Volume 9, Issue 7, July 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The study determined the learning outcomes in Filipino of grade 7 students and Implications to their writing capability. It sought answers to the six problems that include student and teacher respondents’ characteristics. Primarily, the study measured students’ learning outcomes in Filipino in the first three levels of assessment and their writing capability in Filipino. Significant differences in their learning outcomes were tested when grouped according to the respondents’ characteristics. It also looked into the implications of the learning outcomes to their writing capability. An in-depth interview and FDG were conducted to validate the results. Descriptive research design was used with 480 students and 16 teachers as respondents obtained through equal sample random sampling method. Major findings of the study revealed that overall mean scores of students’ learning outcomes in Filipino is at a beginning level. All three levels of assessment were also at the beginning description. Their writing capability was at fair level and is true to all writing components: content, grammar rules and mechanics. Moreover, students’ learning outcomes created significantly higher impact to their writing capability; that the higher their mean scores obtained in the learning outcomes, the higher is their writing capability. In like manner, positive attitude towards Filipino, extent of usage of technology and teachers’ early years in teaching showed significantly higher differences in the students’ learning outcomes. Generally the students are at a beginning level in the first three levels of assessment as evidenced in their seemingly less or no acquisition and inadequately developed prerequisite and fundamental knowledge and skills to aid understanding. Sustaining and enhancing teachers’ competencies through In-Service Training focused on teaching methodologies and strategies, development of teaching-learning resource materials, assessment and documentation ensuring quality education in all Filipino classes coupled with mentoring and drills are hereby recommended. Key words: learning outcomes, writing, Filipino, assessment, students, teachers


Organic waste management is becoming a serious problem especially to developing countries like the Philippines. There are laws and guidelines for reusing, recycling certain materials, reducing food waste, etc., but due to growing population and urbanization, there is a challenge in implementation and even little attention is given to organic waste segregation and management. The focus of this study is to explore a low-cost, efficient, and eco-friendly approach for waste decomposition by utilizing what nature has already provided for us – Black Soldier Fly or BSF (Hermetia illucens) – through maximizing each stage of its life cycle, as means for upcycling almost all organic waste into compost that will enrich the soil and become fertilizers. By using the byproducts of the black soldier fly farming, we will also explore the possibility of creating a viable business model in producing a sustainable source of high-protein feeds for livestock and fish that will certainly help the farmers and fishermen with a more affordable and renewable source of feeds (protein) while managing the organic waste management to create a full cycle of an economic and environment-friendly business structure.

Employees Retention in Business Organizations: Literature Review []

Nowadays, amidst pandemic, retention of the employee is one of the vigorous decisions for any organization. Somewhat, organizations have to decide whom they're gonna retain and temporarily be laid off once the company gets back on its track. Thus, there are some organizations found to be technology driven like using automated intelligence and robots, yet human resources are still needed to run the technology. Moreover, an employee's skills and talents are important for an organization to grow and develop economically and be competitive to other organizations. In this article, the primary purpose is to review various literature that explain the areas about employee retention. Secondly, its purpose is to highlight various views of different organizations on employee retention and determine the significant effects of compensation, training and development and other opportunities in employee retention. The collected review articles will be used to allow the researcher to understand the areas of employee retention. These also serve for the researcher to conduct more studies in relevance to employee retention to his respective job and companies.


Geophysical survey using electrical resistivity method involving Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2-D imaging dipole–dipole technique were carried out along part of Ilara-Ipogun road located in the Precambrian Basement Complex of Southwestern, Nigeria. This study is aimed at revealing the subsurface geoelectric sequence, mapping the subsurface structural features within the subsurface and delineating the bedrock relief as a means of establishing the cause(s) of the road pavement failure. The study represents the interpretation of nineteen vertical electrical sounding (VES) and single dipole-dipole profiles to access the possible causes of road failure along the Ilara – Ipogun road, Akure, south-western Nigeria. The geoelectric parameters obtained from the quantitative interpretation of the VES data were used to generate geoelectric section. The geoelectric section generated shows that the study area was underlain by three geoelectric layers namely the topsoil, the weathered layer and the fresh basement. Thus, Clayey composition of the weathered materials characterized by low resistivity values on the geo-electric section/Dipole-dipole pseudo section which is an indication to weak zones that are capable of undermining the stability of the proposed road. The resultant swelling and shrinkage is of the clayey material believed to be responsible for the various cracks/deformation noticed along the studied segment of the road. This therefore suggests that the layer is composed of incompetent materials that are unsuitable for engineering structures. Since fracture is a weak zone, its presence can facilitate failure of the proposed road especially when it is occurring at shallow depth. Although some parts of this segment is still stable, but they are still vulnerable to failed since they have same characteristic with the already failed section.

Numeracy: A Challenge in Secondary Schools []

This literature review article aims to organize various concepts on the challenges encountered by secondary schools in relation to the numeracy level among learners. This discusses the importance of honing and improving the numeracy level among the secondary students and the possible reasons for their poor numeracy level. This sums up the roles of teachers and parents in the development of the learners’ mathematical skills. It is found out that several factors are sometimes unnoticeable but can affect the learner’s numerical performance.

Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Fluidized Bed Reactor for Hydrogen Production from Bioethanol []

Mathematical models describing the steady state behaviour of fluidized bed reactor for hydrogen production from bioethanol via steam reforming process have been developed in this work. The models were developed by the application of the principles of conservation of mass and energy incorporating the two-phase principle of fluidization. The kinetic model for the bioethanol steam reforming process was developed from first principle by applying the Eley-Rideal mechanistic approach. The hydrodynamic models were obtained from literature and together with the kinetic model were incorporated into the developed mathematical models. The developed models consist of systems of non-linear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) and MATLAB programming language was used to solve the system of equations simultaneously. Model predictions for C_2 H_6 O, H_2O, 〖CO〗_2 and H_2 showed excellent agreement with deviations of 10.7%, 3.89%, 7.69% and 9.0% respectively from pilot plant data at same prevailing conditions. Sensitivity analysis performed on the reactor showed optimum possible values for superficial velocity of 0.25m/s and bubble diameter of 0.075m.


Advances in information and communication technology have resulted in the development of a wide range of innovative educational strategies, methodologies, and models. Blended learning is one of these potential educational approaches. Despite the fact that the blended learning model is not new, it creates new types of learning experiences and incorporates a considerably larger number of learning tactics or "dimensions." It maximizes the advantages of both traditional and electronic distribution systems while minimizing their disadvantages. ( Abdel-Haq , 2021) The goal of this article is to look at the fundamental ideas and practices of distance education in order to better comprehend recent advancements in online and blended learning. It is suggested that traditional distance education has not fully embraced online learning's creative potential. The ideas of determination and self-continue to guide distance education. On the other hand, traditional face-to-face education is rapidly using online learning approaches to promote collaborative and blended learning opportunities. It examines some of the motivations for the implementation of blended learning, as well as the potential benefits and difficulties to be considered when implementing creative teaching practices in a combined learning environment. This literature review examines the potential applications for blended student experiences that combine time spent online with traditional face-to-face time to maximize student learning. Keywords: Blended learning, utilization


ABSTRACT Antibacterial activities of three selected medicated soaps (Detol, Tetmosol and Ghana medicated Soap) and two local soaps (Brown and white) were carried out on clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus that was obtained in the Kogi State Teaching Hospital Laboratory, Anyigba, Kogi State. The organism was subjected to morphological & biochemical tests for confirmation in the microbiology Lab, Kogi State University before the antibacterial assay was carried out. The results showed that Ghana medicated soap (100 mg/ml) have the highest inhibition zone and the least was white local soap (100 mg/ml). This trend was also observed in all the concentration used, which indicated that the activities of the soap samples were concentration dependent. It is worthy of note that the brown local soap had the highest efficacy on the test organism after the Ghana medicated soap. This is an indication that this local soap has potential of being used as antibacterial agent and the active ingredients could be investigated in the later studies.

Natural Language Processing Techniques and Problems in Artificial Intelligence []

As the world is growing towards digitalization, there is a need to introduce the computers to interact with Humans by understanding the Human Language & thus producing the Outputs based on the Language provided as an input to the system. These abilities have become the hot area of modern research & world is moving towards some success in order the computers are getting enabled to understand the meanings of the raw data provided as a language. Natural Language processing is a field of Artificial intelligence which is enabling the world to get succeeded in the communications between a Human and a computer, but still there are lacks in almost all the techniques that we still do not have the fine solution or application which can 100% guarantee the communication between the two entities i.e., system and the Human. In this paper we will be discussing various tools which we currently have for processing Linguistics and the common problems which still exists in those solutions.

Analysis Of Community Satisfaction On Public Services At Wundudopi District Office, Kendari City []

This study aims to determine and analyze community satisfaction with public services at the Wundudopi Village Head Office, Baruga District, Kendari City. The population in this study were all people who became residents of the Wundudopi Village Head Office, Baruga District, Kendari City, as many as 4206 people. The sampling technique used in this study is a non-probability sampling technique with the type of accidental sampling, namely the technique of determining the sample based on the spontaneity factor, meaning anyone who accidentally meets the researcher and according to the characteristics or characteristics, namely the people who become customers, then that person can be used as a sample (respondent) as a basis for data collection. The research sample is targeted at 100 respondents according to the minimum number of respondents in the preparation of the Community Satisfaction Index which was chosen by accident. The data analysis technique is the Community Satisfaction Index (IKM) value which is calculated using the weighted average value of each service element. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that public satisfaction with public services at the Wundudopi Village Head Office, Baruga District, Kendari City is at a good level. This is indicated by the value of the Community Satisfaction Index (IKM) of 9 (nine) SMI elements, namely requirements, systems, mechanisms and procedures, completion time, time/tariff, product specifications, types of services, implementing competence, implementing behavior, handling complaints, suggestions and input and facilities and infrastructure.


This study analyses the impact of preventive maintenance on the frequency of electricity supply interruptions in Cameroon. The specific objectives were to access the impact of wooden pole replacements with concrete poles, Transformers upgrade and distribution cables upgrade on the frequency of electricity supply interruptions in Cameroon. The study was composed of a quantitative and a qualitative analysis. The quantitative study was composed of independent variables (preventive maintenances) and dependent variable (Electricity Supply Interruptions).The instruments used for primary data collection were survey questionnaires administered with the help of a well-designed Google form through social media platforms and an interview guide to Cameroonian electricity users. A Pre-test through Cronbach alpha was conducted to ensure the reliability and internal consistency of items. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficients were all found to be acceptable, specifically, 0,171 for Electricity Supply Interruption items, 0,802 for Wooden Pole Replacement items, 0,862 for Transformer Upgrade items, and 0,909 for Distribution Cable upgrade items. The population for the study was 101, from whom collected data were organized, analyzed and interpreted. For the quantitative analysis, Ordinary least square linear multiple regression was used to analyze and test the hypothesis formulated for the study. The results revealed an R-square (coefficient of multiple determinants) of 0.319, implying that 31.9 % changes in electricity supply Interruptions in Cameroon is caused by changes in Wooden Pole Replacements, Transformers upgrade and Distribution Cables upgrade carried out by the electricity utility company in Cameroon. This implies that the other 68.1 % changes in the level of electricity supply interruptions could be caused by other variables not found in model that guided this study but represented by the error term. The Adjusted R-square value was found to be 0.298, which means that the model specified to guide the study was 29.8% goodness fit. The F-statistics was found to be 14.853 which is significant at 0.05 level implying that there is a significant relationship between preventive maintenances and the rate of electricity supply interruptions in Cameroon. The estimated coefficients for Wooden Pole Replacements, Transformers Upgrade and Distribution Cables Upgrade were all positive, also implying that there exists a direct relationship between these preventive maintenances and the frequency of electricity supply interruptions. From the qualitative analysis, preventive maintenance on the electricity network, recruitment of more qualified technicians, engagement of local communities in various quarters to monitor the electricity network, quality of technicians, long term planning of the electrical network and the poor state of the electricity distribution network in Cameroon emerged as recurrent themes. Keywords: Preventive, maintenance, electricity, interruptions, quantitative, qualitative

Isolation and characterization of bacteriophage from sewage treatment plant and checking their effect on pseudomonas areuginosa biofilms []

Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important bacterial pathogens that causes infection with a high mortality rate due to resistance to different antibiotics. This bacterium prompts extensive tissue damage with varying factors of virulence, and its biofilm production causes chronic and antibiotic-resistant infections. Therefore, due to the non-applicability of antibiotics for the destruction of P. aeruginosa biofilm, alternative approaches have been considered by researchers, and phage therapy is one of these new therapeutic solutions. Bacteriophages can be used to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilm by destroying the extracellular matrix, increasing the permeability of antibiotics into the inner layer of biofilm, and inhibiting its formation by stopping the quorum-sensing activity. Furthermore, the combined use of bacteriophages and other compounds with anti-biofilm properties such as nanoparticles, enzymes, and natural products can be of more interest because they invade the biofilm by various mechanisms and can be more effective than the one used alone. On the other hand, the use of bacteriophages for biofilm destruction has some limitations such as limited host range, high-density biofilm, sub-populate phage resistance in biofilm, and inhibition of phage infection via quorum sensing in biofilm. Therefore, in this review, we specifically discuss the use of phage therapy for inhibition of P. aeruginosa biofilm in clinical and in vitro studies to identify different aspects of this treatment for broader use.


Outsourcing of accounting services is one of the biggest trends in the present-day competitive corporate world. This research work aimed to review various articles and studies that explain how outsourcing of accounting services help companies. Specifically, it focuses on the impact of outsourcing accounting services to Small and Medium Enterprises’ growth and performance. Some SMEs tend to encounter problems in handling their accounting functions that can greatly affect their performance. The paper revealed the benefits associated with outsourcing accounting services. Furthermore, the literature reviewed showed the reasons why SMEs utilize outsourcing. It is being used as a strategy to enhance SMEs performance that leads to potential growth.

Knowledge and Attitudes toward Non Communicable Diseases among Community Health Workers; A case study of Chilanga District, Zambia []

Background: Non-communicable diseases remain one of the main health and development challenges for many countries as they inflict on the socioeconomic fabric of countries. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as heart disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes, are the leading cause of death worldwide and represent an emerging global health threat. Deaths from NCDs now exceed all communicable disease deaths combined. According to the World Health Organisation (2018), NCDs kill about 41 million people each year, equivalent to over 7 out of 10 deaths worldwide. In Zambia, there is sufficient evidence that the burden of NCDs in the country is rapidly growing, with major consequences on morbidity and mortality levels. Having adequate numbers and skills blend of competent health staff is a major factor in ensuring the delivery of quality healthcare services. However, Zambia has continued to experience shortages of health workers. The serious human resource shortage also makes staffing difficult in the fight against non-communicable diseases hence having community health workers may help improve access to quality health services at the community level. Despite the critical role that community health workers play, governments often have limited insight into their activities and quality of their services. The study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes in the direction of NCDs among community health workers in Chilanga District. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive quantitative approach was undertaken to collect data by means of semi structured interviews. Systematic random sampling of CHWs was done and data was analysed using STATA version 14. The study administered a knowledge and attitudes questionnaire to 54 CHWs members from Chilanga district and 9 key informants. Results: Majority (89%) of the CHWs have heard about non-communicable diseases as they were able to indicate what NCDs are, the causes, the types and symptoms if any. There is low understanding for cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory disease with only 31% reporting having knowledge on them and further that the most common known type of NCDs by CHWs were epilepsy and sickle cell anemia. Most work of CHWs in Chilanga district concentrated on people with communicable diseases and that they do not have any direct role related to prevention of non-communicable diseases but they have several roles that they play in their communities. There is moderate understanding of NCDs among CHWs as nearly half of the participants had some understanding which was shown in the common known NCDs in line with WHO (2018). Majority (69%) of CHWs have a positive or moderate attitude towards the risks factors as they are more confident and feel they have more knowledge on the risk factors. Conclusion: This study has indicated that, the current roles and capacity of CHWs in the management and control of NCDs remain poorly. These areas of poor knowledge should be the focus of educating CHWs in increasing their ability to provide quality care for patients. Basic knowledge about diabetes, hypertension and other NCDs remains poor while training is unstandardised and haphazard. These need to be enriched if community based NCD management is to be prosperous. Keywords: Community Health Workers, Non Communicable Diseases, Knowledge, Attitudes Health system

The Effect of Website Quality on Customer Loyalty Mediated by Customer Trust and Satisfaction of Marketplace Shopee in Makassar City []

This study aimed to determine and to analyze the influence of website quality on customer loyalty mediated by customer trust and satisfaction, partially affecting Shopee Marketplace Customer Loyalty in Makassar City. This writing used probability sampling technique. The sample was 130 respondents. To apply these objectives, data collection techniques were used through questionnaires, with multiple linear regression analysis with Mediation (Path Analysis), and hypothesis testing. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis with Mediation (Path Analysis), it shows that website quality variables affected customer trust, website quality affected customer satisfaction, website quality affected customer loyalty and there was a significant influence between website quality on loyalty mediated by trust and Shopee Marketplace customer satisfaction in Makassar City. Keywords: Website Quality; Loyalty; Trust; Customer Satisfaction


Many problems of combinatorial optimization arise in engineering, science, management and social sciences in which a set of optimal solution is required for a function represented as a tuple . Ant colony optimization is an heuristics optimization technique for solving combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, a metaheuristic algorithm is given to solve unconstrained optimization problems involving maximization of profits in some establishments. The algorithm was tested on four classes of problems from different establishments with paths ranging from 9 to 41 and ants ranging from 4 to 20. The superiority of Ant colony optimization over other methods was shown when we compared our results with the solutions obtained using Fibonacci search method as it performs better in all the problems considered.


Potential of cottonseed oil for synthesizing biodiesel was investigated. Biodiesel was produced from crude cottonseed oil by trans-esterification with three different alcohols (methanol, ethanol and butanol) in presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Several sequential and diligently planned experiments were carefully performed to ascertain the optimal process conditions of alcohol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and rate of mixing alongside biodiesel yield. Based on this endeavor, the validated optimal condition for the production of biodiesel for the respective alcohols were methanol/oil molar ratio 7:1, temperature 55oC, time 45 minutes, catalyst concentration 1%, and rate of mixing 300rpm. Ethanol/oil molar ratio18:1. Temperature, 45oC, time 45 minutes, catalyst concentration 1%, and rate of mixing speed alkyd resin 300rpm. Butanol /oil molar ratio 19:1, temperature, 40oC, time 15minutes, catalyst concentration 0.5%, and mixing speed 300rpm. The conditions were validated with the actual biodiesel yield of 82.5% for methanol, 85% for ethanol and 75% for butanol trans-esterification. Result of the investigation showed that cottonseed oil has high potential as a feedstock for production of biodiesel.

Effects of Dividend Payout Ratio and Earning per Share on Market Price per Share: a study on Micro Finances of Nepal []

– This paper examines the effects of Dividend payout ratio and earnings per share on stock market price of micro finances of Nepal using yearly data from fiscal year 2071/2072 to fiscal year 2075/2076. Data were sourced from annual reports of micro finances, websites of micro finances, website of Nepal Stock Exchange and share Sansar.. This study uses correlation analysis and regression model to examine such impact. The result of such test suggests that dividend payout ratio and earnings per share are positively correlated with market price per share. From the regression analysis it is examined that dividend payout ratio and earnings per share have insignificant impact on market price per share of micro finances in Nepal. This study helps to know the effects of dividend payout ratio and earnings per share on stock price in Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE). Thus, investors should also analyze other factors while making investment decision.

Principal Component Analysis []

This paper will discuss Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is used to reduce the dimensionality of a dataset. We achieve this reduction of dimensionality by transforming this dataset to a new dataset of uncorrelated principal components or variables, or features. PCA is a multivariate technique, and the Principal components are the Eigenvectors of the new data's covariance matrix. PCA is a potent tool for analyzing the data by finding the patterns in the data and reducing the number of dimensions without much loss of information. PCA is used in many applications like multivariate data analysis, image compression, face recognition, and many more.


This study sought to investigate the influence of counselling service on secondary school students’ study habits in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. To guide the study, four research questions were raised and their corresponding hypotheses formulated. The research questions were answered while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The design for this study was a correlational survey and the population comprised all senior secondary school II students in the five (05) public secondary schools with professional counsellors and functional counselling centers in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The sample of the study comprised of eighty (80) SS II students, constituting about 10% of the entire population. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire titled “Counselling Services and Students Study Habit Questionnaire” (CSSSHQ). The instrument was validate by three experts and was tested for reliability using the test-re-test method and obtained an r-value of 0.89. The findings of the study showed that: there is no significant influence of group counselling on secondary school students’ study habits; there is a significant influence of individual counselling on secondary school students’ study habits; there is no significant influence of counselling information service on secondary school students’ study habits and there is a significant influence of counselling orientation service on secondary school students’ study habits in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The study concluded that individual counselling and counselling orientation service have significant influence on study habits of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Based on the findings of this study therefore, it is recommended that school counsellors should intensify more on individual counselling and counselling orientation services to improve on the study habits of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. KEYWORDS: Study habit, , Individual counselling, Group counselling, Information service and Orientation service


This study investigates job satisfaction and personality characteristics as correlates of lecturers’ performance in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Two hundred participants were chosen from selected faculties through stratified random sampling technique. Job satisfaction scale, personality scale and job performance scale were used to collect data for the study. Three research hypotheses were tested at P< 0.01 level of significance. The data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), Multiple Regression Analysis and T-test for independent samples statistical methods. The independent variables (job satisfaction and personality characteristics) jointly accounted for 9.4% of the total variance job performance of lecturers (R² = 0.094). The results further showed that the independent variables accounted for the criterion variable when taken together (p<0.05). The findings imply that job satisfaction (ß = .312; t = 4.369; p<0.05) correlates majorly with job performance than personality characteristics. On the basis of this finding, it is herein recommended that supervisors, administrators, policy makers, researchers and employers should identify job satisfaction as a potent factor that can aid job performance among lecturers in the educational institutions.

Effects of Inquiry-based Learning on the Performance of the Learners: A Literature Review []

Learners of all ages deserve the best instructional strategies and methods that equip them with the skills and learnings they need to keep up with the changing world. The educational system around the world has been doing its best to provide quality education for all. For over four decades, Inquiry-based Learning (IBL) has been utilized along with different disciplines (Callison, 2015; Addison & Meyers, 2013) and has become pivotal in changing classrooms into delightful, engaging and, student-centered learning environments (Farooqi, 2020). This paper reviewed different articles and journals that talk about the Effects of Inquiry-based Learning on the Performance of the Learners and be able to identify research gaps of this study. The various articles included in this review date back from 2011-present (2021). This paper revealed that Inquiry-based learning is indeed an effective learning and teaching strategy as the reviewed articles suggest and has a positive effect on the performance of learners along with the different contributing factors to learners’ achievement.

Non-derogable Human Rights under the Federal and Regional States Constitution of Ethiopia: A Comparative Analysis []

Human rights are commonly understood as universal, imprescriptible, indivisible, interdependent and inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he a human being. However, human rights are subject to derogation when certain circumstances are fulfilled in emergency situations. Both international and regional human right instruments as well as different domestic constitutions provide for the derogation of human rights and lay down certain limits on the power of the state not to derogate from some norms which are commonly recognized as non-derogable rights. In Ethiopia, both the federal and regional states constitution provide for the derogation of human rights and embrace certain norms as non-derogable rights, which are not suspended during emergency. The main objective of this study is to compare the Ethiopian federal constitution and regional states constitution and also among regional states constitution themselves with regard to non-derogable rights. Indeed, it tried to assess which of those constitutions protects human rights most during state of emergencies. To achieve the research objectives, the study employed a doctrinal research with statute, comparative, and conceptual approaches. Meanwhile, the data were analyzed and interpreted to draw conclusions. The results show that the state constitutions provide a wide list of non-derogable rights than the federal constitution during a state of emergency; and on the top of this, they protect the most fundamental rights, i.e. the right to life and some other rights which its derogation has no relevance for emergency. Thus, compared to the regional states constitution, FDRE constitution does not sufficiently protect human rights in a state of emergency.

Review on the determinant of rural livelihood strategy and household food security in Ethiopia []

The livelihood of most people in Ethiopia depends on survival agriculture whose carrying capacity has reduced due to rapid population growth rate and farm size reduction. The main objective of this review is to identify the determinant of rural livelihood strategy and household food security in Ethiopia. Data was collected from different research papers that have to do with the determinant of rural livelihood strategy and household food security in Ethiopia. According to the review result disguised agricultural employment, inadequate access to fertile land, lack of access to farm input, markets, deterioration of natural resource base and incomplete credit among others, wage-earning opportunities, investing in children education, Age of the household head, distance from irrigation sources, social status, soil fertility status, education level, distance from DA office, Economical Active members, soil fertility status, soil conservation and transportation services, saving to invest, and availability of growth engines like private investments were the determinant of rural livelihood strategy and sex, ceremonial expense, dependency ratio, marital, land size, education, livestock and pesticide were the determinant of rural household food security in Ethiopia. In addition to these, the review is forward the concrete recommendation, which implies helping to improve rural household livelihood and household food security through basic policy implication and the participation of the rural household. Key words: livelihood strategy, food security, Ethiopia