stress (Von-misses Stress), Total Deformation, Internal Energy, and Shear Stress are created.

Comparative Analysis of Different Uniformities Coefficient of Crushed Glass as Filter Media in Rapid Filtration. []

Abstract- the comparative analysis between the filters having different Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) and different effective size (D10) of crushed glass as filter media in rapid filtration is done by measuring turbidity, head loss, Unit Filter Run Volume (UFRV) and backwash water consumption at different turbidity range and constant flow rate (i.e., 1lit/min). CG1, CG and CG3 models filters got Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) as 1.33, 1.70, and 1.33 and effective size as 0.45m, 0.60mm and 0.60mm respectively. The turbidity removal of filters was 94.66%, 90.29% and 83.87% for CG1, CG2 and CG3 filters respectively for influent turbidity range 25-85 NTU. The rate of head loss gained in meter after producing filtrate of 100 m3 per m2 area of filter was observed 1.75m, 1.28m and 1.01m for CG1, CG2 and CG3 filters respectively for turbidity range 80-150 NTU. The UFRV for filters was found to be 94 m3/m2, 129 m3/m2 and 164 m3/m2 for turbidity range 80-150 NTU of CG1, CG2 and CG3 filter respectively. The backwash water used of total filtrate volume by filter was found to be 23.13%, 16.17% and 11.76% for CG1, CG2 and CG3 filters respectively for filter run having turbidity range 80-150 NTU. On comparison between filters model CG2 and CG3 with different Cu and constant D10, the turbidity removal efficiency of CG2 having higher value of Cu is more than CG3 filter in all turbidity ranges but UFRV is more of CG3 filter than CG2 filter. The rate of head loss in filter is higher of CG2 than CG3 and backwash water consumption is more of CG3 filter than CG2 filter. On comparison of three, CG1 filter having lower Cu and lower D10 have greater turbidity removal efficiency but it clogs faster than others.


No country was left untouched with outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic. The first confirmed case in Uganda was reported on March 21, 2020. A total of 39,860 people were confirmed with the disease, 14,440 recovered and 327 died by February 9, 2021 in the same country. To reduce spread of the disease, a country lockdown was enacted with most of the economic activities shut down. The citizens lost job and businesses were disrupted due to breakdown of supply chain, demand reduced for goods and liquidity dried up both locally and globally. Economic gap was created with accumulated public debts amidst no hope for COVID-19 to end soon. The most worrying is the chances that more aggressive epidemics will break in future due to the continuous mutation of the disease causing agents. There is urgent need to innovate and use technologies that can sustain economic recovery in the face of pandemics. Sericulture played a big role in the livelihood of some of the community members in Uganda during COVID-19 lockdown. The cost benefit analysis for sericulture, a new technology in Uganda, was compared to other commercial agricultural activities done during COVID-19 lockdown of the country. Their viability for economic recovery was assessed based on the monthly returns per famer. Sericulture technology and innovation was found to be the most potential for sustainable economic recovery from COVID-19 pandemic and future epidemics in Uganda.


Gut bacteria that are part of the gut microbiota evolve together with their hosts, share the same niche among the gut microbiota and play important roles in metabolism, nutrition, and immunity. Several types of microbio-ta found in the digestive tract have an important role in increasing feed utilization, fish health, and improving the quality of the environment and microorganisms. Gut bacterial diversity studies were carried out as a step to obtain information on how diverse the intestinal bacterial community of freshwater fish is and from any class. The approach taken in this diversity study can be done through a metagenome approach and a bacterial culture approach. Metagenome studies on the diversity of fish gut bacteria can be done using the DGGE (Dena-turing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) method and can also be done through NGS (Next Generation Sequencing), both based on the 16s rRNA gene. Different locations can affect the diversity of gut bacteria even if the host type is the same. Fish species can also affect gut bacterial communities, particularly the feeding habits of the host fish. This review demonstrates the differences in the gut microbiota of freshwater fish collected from dif-ferent habitats. This shows the effect of habitat or location on the diversity of fish gut microbes. This study pro-vides the first insight into the diversity of bacterial communities in the gut of freshwater fish and provides a reference for future studies.

Catch Rate and Fishing Season of Hairtail Fish (Trichiurus Sp.) with Danish Seine at PPP Mayangan Probolinggo []

Hairtail Fish is included in the category of demersal fish, which has significant economic value and includes Market demand for Hairtail Fish, which tends to increase throughout the year, causes fishing efforts to tend to increase. If the catch carries out excessively to exceed the maximum sustainable yield limit, it will cause overfishing. This study aims to determine the fishing season of Hairtail Fish and the development of CPUE in 2014-2018. This research was conducted in August 2019 at the Mayangan Beach Fishing Port, Probolinggo City, East Java Province, Indonesia. The research method used is a survey method, namely, observing the Hairtail Fish that landed at the Mayangan Probolinggo fish landing site. The catch was decreasing 89.51% due to the number of fishing gear going down after 2014. The average percentage decrease in catch per unit effort from 2014 - 2018 was 28.35%. Hairtail fishing season in Probolinggo is from April to June.


Abstract Broiler meat is popular because it is cheaper, more versatile, easy to cook and is perceived to give more health benefits not to mention lower calories than red meat. The demand outlook is positive for the Philippine broiler industry because of the continuing growth in population and household buying capacity in the country. Since the rise of African Swine Flu and lots of restrictions on transportation due to Covid 19, lower meat supply was noted especially on pork while higher demand for chicken meat can be perceived because of the lower supply and higher ongoing market price, higher supply can be a good attribute to lower inflation of the said commodity to benefit both growers and consumers. Demand for broiler production is harder as time goes by, standards were at peak, demanding higher body weight in lesser market age. Management is the biggest challenge that it has ever been. Broiler growth, increased growth rate equals increased heat production that can be best managed by controlling micro-climate inside the house by using CCS. Improvement and or development in animal genetics, breeding, nutrition, and animal husbandry has led to changes in modern poultry from the past. Accordingly, modern poultry particularly broiler chickens under intensive and massive production are susceptible to many disorders, stressors, and diseases more than ever before. Hence, poultry in unstable environmental conditions cannot show their true genetic potential, therefore, leading to economic losses. Providing the best place for raising the birds is one of the important and basic issues in broiler production. Interest continues to build in tunnel ventilation by the commercial sector through a method of enhancing broiler performance and reducing mortality during warm weather. The perception that operating costs associated with this system may be high as concerned but as projected it gives better payback. The purpose of this study is to check Broiler performance when using tunnel ventilated houses to help growers decide or take into consideration, possible shift to automation in broiler raising to improve production. This paper identifies the advantages of operating controlled climate system broiler houses and how it can help sustain the increasing demand for chicken meat as well as giving more promising profits to the growers.


Petroleum and energy sector serves as the backbone of the economy. This segment provides support, not only for the economic growth of the country by showing positive trends towards the sectorial growth. Petroleum & energy sector provides significant inputs for production, trade and service. This paper examines the generalization that firms with higher profitability may choose high leverage by using various statistical tools It reveals that the players of the petroleum and energy in Pakistan can improve their financial performance. Liquidity management important part every organization that means to pay current obligations of business, the payment obligations include operating and financial expenses that are short term however increasing long period debt. The importance of researcher is determined on the basis of following parameter applied theoretical contribution for the body of knowledge. The model developed for the research may be used effectively to increase liquidity for the profitability of the company The population has been taken from the oil & energy sector of Pakistan and from 15 companies we have selected Ten listed petroleum & energy sector of Pakistan and we have compiled last 10 years data of these companies from (2001-2011). Solvency ratio describes negative relation and highly significant impact on the ROA, and ROE. It means that debt to equity ratio increases then performance of companies’ decreases. It is also result that liquidity high positive effect over Return on Assets of oil & energy sector f Pakistan i.e. if liquidity Rate is increased, ROA will also be increased with greater effect and vice versa) as shown in the article Khalid, Irfan Ahmed,(2012). Shareholder also interested in solvency ratios of companies. Suppliers check the solvency position of the companies before delivering the raw material. The investors are interested in solvency position how much the company is risky and profitable. Liquidity, solvency and profitability ratios are related to each other because one ratios increases the other ratios decreases.


The study evaluated the allocation, delivery, and distribution of instructional materials to support the K to 12 curricula in the public elementary schools in Kalamansig, Sultan Kudarat using the descriptive-evaluative design to the randomly selected 100 respondents using the Raosoft method. The study made use of the mean on the quantitative data gathered while thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data. The extent of DepEd’s instructional resource development in terms of the provision of the learning activities package was highly extensive and the provision of modules was extensive. The extent of strategies on the instructional resource’s development implemented in terms of distribution was highly extensive, the allocation was extensive and the delivery was moderately extensive. The extent of the improvement of the school performance outcomes in terms of students’ academic development was extensive and teachers’ teaching delivery was highly extensive. The common problems encountered were delayed delivery and poor competencies in research of the teachers and students due to lack of sufficient resources. The study concluded that the Department of Education's instructional resource development has been well administered and is provided in the schools but has encountered problems when it comes to on-time delivery. The strategies used by the department had helped in the allocation of resources to the schools even in remote areas. This contributed to improving the performance outcome of the students. The study recommended the timely delivery of materials and resources so that students may use them on time.

The Effects Of COVID – 19 On EL Learners In The Terai []

The COVID -19 pandemic has brought- up unprecedented and complex issues for us all. COVID - 19 has made a global impact in most sectors, including education, socio- economic and psychological impacts on english learners. Using a mixed method, this study explores the effects of COVID - 19 on EL learners in the Tarai. For this purpose, 100students of grade 10 of 2government schools of Parsa district Birgunj. Students (50from each) and four language teachers (2from each) were selected through random sampling procedures. Similarly, two key tools for collecting data were used, namely questionnaires and interviews. After analyzing the data collected through the online questionnaire and interview sheet. It has been found that COVID - 19 has affected education, socio - economic and psychological factors. Most teachers have no online pedagogical knowledge in Terai. Students laziness, unstable internet connection, smartphones, laptop and low English language proficiency which demotivate learners to participate in question answer discussion. Out of three factors socio-economic factors are highly affected on English learners. As they cannot bear the net pack, due to social distance policy, they don’t get exposure for english, Most learners sell fruits and vegetables on the street. Similarly, it affected psychologically too as students' stress, fear, frustration, anxiety have increased. Learners have developed the habit of living alone and talking with themselves.

Catch Rate and Fishing Season of Gulamah (Argyrosomus amoyensis.) by Danish Seine at PPP Mayangan Probolinggo []

Gulamah is demersal fish caught by a trawler. As one of the fish widely consumed by the community, long-term use of gulamah fish can result in a population decline. This study aims to determine the fishing season of gulamah and the development of CPUE in 2014-2018. This research was conducted in August 2019 at the Mayangan Beach Fishing Port, Probolinggo City, East Java Province, Indonesia. The research method used is a survey method, namely, directly observing the gulamah fish that landed at the Mayangan Probolinggo fish landing site. The decreasing number of fishing gear impacting the number of gulamah production up to 80.37%. The average percentage decrease in catch per unit effort from 2014 - 2018 was 36.67%. The fishing season for gulamah in Probolinggo is from January to March and July to August.

Calcareous Nannofossil study of Wells X1 and X2, Coastal Swamp depobelt, Niger Delta, Nigeria []

The present study is aimed at subdividing and dating the sediments in two Wells in the Niger Delta using calcareous nannofossils. Fifty ditch cuttings from two Wells labelled X1 and X2 were used for this study. The samples were prepared using standard nannofossil preparation technique and viewed in a microscope to determine the nannofossil species. Nannofossil records such as the First Downhole occurrence(FDO), Last Downhole occurrence(LDO), Last common occurrence and repetitive bioevents of regional field scale importance such as changes in abundances of nannofossils, diversity of the nannofossils within various sections of the wells were recorded. The recovered species included Braarudosphaera bigelowii, Calcidiscus leptoporus, Coccolithus pelagicus, Cyclicargolithus floridanus, Discoaster deflandrei, Discoaster petaliformis, Helicosphaera ampliaperta, Helicosphaera carteri, Pontosphaera multipora, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, Sphenolithus heteromorphus, Sphenolithus moriformis. The sediments were subdivided into NN5, NN4 and NN3 zones and dated Early to late Miocene on the basis of identified index fossils. Species abundance and diversity and presence of marker species was used to divide the wells into four Assemblages labelled 1 to 4 corresponding to the 14.8MA, 15.6MA, 16.8MA and 18.0MA maximum flooding surfaces respectively.


Steam methane reforming is a chemical synthesis for producing syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from hydrocarbon such as natural gas and is mostly used in ammonia production. To ensure optimal efficiency, the ratio of steam and methane should be high to obtain more of hydrogen needed for ammonia production. A detailed mathematical models were developed for steam reforming by applying the principle of conservation of mass and energy , the model equations were integrated numerically using the 4th order Runge- Kulta algorithm. Simulation of functional parameters was performed using Aspen Hysys. The model predictions shows a percentage derivation of 0.019% minimum and 8.7% maximum, which depict that the model results were in agreement with literature data. The effect of steam to methane ratio on the primary reformer was studied and the result was compared to literature plant data in other to test the validity of the model. From the result the conversion of methane was dependent on the operating condition such as temperature and pressure and inlet composition. The result showed that as the steam to methane ratio increases there is a slight increment in the conversion of methane which had a huge effect on the amount of hydrogen produced for ammonia production. This worked showed clearly that ammonia production was favoured by high steam to gas ratio.

Effect of Management Information System on the Productivity of Livestock Farming in Ghana: A Case Study of Selected Pig Farmers in Akuapem []

This study investigated the effect of management information system on the productivity of livestock farming in Ghana. The survey method was used in a quantitative case study design; a structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Out of a population of 113 smallholder farmers involved in livestock production in the selected areas: namely Akropong, Abiriw and Odawu; a sample of 40 livestock farmers were purposively selected to participate in the study. Findings indicated that livestock farmers needed information on disease control, livestock protection, shelter for livestock and livestock production. The major drawback of the management information system was that it did not meet the special demands of each farmer. In most cases, the management information system does not provide exact information to farmers despite the fact that the concept of decision support system was created in response to such need. The major challenges faced by farmers in the implementation of MIS were inaccuracy and lack of IT skills. The main factors related to access and use of management information system were assistance from experts, organised farmers’ groups, affordable inputs, and awareness of the benefits of information use.These imply that access and use of information facilitate the improvement of livestock farming. It is therefore important to ensure that adequate and appropriate information flows to the rural areas, and that farmers are able to effectively utilize it.


There is no significant progress of Employees Social Security System membership in the past four years. This raises the question if the pro-gram socialization is not yet maximal or services are not yet satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual model to examine the effectiveness of program socialization and services of the Employees Social Security Agency towards the social security mem-bership and its impact on the workers’s welfare. The literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses development and research method-ology are discussed. Practicing this paper would instantly provide information about the relationship of program socialization, ser-vices, social security membership, and workers’s welfare.

Thyme Value Chain and Its Sustainability in Ethiopia: The Case of Dinsho and Tarmaber Areas []

This paper aimed to explain the value chain of thyme herb in Ethiopia. Potential thyme collection areas Tarmaber and Dinsho were taken for the study. The study employed qualitative data collection method focus group discussion, personal observation and key informant interview. Thyme herb is collected from wild; particularly from bushy or forest areas. The collection took place by local dwellers. The major production and marketing constraints in thyme herb value chain were over grazing, destructive harvesting, limited knowledge of harvesting and processing; and small and volatile supply of the herb. The supply was small and volatile which hindered the herb not to secure sustainable domestic and foreign consumers thus brought difficulty in product branding. Although thyme herb demanded highly in the market the supply was yet dependent on wild thyme collection. Therefore domestication of the plant to garden crop and conservation of the plant genetic resource should be given an emphasis to get benefited from the plant and to rehabilitate the natural wild thyme diversity.

Performance Evaluation of Improved Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties at Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia []

Bread wheat is an important staple food for Ethiopian people, and it is one of the most important cereal crop being cultivated in the mid and high land areas of Tigray region particularly in Southern Tigray Zone. However; it has an important cereal crop the productivity of the crop has been very low in the Southern zone as compared to world average yield and from national average productivity, which may be due to lack of improved varieties in the area and this could lead to less productivity of bread wheat in the areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the adaptability and performance of improved bread wheat varieties and identify and select the best high yielding varieties. An experiment was conducted during 2016/17 main cropping season at Endamehoni and Emba Alaje districts, of Southern zone, Tigray, Ethiopia. Fifteen improved bread wheat varieties were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at both locations. Data on agronomic traits of wheat varieties were collected and subjected to analysis of variance. The combined analysis of variance showed that there were significant variations among the tested varieties on days to maturity, plant height, thousand seed weight and grain yield but, no significant difference was observed on days to heading. Based on the combined result the highest grain yield (5.51t ha -1 was recorded for Liben followed by Ogolcho (5.38 t ha-1. Therefore, these two varieties Liben and Ogolcho that showed better performance for grain yield among the tested varieties were selected and recommended as promising varieties for the study areas. Keywords: Bread wheat; Grain yield; improved varieties

Graduation Determinants of Productive Safety Net Program In Wuchale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia []

Abstract This paper attempts to assess the effect of the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security. The study employed a mixed approach to meet its objectives. For this study, 187 households and 11 experts and managers total of 198 respondents were selected. To meet study objectives both primary and secondary data sources were used. The primary data were gathered through household interviews and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics employed to assess implementation status and effectiveness of PSNP While binary logistic regression was employed to examine factors affecting the household’s PSNP graduation from food insecurity. The overall findings of the study revealed that there are still gaps in the course of implementation and its effectiveness in the program despite the contribution of PSNP to food security. The study found that household-level factors such as gender, educational level of the household head, dependency ratio, nonfarm income, access to credit service, and access to agricultural extension services were significant to affect households’ graduation from PSNP. Finally, the study recommends that the program should balance female and male-headed beneficiary households. Also, to improve the problem with the targeting and graduation stand-in with the established criteria and develop accountability is crucial. Finally, to analyze the effects of the program on beneficiary households living in an area regarding food security, this study recommends including a control group of non-beneficiary respondent households is important for future work. Keywords: Food Security, Productive Safety Net Program, Household, Graduation Factors, Binary Logit

Review: Application of Biotechnology on Potato Crop Improvement []

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family. Potato is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It play major role in national food and nutrition security, alleviation of poverty, generating income, and providing job opportunity in line with production, processing and marketing sub-sectors. Aim of this review is to how potato crop improved through biotechnology. Potato is a self-pollinated crop but is conventional propagated. Self-pollination or in breeding in potato leads to loss of vigour of the progeny and non- flowering. Plant biotechnology has traditionally encompassed the application of cell and tissue culture for crop improvement. Through applications of biotechnologies such as tissue and cell culture, genetic engineering, marker-assisted technologies, genome-assisted technologies or a combination of all the technologies improve resistance to major pests and diseases, tuber quality traits, nutritional value, salinity tolerant potato of potato yield and yield components. We conclude that application of biotechnology on potato plant improves yield, yield components and quality.

Brexit impact on Pakistan []

This paper aims to evaluate the short run and long run impact of Brexit on Pakistan. As Both the Uk and the EU are the strong trading partners of Pakistan.This paper concluded that impact of Brexit on Pakistan will be in the form of Short and long run.In the short run due to depreciation of euro and pounds as a result of political uncertainty will cause the Pakistani exports relatively expensive in the international market. Therefore, the main export contribution sectors will be affected, these sectors are textile, wearing apparels, agricultural products , light manufacturing and lather industry etc. Besides, worker remittances will be toppled because of the devaluation of the UK currency. But, in the long run FDI will be upsurged because as a result of Brexit now Britain cannot sell their products in EU countries without tariffs so, it might be possible, to maintain UK products competitive in EU market they will use GSP plus status of countries like Pakistan therefore, it will enhance its FDI in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan would lose a stalwart supporter in the EU Parliament that will be difficult for Pakistan to maintain the GSP plus after its expiry date.This paper recommends the Pakistani government to revisit its trade relation with UK( like EU GSP plus) as well as EU to maintain EU GSP plus status to curtail the adverse effect of Brexit.


This paper presents a proposal that enables the deployment of business strategy, based on the integration between Strategy and Project Portfolio Management, motivated by the observation that organizations find difficulties in the implementation of strategies and connecting them to their projects. The result of this misalignment is project execution without a systemic, coordination, and synchronized impact of strategies without the cause-effect relationship between Strategy and projects. The basis of this study is a literature review, with three foci: Strategy using the Generic Competitive Strategies proposed by Porter (1996), the Balanced Scorecard and Strategy Maps tools, proposed by Kaplan and Norton (1996, 2004); and the pillar of Project Portfolio Management (PPM), based on a proposal by the Project Management Institute (PMI, 2008). Furthermore, a methodology for PPM, based on the PMI concepts is introduced, that enables the fusion between Strategic Planning and Projects, with the Project Portfolio Management. This paper contributes to the decision-maker with an examining guideline to examine each project within the overall perspective of strategy, working as a facilitator and encouraging the project manager to have a better understanding of the role and importance of the project in compliance with the overall strategy of the Corporation.