Volume 9, Issue 8, August 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Abstract The Purpose of study aimed at demining the effectiveness of training on sweet potato cultivation for the Char farmers. The study was accompanied in two randomly selected villages under Kurigram Sadar Upazila. Three hundred farmers were selected from population of 1200. Data were collected by using a structured interview schedule in a face to face manner during 1st February to 3o June, 2017. The determinant of effectiveness of training was measured following Donald Kirkpatric’s model having 4 levels such as response, learning, behavior and results. The mean values of effectiveness of were 42.76, 40.65, 40.28 and 42.87 in respect to reaction, learning, behavior and result respectively. This means the mean values of reaction and results about effectiveness of training was more or less similar while the mean values of learning and behavior change regarding effectiveness of training were similar. But the difference between all the four values of evaluation criteria was minimal. A majority (57.30 percent) of the farmers have opined the training as moderately effective while 19.20 percent as highly effective and 23.40 percent opined as low effectiveness of training in cultivation of OFSP in the selected arena

Analysis Of Machine Learning Credit Card Fraud Detection Models []

Billions of monetary losses are caused every year by fraudulent credit card transactions. The design of efficient fraud detection algorithms is key to reducing these losses, and more and more algorithms rely on advanced machine learning techniques to assist fraud investigators. However, the design of a full-proof Fraud Detection System requires high performing machine learning algorithms that are both accurate and robust enough to handle large data. This work aims to provide solutions by examining various methods previously used for fraud detection, bringing out their strengths and weaknesses. It also examines three classification machine learning algorithms employed for fraud detection (Decision Trees, Neural Networks and the Hidden Markov Model). Finally, Random Forest classification algorithm is implemented, which improves on the weaknesses of the aforementioned algorithms and fraud detection methods, meets real world working conditions and generates accurate alerts while ensuring continuous learning. The open source and statistical programming language R is used for running the algorithm. The impressive figures of 1.000, 0.500 and 0.200 gotten from the Sensitivity, Sepecificity and False Alarm tests, as well as the accuracy of 0.999 show the power and appropriateness of the algorithm in detecting credit card fraud.


Abstract Study habits are learning tendencies that influences academic achievement either positively or negatively. The study investigated the habits of secondary school students in relation to their academic achievement in integrated science subject. Two designs, survey and expost-facto were adopted for the study. The population comprised of one hundred and eighty (180) Integrated science students in Junior secondary two (JSS2) schools drawn from six schools in Rivers State, three unity schools and three state owned schools. The population also constituted the sample of two instruments which were used for data collection- a study habit inventory and the second was the test scores of students in integrated science from their second term examination results. Mean and standard deviation were used for analysis. The results revealed that students have good study habits but without a corresponding good academic achievement in integrated science. It was recommended amongst others that teachers should adopt teaching strategies that will promote meaningful learning of integrated science to students. Keywords: study habits, students, academic, achievements, Integrated Science.

Parasitic contamination of fresh fruits and vegetables sold in Ede Osun State, Southwest, Nigeria []

Background: Fruits and vegetables are a good source of nutrients or supplements needed for body growth and development; it is a major source of vitamins and minerals, which promote good health and reduce the risk of contracting chronic diseases. Eating raw or unwashed fruits and undercooked vegetables have been implicated as one of the major means by which people are infected with intestinal parasites. Hence, this study, therefore, determines the prevalence of intestinal parasites on fresh fruits and vegetables sold in local markets of Ede North/South LGA of Osun State, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 245 fruits and vegetable samples were purchased from five (5) different markets in Ede towns, the samples were microscopically examined for the presence of medically important intestinal parasites. The samples were washed with 500ml normal saline and allow for up to 18-24hrs sedimentation, 15ml of the sediment was centrifuged at 3000rpm for 5min. After centrifugation, the supernatant was decanted carefully without shaking. Then the sediment was agitated gently by hand for redistributing the stages of the parasite. Finally, the sediment was examined under a light microscope for the detection of protozoan and helminths parasites. Results: Out of 245 fresh fruits and vegetables examined, 51(20.82%) were found to be contaminated with intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides (8.16%) ova/eggs were most frequently detected ova/eggs in this study. Other medically important parasites ova/eggs detected are Trichuris trichiura (4.48%), Entamoeba histolytica (3.27%), Gairdia lamblia (2.86%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.047%). Pepper (Capsicum anuum) 8(32%) were mostly contaminated with parasitic ova/eggs. Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that fresh fruits and vegetables sold in the local markets are contaminated with helminth and protozoan ova/eggs, this plays a vital role in parasitic disease transmission. Therefore, effort should be made by appropriate agencies to ensure that vendors/households are educated on how to properly wash fruits and vegetables before selling and consumption.

Absenteeism Management in an Apparel Industry by using Transportation Problem []

Absenteeism management is a big challenge to run the industries, private sectors and the governmental organization in this current world. The study was conducted in a randomly selected cell of MAS Kreeda Vaanavil, Kilinochi for 40 days to overcome the interruption caused by the absentees during the active time of apparel industries. The selected cell consisted of 6 modules and each module consisted of 7 to 10 team members including a team leader. An operation research technique named assignment problem was used in this study to handle the good quality and finalized data from the selected cell. A package named Solver Add-ins of MS Excel was used to solve the assignment problem which is a special case of transportation problem. Initially, the skill matrix was prepared for a selected cell by direct observation and one-on-one interview method. In a module, 7 different tasks with 7 work stations were allocated for 7 team members to share the work load. If there were one, two or three absentees in a module at a time, it was possible to assign a task optimally for each employee without any mismatch by using the assignment problem. Apparel industries were the most time based competitive industries and manual assigning of the task for the employees in an optimal way was not practically feasible. Thus, this study has come with an idea to solve the absenteeism in which every single task was assigned for a specific employee in an expected level.


The high number of work accidents due to unsafe behavior indicates that firefighters are not following the given Standard Operating Pro-cedure adequately. This problem needs to be solved by the Fire and Rescue Department of Central Jakarta. This paper aims to form a con-ceptual model to examine the influence of predisposing factors and equipment management on unsafe behaviors with reinforcing factors and technical competence as moderating variables. The literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses development, and research meth-odology are discussed. Practicing this paper would instantly provide information about the relationship of predisposing factors, equip-ment management, reinforcing factors, technical competence, and unsafe behaviors at the Fire and Rescue Department of Central Jakarta.

Effect of executive compensation and innovation on performance of quoted companies in Nigeria. []

This study examined the influence of compensation practices and innovation on organisational performance of selected quoted companies in Nigeria. Specifically, it sought to determine the influence of staff compensation, CEO compensation, director compensation, organisational innovation, product innovation and technology innovation on organisational performance. The study sourced data from quoted firms in Nigeria that had consistently published their audited annual financial reports for the period 2011 to 2016. A sample of sixty-two (62) quoted firms was used for statistical analysis. The study adopted a multiple regression analysis using panel data to test the formulated hypotheses. The results from the fixed effect unbalanced panel regression models showed that staff compensation had a positive and an insignificant influence on organisational performance, CEO compensation had a negative and an insignificant influence on organisational performance measured by profit margin, director compensation had a positive and an insignificant influence on organisational performance, organisational innovation had a positive and a significant influence on organisational performance measured by profit margin, product innovation had a positive and a significant influence on organisational performance measured by profit margin and technology innovation had a positive and an insignificant influence on organisational performance. The study concluded that organisational innovation and product innovation were the drivers of organisational performance measured by profit margin. Hence the study recommended that management of quoted firms should consider organisation innovation in decision making because it significantly enhanced organisational performance. We also recommended that managements of quoted firms should give more attention to product innovation in decision making because it significantly enhanced organisational performance.

Design and Simulation of an 80,000 Tone/Year Capacity Plant for Aerosol Antiperspirant Deodorant Production []

Antiperspirant deodorants are formulated products designed to minimize body odour and control sweating. The global antiperspirant market is growing rapidly because of the increasing awareness about personal hygiene, as well as the increase in the purchasing power of consumers. The world as we know it, is also fast evolving and as such, industries must adapt to the changing times and embrace better and more innovative approaches to problems. A prominent area of evolution in the chemical process industry is in plant design. In recent years, process simulation software tools have been developed and employed in favour of old traditional manual design methods due to their numerous advantages. Process simulation as a chemical design tool has come to stay as a hallmark in the chemical process industry. Design calculations to produce an 8 X 104 tone/year Aerosol Antiperspirant Deodorant have been carried out manually and then compared with Aspen HYSYS Simulated results. Aspen HYSYS is a Chemical Engineering design simulation software. The material and energy balances of the various units of the plant, the mechanical design, equipment sizing and cost estimation for the entire plant were also carried out manually and compared with Aspen HYSYS simulated results. Process control and instrumentation was done, and the plant layout was determined and discussed. Plant safety and environmental factors were also considered and discussed. It was found that both the manual and simulated results correlated perfectly, showing that the use of HYSYS is highly preferable in terms of flexibility of manipulating the variables, economics of man-hours and computational time saved.


This study examined the correlation between library orientation, information literacy skills and scholarly research of postgraduate students of Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The university has ten colleges with various departments. Questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection from the 150 respondents that were sampled. The study identified that both male and female pursue postgraduate programme. It equally revealed that orientation and information literacy has become imperative in order to enable users familiarise with the available information resources and sources available in the library, and to also equip them with the skills necessary for effective, efficient and independent use of the library. This is more so, due to the increasing data proliferation and information starvation occasioned by advancement in information and communication technology (ICT). However, the study discovered that while there is no library orientation programme for postgraduate students at FUNAAB, the only available form of information literacy is the use of computer course. As a result, majority of the postgraduate students do not have the skills to either utilise the huge electronic information resources domiciled in the library’s databases, or employ the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for data analysis and interpretation. The study, therefore recommended a review of the overall user education programmes in the library to more provision for postgraduate students. Also, seminars and workshops on the use of electronic databases for research as well as SPSS for data analysis should equally be periodically organised.


Abstract This study focused on the ethical challenges faced by the Social Workers of Cotabato City and Maguindanao Province during the Corona Virus Disease 2019. The respondent of the study are Registered Social Workers from different field of the profession such as Medical Social Worker, Women Welfare Officer, Municipal Link, Crisis Intervention Worker, Case Worker, Child Welfare Officer, Social Work Educator and Human Right Investigator. The study used the Phenomenological research design and interviewed the respondent on their experienced ethical challenges during this time of pandemic. The study concludes that Covid-19 and its measures to control and prevent it, have restricted the services and responsibilities usually carried out by Social Workers in addressing the new needs and demands of the clients. Thus, the study recommended that Social workers need to rethink how to apply professional values and principles in new contexts, Social work agencies should ensure all social workers are supported through regular supervision and meetings. Social work associations should intensify their efforts to collect evidence on conditions for Social workers and the Government should recognize the critical role played by Social workers. Keywords: Ethical Challenges, Social Work, Corona Virus, Cotabato City, Maguidanao


Corruption fosters an anti-democratic environment characterized by insecurity, declining moral values and disrespect for constitutional institutions and is biggest obstacles to economic and human development. There has been global, continental, regional and national campaigns against corruption. Ethiopia has been making her efforts against corruption by organizing institutions from federal to lower administration levels. This thesis explores the challenges and prospects of Ethics Liaison Units in combating corruption in Lemo woreda, SNNPRS. The researcher employed qualitative methodology which involves the qualitative data and analysis. To gather data primary and secondary sources were used. The researcher identified the qualitative evidence that the ELUs are established to strive to create an aware society, to prevent corruption offences and to receive and investigate any suspected cases of corruption offences. Principal-Agent and Collective-Action Theories of corruption were used as theoretical framework of the study. Establishment by formal proclamations, and clear duties, higher salary payment for officers, having religious society, having access to FM radio by local language (Hadiyyisa), and the increasing capacity of the government to allocate budge were seen as prospects to ELUs in combating corruption. Despite this, institutional structure, implementation of employment criteria, dependency of officers, lack of full power to prosecution of suspects, shortage of budget, lack of public trust and their reluctance to cooperate, attitude of society towards corruption and ethnic or race based thinking towards corrupters and absence of strong political commitments were seen as challenges to ELUs. Based on the findings the researcher recommend that the structure to be rearranged, the placement of the officers to be based on strongly set criteria, officers to be accountable to the Sub-branch of commission in woreda, to be given full power or independence, and be empowered to accomplish tasks, sufficient budget, and strong political leaders commitment are important things for ELUs’ works to be real.

A theoretical and Experimental Study of Pyrotechnic Igniter for Solid Rocket Motor Application []

The use of pyrotechnics for solid rocket motor (SRM) ignition is the most important aspect for the development of rocket technology. The design and construction of appropriate ignition system is one of the most important innovative steps for the development of rocket technology. In Solid rocket motor, once the propellant start burning it will not terminate and is not used for further application. Therefore, it is good practice to study the ignition system characteristics and its performance related parameters before the occurrence of catastrophic failure of the whole rocket. In this thesis, a detailed theoretical and experimental study of solid rocket motor igniters characteristics have been conducted. An experimental synthesize of black powder ignition charge from sulfur (10%), charcoal (15%), and potassium nitrate (75%) using a traditional boiling method and is tested for its ballistic performance using bulk burning method. From the test we analyzed the ballistic performance like burning rate, the amount of pressure and temperature developed from particular igniter charge and compared it with commercially manufactured ignition charge. The mathematical modeling of pyrotechnic ignition and the heat transfer from the igniter material to the solid propellant surface have been modeled using ANSYS finite element modeling software for chemical kinetics CHEMKIN. A numerical simulation of internal ballistic parameter of black powder pyrotechnics like thrust (F), combustion chamber pressure (Pc), burning rate (rb), and burn area ratio (Kn) have been studied using BurnSim simulation software and the boundary layer modeling of energy transfer by chemical reaction from the igniter material to the propellant uninhibited surface have been studied using CHEMkin. The result obtained from ANSYS is verified with the theoretical and the experimental results for the pyrotechnic chemical under our prime concern. In general, the thesis provides a very clear road map to solve the problem related to ignition of solid propellant rockets. Thus, it is highly demanded in the area of aerospace engineering particularly in the development of missiles and rockets in the scope of national level and to emerge the idea for fellow engineers, initiate them for further research work and to indigenize (own) the technology of missiles and rockets. Finally, the design and construction of pyrotechnic igniter for solid rocket motor have been performed.


This article addressed Brazil's buyer-seller knowledge transfer negotiation case, aiming to improve the negotiation skills of business negotiators, scholars, and practitioners through a two-party, multiple-issue role-play simulation. The case involved a private chemical detector sales representative, and a government hospital, regarding the knowledge transfer on low and middle complexity maintenance services. Key findings pointed out the necessity of improving integrative strategies, such as understanding the other party's underlying interests, value creation to achieve mutual benefit agreements. Further implications suggest the case replication to other business scenarios such as governmental acquisitions. A full set of instructions, lessons learned, and applications compile the present work.

Prevalence of Stunting and Associated Impacts on Academic Achievement of School-Age Children in Some Selected government Primary School Among School-Age Children in North Shoa Zone, Amhra Regional State, Central Ethiopia []

The main objective of the present study was to investigate stunting prevalence and associated impacts on academic achievement among school-age children in some selected government primary schools, North Shoa Zone. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among school-age children. The academic achievements of children were assessed by using first-semester final examination average scores obtained from selected primary schools recorded offices. A total of four Woredas were selected by purposive sampling technique, one primary school from each Woreda was selected by systematic sampling technique, and study sample children selected by stratified sampling techniques. A total of 395 sample school-age children were selected randomly from purposively selected four primary schools and questioners and anthropomorphic measurements were used for data collection. WHO AnthroPlus soft were was used to calculate z-scores. A total of 395 (199(50.4%) male and 196(49.6%) females) school-age children were selected for the present study. From these Anwari 98(100%/males 48(49%) and females 50(51%)/, Molale 100(100%)/males 47(47%) and females 53(53%)/, Mehalemeda 97(100%)/males 50(51.5%) and females 47(48.5%)/ and Bakelo 100(100%)/males 54(54%) and females 46(46%). Age interval and father educational background of school-age children were statistically associated with stunting (P<0.05). The availability of textbooks is associated with children's average score(P<0.05%). Grades, the habits of children studied in program and school libraries, and their participation in co-curricular activity were significantly associated with stunting (P<0.05). Moreover, the stunting significantly associated with eating lunch and dinner properly, and eating vegetables and drinking milk at least three times per week was also statistically associated with children's average score (P < 0.05%). Therefore, preventing stunting of school-age children leads to improving their academic achievement.

Physico-chemical changes of Avocado (Persea americana Mill cv Hass) at some stage in Controlled Atmosphere Storage at 5o C []

Physico-chemical changes of ‘Hass’ Avocado at some stage in Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage were carried out. Experimental unit of the fruit stored in CA containing 2.5, 5 % oxygen with 5 and 7.5 % carbon dioxide in all combinations (4 mixtures) and 78.5 % N2 (control). The occurrence of CI (Chilling Injury), textural change, the rates of respiration, ethylene production and polyamines concentration was determined. Low oxygen concentration (2.5 %) at 5oC storage induced higher levels of polyamines and significantly inhibited the softening of fruit compared to fruit stored in air. Following 3 weeks storage at 5oC no indication of CI in all treatments after ripening for 6 days, but was light discoloration after 6 and 9 weeks storage and very severe in air storage

Application of Remote Sensing in Mining []

Mines need a controlling system in many places to improve the production of the mine, to manage and enhance safety of workers as well environment. The important goal of this paper is first to acquaint the remote sensing technology, then secondly to introduce the available technologies in the field of mining. Multiple case studies and imageries have been used to show the techniques.

Contribution of Agroforestry and Terraces in Increasing Maize Production in Rwanda []

In Rwanda, more than 70 percent of livelihoods rely on subsistence rain-fed agriculture while land and water resources are seriously overused and/or threatened by rapidly growing population and inappropriate land management practices. Sustainable and relevant management of these resources is of paramount importance. This study aimed to analyze the contribution of land management practices (agroforestry and terraces) to maize production from 2014 to 2020 at Akanyaru watershed located in Gisagara District, Southern Rwanda. Secondary data on cultivated land, agroforestry, radical and progressive terraces, organic and inorganic fertilizers, maize production were employed. These data were collected from National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR), Rwanda Green Fund (FONERWA), Rwanda Agricultural and Animal Resources Development Board (RAB), Rwanda Water Board (RWB) and Gisagara District reports. The Statistical Data (STATA) presented annual changes of each type of data whereas the linear regression analysis in STATA facilitated to analyze the relationship between agroforestry and terraces and maize production at Akanyaru Watershed. The results showed that the land under progressive terraces increased up to 4,000 acres in 2020 compared to that of progressive terraces which is 1,000 acres. The number of agroforestry trees increased from 1,151 to 4,861 in 2014 and 2020, respectively. It was noted that the production increased from 10,920 tons to 15,960 tons in 2014 and 2020, respectively. Regarding the contribution of land management practices to maize production, a linear relationship of R2=0.97 was noticed. Therefore, as long as the value of R2 obtained is greater than 0.5, it was concluded that agroforestry and terraces practices significantly contributed to maize production at Akanyaru watershed. The results of this study can clearly indicate how adopting agroforestry and terraces practices contributes to the increase of maize production.


Introduction : Cette étude vise à évaluer la qualité chimique et microbiologique des viandes vendues sur les marchés de la ville de Kabinda. Matériel et méthodes : Pour l’atteinte de nos objectifs, nous avons opté pour la méthode prospective appuyée par la technique expérimentale, laquelle est basée sur les analyses chimiques et bactériologiques des viandes vendues dans quelques marchés de la ville de Kabinda. Pour l’obtention de notre échantillon, nous avons utilisé la technique d’échantillonnage non probabiliste car, ce n’était pas possible d’estimer la probabilité pour chaque échantillon de viande de figurer dans notre échantillon et on n’a aucune assurance que chaque viande puisse faire partie de l’échantillon. Son type utilisé est l’échantillonnage par quotas et a été menée du 05 Décembre 2016 au 20 Juin 2018 soit 6 mois et 16 jours au total. Résultats : A l’issue de notre travail, nous avons trouvé que 18 échantillons soit 75,0% étaient positifs dont 29,2% des échantillons étaient de Marché central de Kabinda, 25,0% du marché camp militaire et 20,8% de marché yakasongo Et par rapport aux types de viandes, la contamination est répartie de la manière suivante : 24,9% pour le porc, 24,9% pour la vache, 16,7% pour la chèvre et 8,4% pour le chien. Les bactéries identifiées dans les viandes étaient les bacilles Gram négatif 50,0%, les coques Gram positif 38,9% et les bacilles Gram positif 11,1%. Les bactéries identifiées étaient : Escherichia coli avec 25,0%, Staphylocoque albus 19,4%, Staphylocoque aureus 16,7%, Citrobacter 13,1%, Klebsiella 11,1% et les autres. Quelques viandes seulement avaient un taux bas des protéines aux numéros 15, 17 et 24 (Respectivement 14,5mg% au numéro 15, 12,4mg%, 10,0mg%. Conclusion : Eu égard à tous ces résultats auxquels nous sommes arrivés, nous avons suggéré ce qui suit : Que les personnes avisées sur ces résultats, vulgarisent les pratiques relatives aux normes d'hygiènes alimentaires, à travers toute occasion qui pourra se présenter dans leur vie quotidienne ; Que les scientifiques travaillant dans ce domaine ou autre corollaire, multiplient des travaux d'études ou de recherches pour découvrir des mécanismes de contrôle, de prévention, de lutte et de vulgarisation à longue échelle des leurs constats pour aider l'humanité dans ces multiples problèmes ; Que les services d'hygiène alimentaires et sanitaires en général soient renforcés en moyens et capacités d'action dans leur domaine d'intervention, pour parvenir à sauver la population contre les maladies alimentaires qui ravagent, et tuent la population à travers les épidémies et autres calamités, désastreuses. Que l'Etat congolais pense, à vulgariser à son tour les textes relatifs aux normes d'hygiène alimentaire et à la santé. Mots clés : Etude chimique, Etude microbiologique, Viande, Marché.

Health Seeking Behavior For Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Among Patients In Kisumu Western Kenya []

Objective: This case series research design assessed the health seeking behavior of Benign Prostrate Hyperplasia patients as a proxy of health conditions among the aged population. Methods: The study evaluated symptoms presented at the visit to Kisumu County Hospital (KCH) Western Kenya, the reasons for delay in seeking care and the complications at the time of seeking care by 100 routine checkup BPH patients above 40 years at the health facility. The data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: Out of all patients in severe states of BPH, only 15% sought care 6 months after experiencing BPH related symptoms. However, 90% were unaware that BPH is a health condition and didn’t promptly seek medical care due to high cost of treatment (40%), untreatable (30%), witchcraft and sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) accounted for 20% and 10% respectively. Due to delayed treatment, 30% of patients suffered from UTI associated with surgical procedures during the removal of prostate glands, 20% developed renal failure, 20% acute abdominal pains including burning sensations, 10% had complete urinary blockage leading to insertion of catheter and 10% obstruction uropathy and 10% general body pains. Despite a significant number of patients having comprehensive health insurance, majority only visited health facilities with severe conditions when the limited financial support is not useful. Conclusion: These results show that delayed treatment of BPH can lead to complications that escalate the cost of treatments. Therefore, there is need to improve awareness for preventive care and health promotion among the aged population in sub-Saharan Africa.


These days, PT. NAV Jaya Mandiri employees’s enthusiasm is declining. Is this cause by the lack of duration of work agreement implemen-tation or the unsatisfying amount of wage value? This paper aims to propose a conceptual model to examine the effects of the duration of work agreement and amount of wage value has direct or indirect effects on the employees’s work enthusiasm with company regulation as the mediator variable. The literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses development, and research methodology are discussed. Practicing this paper would instantly provide information about the relationship of the duration of work agreement, the amount of wage val-ue, employee’s work enthusiasm, and company regulation.

East African Countries in World of Technology Gap in the Context of Cyber Threat []

In general many of the African countries has improved their well-being in most past five years and this countries have enjoyed growth in income per person of more than 5% a year since 2007, there might be Claire understanding the impact of the technology in this development as the industrial firms which import, master uses and improve technology to enable effective technology strategies. Since 2015, due to different government website are created with existing template instead of creating their own from scratch , security expert have forecasted government and online commercial services as the next frontier for illegal activity in Africa. Section III of UA about convention on cyber security and personal data protection shows that the supplier of goods shall allow his/her clients to make payments using electronic payment methods approved by the state according to the regulations in force in each state party [5], with starting (creating) the website from existing template will impact negatively to the security with this online payment. The main objective of this paper is to identify the gap found in technology in the context of cyber threat for EAC by identifying the main groups and actors countering cyber-attacks as this threats might hinder the development of this countries.


ABSTRACT The knowledge of the population of persons living in a given geographical region is of utmost importance for policy making. It further helps to predict the possible population of such region in the nearest future. Population forecasting is an integral part of any nation’s planning. This paper studied the suitability of some conventional time series models in forecasting the population of Nigeria. The data used for this study is the estimated population of Nigeria from 1966 to 2016 at 10 year interval. The data was obtained from the website of the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The Linear Trend model, Quadratic trend model, Exponential growth model and the Pearl-Reed logistic models were studied. The MSE, MAD and MAPE were used as performance measures to compare the performance of the four models. The study revealed that exponential growth model performed better than the other three models studied. Using this model, forecast made shows that population of Nigeria would raise to about 874.89 million by year 2076. The study therefore recommended that government should utilize its findings and make appropriate policies and planning that would cater for this rapidly growing population.

The Effect of Superior Subordinate Relations, Work Discipline and Career Development on Em-ployee Performance at Health Center of East Poleang, Bombana Regency []

This study aims to determine and analyze the influence of superior-subordinate relationships, work discipline, and career development on employee performance at the East Poleang Health Center, Bombana Regency. The sample in this study were all employees at the East Poleang Health Center, Bombana Regency, amounting to 45 people. This study uses multiple linear re-gression analysis. The results showed that: (1) The relationship between superiors and subordinates, work discipline, and career development had a positive and significant effect on employee perfor-mance. (2) The relationship between superiors and subordinates has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. (3) Work discipline has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. (4) Career development has a positive and significant effect on em-ployee performance.

Elements of Right to Fair Trial under International Human Rights, Domestic Legislation of Pakistan and Obligations of the State. []

Pakistan is among the countries with intensity of violation of all kinds of Human Rights on day to day basis. Right to a fair trial is recognized as fundamental right in both the Universal Instruments and the Constitutions of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan coupled with other Domestic Legislation. Pakistan being signatory to most of the International Human Rights Instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and Convention against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment is under obligation to comply with the same standards as set forth in those Instruments. This research paper aims at exploring the right of fair coupled with other ancillary components associated herewith as envisaged in Universal Human Rights Deeds and incorporated in Domestic Legislations of Pakistan. The article is also based on ascertaining obligations of Pakistan towards the fulfillment of right to fair trial under the Universal Instruments. This paper further investigates the current situation of the country with reference to ensuring the Right to Fair Trial in the light of prevalent circumstances and reports of various International Organizations having an eye on human rights in the country. The qualitative research methodology dominates and the quantitative methodology to some extent has been adopted to accomplish the work. However, both the primary and secondary sources of data collection have been looked into to comply with the task.

Features of International Environmental Cooperation in the Federal Republic of Nigeria []

The paper discusses the features of international cooperation on environmental issues in Nigeria: the role of international agreements in the field of environmental ecology; basic principles of international cooperation in the field of environmental protection; environmental education in Nigeria; principles of environmental project management; and several measures aimed at reducing atmospheric pollution. The issues of coordination both between the state and between international organizations dealing with similar problems, as well as issues of mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of environmental ecology are considered in the Research paper.

A Real Time analysis and prediction of Mental Health Disorder based on Machine Learning Technique []

Mental health is the aggregation of emotional, social and psychological well-being of a person. It affects on the person’s thinking, acting and feeling capability. Mental health is a measure of handling stress and decision making with every step in life. There is enough data available that we are now able to compile data for mental health professionals so they may do their job efficiently. Machine learning classification algorithms will help in determining key behavioural biomarkers to help mental state professionals choose if a patient is in peril of developing a selected mental state disorder. Algorithms may assist in tracking effectiveness and better of a treatment plan. This paper reviews about the appliance of ML to psychological state prediction, which incorporates a variety of advantages across the areas of diagnosis, treatment and support, research, and clinical administration. With the bulk of studies identified that specialize in the detection and diagnosis of psychological state conditions.

A Stylistic Analysis of the Sense of Negritude in VÉRONIQUE TADJO’S As the Crow Flies at the Lexico-sementic Level []

This paper aims at examining the sense of negritude in Tadjo’s As the crow flies using the Lexico-Semantic Theory of stylistic analysis. Analysis of the data revealed three main findings. First, the narrator’s nostalgic feelings demonstrated an interpersonal relationship with her country of origin. Second, the narrator’s continuous description of the exile depicts the ordeal of the earliest Negros under the French colony. Finally, the search for self-identity and/or rediscovery epitomizes the resolve of the African to attain freedom and liberty from French imperialism. Data collected for this study was derived from the text. The Qualitative Content Analysis approach to data analysis was adopted since the lexical items in the text are the main focus. The study has implications for further research.

Under what conditions,if at all, Can policies be transferred between countries?: Ethiopia’s education policies in context []

Policy transfer is a process that could incorporate borrowing of ideas, knowledge, ideologies and the alike. Cognizant of this, the essay tries to assess the education policies which have been transferred to Ethiopia by two different regimes over time that include the socialist/military regime and the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front. In so doing, the policy transfer framework that has been adapted is employed as a lens in the analysis of the documents reviewed. Thus, the essay revealed that political ideology, which is preferred by the government of each regimes and a direct and an indirect influence of international organizations are the main driving factors for the policy transfer. Consequently, it is suggested that to seriously consider the various contexts such as the established institutions, historical trajectories and the overall socio-economic situations have vital significances to increase the success of policy transfer

Air Pollution and Human Health Implications in Urban Settlements of Abuja, Nigeria []

Urban air pollution is one of the major concern of this era, not only because of its impact on the environment but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the relationship between air pollution and health related diseases in the Federal Capital City (FCC) of Abuja, Nigeria. Eight (8) specific residential and commercial locations were considered during the study from December, 2017 to February, 2018. Field data on the spatial concentration of CO, CH4, H2S, O2 and CO2, in residential and commercial districts of the study area were collected, using sophisticated automatic air samplers. Eleven-year data on air pollution related diseases were also collected from hospitals within the FCC. The data were analysed to determine the nexus of the air pollutants and health related diseases. The results showed higher mean emission values of CO (<25ppm), H2S (<2ppm) and CO2 (<580ppm) at specific locations in the residential and commercial districts above the recommended FMEnv (NESREA), WHO and USEPA standards. The data on air pollution related diseases showed higher incidence of cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases compared to asthma. The 46,919 air pollution related disease cases represents 2.38% of 2016 projected population of Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC). There are needs for proactive control measures such as Enforcement of air pollution laws and the implementation of policies that encourage greener city initiative and tree planting. These will help to curtail increase in air pollution and health challenges in the study area.

Determinants of Contraception Among Women of Reproductive Age In The Health And Demographic Surveillance System Of Rural Siaya County, Kenya. []

Abstract Determinants of Contraception Among Women of Reproductive Age In The Health And Demographic Surveillance System Of Rural Siaya County, Kenya. Background: Maternal and infant health outcome has globally been positively influenced by contraception, at 95% awareness, effecting the third Universal Sustainable Goal of reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and universal access to reproductive health. However, unmet needs in the rural areas, calls for assessment of socio-economic and demographic factors determining contraception. Methods: This cross-sectional survey on contraception was based on the population health surveys in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Siaya County through 2016. Descriptive statistics reflected proportions in categories of explanatory variables. Logistic regressions displayed significant associations between covariates and contraception practice. Results: Contraception was observed in 22,298 (57.17%) of 39,006 participants. Hormonal methods were preferred by 14,407 (36.94%) and 21,854 (53.03%) participants from the short term and long-term categories respectively, whereas, 7,888 (20.22%) and 382 (0.99%) participants preferred the non- hormonal methods from the short term and long-term categories respectively. Participants aged 15-24 years were 8,428, (21.61%) of the 39,006 participants, where 4,572, (54.24%) of them were not practicing contraception. Demographically, 15,553, (69.75%) participants were married, while 19,613, (87.16%) had at least one delivery. Contraception was significantly associated with age, parity and access to information at P<0.000. The odds of contraception in married women at 45 years and above was at (OR 0.85,95% CI 0.77 to 0.94) compared to the single women of the same age (OR 1.13,95% CI 0.99 to 1.30). Unmet needs observed in 16,708 (42.83%) of the population, included 4,572 (54.24%) youths aged 15-24 years. Conclusion: The evidence of unmet reproductive health services and contraceptive needs in the rural region in the youths, calls for strategic, subsidized integrated reproductive health services and policies to strengthen access and utilization. Key words: Contraception, Unmet needs, Surveillance

An Evaluation of Thyroid Patients’ Awareness and Knowledge Level in Diwan Health Complex, Muscat - Oman []

Purpose This study aims evaluating the level of knowledge and awareness among thyroid patients in Diwan Health Complex-Muscat by understanding the practiced knowledge management system and its effect in providing the same. Methods A descriptive study involved conducting a survey covering thyroid patients and their treating physicians. Data collection involved two questionnaires; the first was a telephonic questionnaire conducted on thyroid patients and the second questionnaire was distributed to their treating physicians. The survey involved a number of 150 respondents of thyroid patients whom are being registered and treated in Diwan Health Complex- Muscat during the period of 2016-2020 whereas a number of 11 physicians were included in the survey. Data compiling and interpretation were done out using Excel and SPSS. Results 95% of the participated patients had no previous knowledge of thyroid gland & its associated diseases. Post-diagnosis, thyroid diseases’ education and awareness is low. 62.22% of thyroid patients have voted that the health complex does not visually display any contents of thyroid diseases, 76% of thyroid patients did not receive any counselling and/or awareness sessions beside their routine appointments and 91.33% of these patients confirmed receiving no printed materials of their diseases. Conclusion In the chosen health complex, thyroid patients’ awareness and knowledge were merely subjected to the physician’s individual effort which varied from one physician to another. The efforts were controlled by a variety of factors such as the absence of a KM system, absence of IT role, busy clinics, doctor-patient counselling time, non-availability of an Endocrinologists, unavailability of disease educator/counselor and changing treating physicians on every visit. On the organizational level, the health complex spared no visible efforts in educating or raising thyroid patients’ awareness nor has a clear structured system of KM in this regard. Key Words: Thyroid gland, Thyroid Diseases, Knowledge, Awareness, Knowledge Management (KM).