Volume 9, Issue 5, May 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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ASSESSMENT OF ENGLISH VOCABULARIES USED IN FILIPINO SPOKEN DISCOURSE []


Research on the use of English vocabularies in Filipino discourse aiming to determine frequency, usage, extent of comprehension and significant relationship of the use of English vocabularies in Filipino spoken discourse in terms of being Discrete-embedded, Selective-comprehensive and, Context-Independent– Context-Dependent. Through descriptive method and purposive sampling technique, a total of 204 students participated in the study. Findings revealed that the use of English vocabularies in Filipino discourse affects comprehension. The respondents’ responds are all significant in terms of relationship between the use of English vocabularies in terms of generalization, application, breadth, precision, availability and comprehension in Filipino spoken discourse. The purpose of this research is to conduct an assessment of English Vocabularies Used in Filipino Spoken Discourse using the purposive sampling technique. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the frequency of the use of English vocabularies in Filipino spoken discourse? ; (2) How does the use of English vocabularies in Filipino discourse affect comprehension in terms of: Generalization, Application, Breadth, Precision, Availability?; (3) What is the extent of comprehension of the use of English vocabularies in Filipino spoken discourse in terms of: Discrete-embedded, Selective-comprehensive, Context-Independent–Context-Dependent?; (4) Is there a significant relationship between the use of English vocabularies and comprehension in Filipino spoken discourse? The descriptive method of research was used in this study to gather the necessary data and information on the Assessment of English Vocabularies Used in Filipino Spoken Discourse which are rated through Generalization, Application, Breadth, Precision and Availability. This design was used because the descriptive research describes the existing facts which are properly recorded, analyzed and interpreted. The researchers used survey questionnaire – checklist via Google form as the instrument for this study. The questionnaire was a research-made instrument device in order to provide information on the Assessment of English Vocabularies Used in Filipino Spoken Discourse which were rated through Generalization, Application, Breadth, Precision and Availability.


Impact of Social Media on Well Being of Adolescents []


The study investigates the impact of social media usage pattern on emotional, social, and physical well being of adolescents. The sample comprised of 120 adolescents enrolled in private co-educational schools of Bikaner city. Social media usage pattern was assessed by inventory developed by Bhatt and Dhakar (2016) while, emotional, social and physical well being was measured using self developed schedule. The major findings of the present study points out that boys possess higher emotional, social and overall well being as compared to girls. Keyword: Social media usage pattern, emotional, social, physical well being, Adolescents.


INCREASING THE ACCURACY OF A MULTI CHANNEL FLUIDITY TEST MOULD []


The accuracy of a multi-channel straight strip fluidity test mould was increased tremendously by simple adjustments in design and by the introduction of a filter. The percentage error in the 4 mm thick strip was reduced from 35% in the original mould to 4% in the modified mould. Optical examination shows that using deep channels lead to secondary flow in the shallow channels. Fluidity in all channels generally increases after the modification of the original mould.


Role of integrated Marketing Communication in Marketing performance []


Abstract This review operationalizes the role of integrated marketing communication in marketing performance. IMC can offer assistance in making facilitated and reliable messages over different channels of communication. The concept is particularly important in that it places incredible accentuation on the significance of integrated marketing Communication. IMC could be a concept which fortifies the impacts of special blend components at the strategic level and firm exhibitions, on the off chance that these components are joined together. It’s now not sufficient to utilize Conventional promoting but it requires integrated marketing communication where all devices of communication blend was coordinates to bring comes about of execution, a part has been done to construct a solid centered by making mindfulness, making strides deals, department development, client dependability and enlisting of modern clients through the utilize of integrated marketing communication. The review objectives are to examine IMC’s five tools in firm: Sales Promotion, Personal selling, Direct Marketing, Public relation and Advertising. Method design was based on secondary sources of information from various research publications and unpublished literatures, magazines, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research Gate, springer and books. Data analyses were Content analysis and narration. Result of reviews comes up with IMC tools: Direct marketing, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and advertising are increasing the firm efficiency by increasing Overall profitability, overall brand performance, customer satisfaction, loyalty, new customers, increase in sales volume and Shareholder value of the organization’s services or products. The think about prescribes that administration take genuinely techniques that can progress the execution of these Integrated Marketing communication instruments as they are significant to performance of the companies. Keywords: Communication integrated marketing, Performance, Company, Advertising, Direct marketing, Sale promotion, Public relation, Personal selling


Identify Learning style Related to Learning Outcomes Gumuz Language speakers students in Metekel Zone Grade 10th secondary schools (Benishangul Gumuz National Regional state In Ethiopia) []


Abstract The main objective of the study was to identify learning style related to learning outcomes Gumuz language speakers students in Metekel Zone Grade 10th secondary schools. Participants selected for this study were 184 students who were enrolled in 9th grade in five high schools in the Benishangul Gumuz Regain Metekel Zone Mandura Werda, which were selected based on the objective sample selection method. Students were selected on the basis of a objective sample method, which was obtained through written questionnaires and archived Amharic Language subject academic results. The data collected were analyzed by descriptive statistics. According to the data, there was a significant difference (P <0.01) between Auditory learning style Visual learning style Kinesthetic learning style Tactile learning style Individual learning style and Group learning styles, which led to differences in group learning and visual learning styles. This shows that most students' learning style is biased towards group and visual learning. However, the data show that student learning style is not related to student academic achievement. It also examined whether there is a difference in learning style in relation to the environment. However, the data obtained did not show significant differences (P <0.01). In general, the student's learning style, environment, and learning style and Learning achievement should be taken into account by those involved in teachers and any bodies related to education Abstract The main objective of the study was to identify learning style related to learning outcomes Gumuz language speakers students in Metekel Zone Grade 10th secondary schools. Participants selected for this study were 184 students who were enrolled in 9th grade in five high schools in the Benishangul Gumuz Regain Metekel Zone Mandura Werda, which were selected based on the objective sample selection method. Students were selected on the basis of a objective sample method, which was obtained through written questionnaires and archived Amharic Language subject academic results. The data collected were analyzed by descriptive statistics. According to the data, there was a significant difference (P <0.01) between Auditory learning style Visual learning style Kinesthetic learning style Tactile learning style Individual learning style and Group learning styles, which led to differences in group learning and visual learning styles. This shows that most students' learning style is biased towards group and visual learning. However, the data show that student learning style is not related to student academic achievement. It also examined whether there is a difference in learning style in relation to the environment. However, the data obtained did not show significant differences (P <0.01). In general, the student's learning style, environment, and learning style and Learning achievement should be taken into account by those involved in teachers and any bodies related to education


COVID-19: Impact of sanitary containment on public road accidents in maxillofacial trauma. []


In the pandemic due to the infection with the SARS-COV-2 coronavirus, Morocco had adopted containment to cope with this situation. The service of maxillofacial and aesthetic surgery of Marrakech noted a drastic decrease in the number of facial traumas linked to road accidents. We conducted a retrospective and analytical study of 1525 patients admitted to the maxillofacial emergency department of Ibn Tofail hospital in Marrakech between February 16 and April 16, 2020 following accidents on public roads, then compared these data to the period preceding the medical isolation from February 16 to March 16, 2020.


Comparative Analysis of assessment Practices of Teachers in two Asian Countries: (A guide of Professional Development Program) []


The internationalization of education brings to fore the integration of an international/intercultural dimension into the teaching, research and service functions of higher education institutions (HEIs). In view of this growing trend in higher education, this study looked into the assessment standards and system in HEIs that influence assessment system at the school level. Specifically, this study examined the assessment practices of public school teachers in two Asian countries. It looked into the similarities and differences in the assessment practices of 103 middle school teachers, teaching in selected schools in Pakistan and Philippines. It determined relationships between assessment practices and preserved and in-service training on educational measurement of teachers in each country. Data were analyzed based on three themes: provision of learning scaffolds in a learning environment when assessment is given; employment of variety of forms of assessment; and alignment of assessment procedures with content delivery to achieve quality instruction. Mean, standard deviation, crosstabs and Chi-Square were used to analyze the data. The results provided fresh perspectives on the implementation of teacher professional development programs in the light of the internationalization of higher education and the recently revised preserved/in-service curriculum of Pakistan.


REALIZATION, APPROACH AND EXERCISES OF SHARECROPPERS SYSTEM ABOUT THE CONTROL OF CATTLE TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN BODOR DISTRCT, FUNAKAYE L.G.A, GOMBE STATE, NORTH-EAST, NIGERIA []


This study required to appraise Tsetse and trypanosomosis and to examine the socio economic realization, approach and exercise of cattle trypanosomosis in Bodor District. In this analysis, a total of 89 sharecroppers were questioned all from Bodor village. The questionnaires were administered by the researcher and veterinary officers. Before the commencement of the interview, the objectives of the research was fully explained to each contestant and permission of the candidate was achieved. Results: 59.6% of the respondents were male, only 14.3% were female. 57.3% had adequate realization awareness about Tsetse fly bite, though, 55.10% identified tsetse fly and 50.6%, 51.7% and 53.9% list a local name of Tsetse fly, while 12.4% do not have idear. 79.8% agreed that Tsetse has an effect to the cattle. 82.0% realized the indigenous of Tsetse control in the area, however 71.9% and 75.3% mentioned three ways of controlling Tsetse using indigenous ways. 11.2%, 70.8% and 73.0% respectively accept and realized Tsetse and AAT influence technologies). Findings of this study perfectly specify that knowledge and exercise making of the sharecroppers on regulate of cattle Tsetse and trypanosomosis strategic and integrated control approach involving community should be advocated.


THE REASONS FOR FAILURE OF TOURISM SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES (TSMEs) AND POSSIBLE STRATEGIES FOR RESTRAINING THE FAILURE []


This short exploratory study aims to explore and identify the reasons for failure of tourism small and medium-sized enterprises (TSMEs) and possible strategies to remedy the ugly trend in the industry mainly from literatures due to the short nature of the study. The paper also highlights possible interventions by public sector, private sector and civil society to restrain failure of the businesses in the sector.


Hospitality and Tourism Management Education Versus Employment in Nigeria []


Hospitality and tourism [HT] are perceived all over the world including Nigeria to meet certain needs. This short paper reveals hospitality and tourism management education and expected knowledge and skills for hospitality and tourism management [HTM] employment and career in the Nigerian context, thereby, showcasing HT potentials in the country to the world.


SWEET AND SOUR EXPERIENCE OF PLANT COMMISSIONING []


The paper describes a successful of plant start-up despite the pandemic difficulties and introduces a set of first considerations about the possible future application of available digital technologies for remote and distributed control system from central control room commissioning of complex Dangote Fertilizer Plants. The numbers of problem were faced during commissioning stage ultimately the 17th march 2021 was the historical date for achieved plant production of line-1 plant .The major problem was pandemic due to which scarcity of staff availability. However numbers of problems faced in Ammonia and urea plants. About 4 time’s unsuccessful attempt were done and finally we got historical success. In this paper we described the failure attempt and types of problems faced in ammonia and urea plants and each time problems were differ from previous.


HEIDEGGER AND THE IMPLICATION OF EVEYDAYNESS IN HUMAN EXISTENCE []


The author demonstrates how the concept of Dasein’s Everydayness is articulated in Heidegger’s early work Being and Time, contributes to understanding why self-responsibility and decision making are not obvious for man in today’s society. Heidegger’s philosophical analysis of Dasein’s Everydayness reveals to us why man tends to evade being the architect of his own life and get lost into “common opinion of the crowd” in the society. Thus, this paper focuses on analyzing the various aspects that define inauthentic human beings and their lifestyle.


Measuring consumer satisfaction to restaurant service: Type -2 Fuzzy Logic Approach []


The type reducer step of “Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Systems (T2FLS)” is an additional step that distinguishes it from a conventional “Type-1 fuzzy logic system (T1FLS)”. In this paper the underlying processes of fuzzy inference systems are reviewed and some substantial terms are redefined. The “Sugeno” type “Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Logic System (IT2FLS) ” is used to measure overall customer satisfaction after entertaining foods and services from restaurant. IT2FLS is modeled using a variety of triangular and Gaussian membership functions and produces outputs in the form of three-dimensional surface views. Two distinct systems produce outputs that appear slightly different but contain the same numerical values. The contribution of the study is to redefine the substantial components of T2FLS. The endeavor will aid in the development of computer programs for T2FLS and generate interest in their use..


Allocative efficiency of smallholder pig farmers of the Manzini region of Swaziland []


The abstract is attached to the article


A THREE LAYERED STEADY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC (MHD) THIRD GRADE BLOOD FLOW IN A STENOSED ARTERY []


Abstract. This research modeled the steady state MHD third grade blood flow in a three layered stenosed artery. Regular perturbation method was used to obtain the flow characteristics such as the flow velocity, the volume flow rate, the shear stress and the resistance to the flow. We considered a three layered stenosed artery of about 6unit length. We reduced the model into dimensionless parameters and hypothetical values were used. The obtained results showed that, the volume flow rate and the velocity increases with increase in the magnetic field intensity , the pressure drop and third grade parameter .The resistance reduces with increase in the field intensity , the pressure drop and third grade parameter .


Perception about Nursing Quality Care and Hospital Facilities among Patient []


Background: The healthcare sector is influenced by increased competition in every area today. The ability to deliver high-quality patient care is the most significant competitive advantage for health-care providers. Health-related knowledge and technological developments, improvements in attitudes and perceptions regarding healthcare services, an improvement in patients' participation in their health care, and increased expense and competition in the health industry have all identified the need for better quality healthcare facilities. Objectives: To assess perception about nursing quality care and hospital facilities among patient. Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive study design. The setting will be the General Hospital Lahore. Using SPSS, data analysis was performed and used to define the corresponding chi-square factor. Graphs and tables provided the details. Result: Total 150 participants are involved this study 38.0% participants belong to 20-25 year of age group, 24.7 % participants have 26-30 year of age group, 5.3% participants have 31-35 year of age group, 10.0% participants have 36-40 year of age group, 6.0% participants have 41 -45 year of age, 12.0% participants have 46-50 year of age group and 4.0% were above 50 year of age group. 50.7% participants were male and 49.3% female. 32.0% participants were illiterate, 23.3% have primary education, 29.3% have secondary education and 15.3% participants were high educated. 24.0% participants were house wives, 14.7% were teacher, 28.7% were clerk, 6.0% were driver, 18.7% were factory worker and 2.0% were shopkeeper Conclusion Patients' perceptions of the level of treatment and associated medical facilities were low, resulting in subpar nursing care. As a result, in order to offer high-quality care, nursing directors can actively enforce quality control. Furthermore, hospital management should make greater attempts to improve the hospital's climate. After this, these analysis provides a true and accurate calculation for further inquiry to regional and national researchers. Key word: Perception, quality, Facilities, nursing, Patients.


BIOELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM WASTEWATERS USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL []


Electricity supply in Nigeria has been a recurring decimal as huge amount of capital is involved. The aim of the study is to produce bioelectricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) from wastewaters. Wastewater from abattoir, fish pond, and stream were used to construct a microbial fuel cell and their physiochemical and microbiological properties were determined and the voltage of electricity produced was measured. Wastewaters were separately inoculated using pour plate to determine bacterial counts and type of bacteria in the wastewater. MFC abattoir waste gave the highest voltage (0.77V), followed by fish pond MFC with 0.58V, and least was stream MFC with 0.30V. The pH of the three wastewaters ranged from 6.24 – 5.60. The MFC with Abattoir wastewater had the highest electrical conductivity (15,150 μ/cm3), total dissolved solids (10,230), dissolved oxygen (8.20 mg/L), and BOD (6.00 mg/L), while MFC with stream waste water had the least electrical conductivity (600 μ/cm3), total dissolved solids (390), dissolved oxygen (4.20 mg/L), and BOD (2.00 mg/L). Connection in series gave a voltage 1.89V from three microbial fuel cells constructed with wastewaters from the abattoir. Wastewater from Abattoir obtained the highest count both for aerobic (2.56×1023 cfu/ml) and anaerobic (1.35×1023 cfu/ml), while wastewater from the stream gave the least count 1.32×1023 cfu/ml (aerobic) and at 6.55×1022 cfu/ml (anaerobic). Isolated bacterial species includes; Actinobacillus, Aeromonas, Bacillus, Citrobacter, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Neisseria, Proteus, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Samonella, Serrentia, Shigella, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.


China's foreign aid for Road and Bridge construction in Cambodia []


Either traditional or non-traditional donors use their foreign aid to increase their influence on the recipient countries in different ways. Traditional donors have consolidated to create the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) by monitoring their activities through a committee named Development Assistance Committee (DAC) in providing development aid and loan funds to the recipient countries. China has experienced almost the same period with some traditional donors, but China never joins as a DAC member, and never shares information about its development aid to the recipient countries like the other DAC members. Cambodia and China relations have been constructed since the 1950s reaching a political high and political trust, that the two countries signed a seldom MOU of “China-Cambodia Community of Share-Future”, which China declared Cambodia was the first country signed such important document with China. China’s aid was gratitude by high ranking officials of the Royal Government of Cambodia for low interest, fast response, and consistency with the basic needs of Cambodian people, especially there is no political conditions attached, and China never interfered local politics of recipient countries. The stable economic growth of Cambodia for more than two decades since 1998 was influenced by China’s foreign aid for infrastructure development in Cambodia, especially road and bridge construction, which contribute directly to the poverty reduction in Cambodia. The researcher used mixed-method research with content analysis to analyze all data collected and used a personal approach interview with high-ranking officials to confirm the facts and clarify some lapsed points. Most of the data collection was accessed from internet-based searches by using the keywords and accessed to collect the data from the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) reports. Ms. Excel 2013 was used to codify and analyze the data, and then the researcher used pivot table to generate the graphs.


RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS INDICES, ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY AND SOIL-TO-PLANT TRANSFER FACTORS IN SELECTED CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION PIPES STORAGE LOCATIONS IN NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA []


The natural radioactivity levels of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K have been measured in plants and soil samples around used crude oil production pipes stored locations in Niger Delta region of Nigeria using sodium-iodide [Nal(TI)] spectrometer. The soil activity concentration mean values for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 13.03 Bqkg-1, 13.24 Bqkg-1 and 119.56 Bqkg-1 respectively. The radiation health hazard indices computed for radium equivalent activity, gamma index, external and internal hazard indices, absorbed dose of radiation, annual effective dose equivalent, annual gonadal equivalent dose, excess lifetime cancer risk and activity utilization index were within their International permissible standards. The plant activity concentration mean values for 232Th and 40K were 7.69 ± 4.27 Bqkg-1 and 302.48 ± 153.89 Bqkg-1 respectively. These values obtained were within the worldwide background plant standard range. The soil-to-plant transfer factor of radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) were determined and the result shows that potassium has higher values of transfer factor than thorium and radium. Whereas for thorium, the highest value of transfer factor was 1.23 and potassium the highest values of transfer factor was 19.58. A comparison of the plant activity concentration shows that banana has the highest values of transfer factor while (PSV A4) has the highest values for locations. Since the level of activity concentrations of natural radionuclides under investigation were within the range of the world average, it might not pose any radiation hazard to the population. There is strong evidence of cancer preventive effect of low dose ionizing radiation observed in animals and human studies. Radiation hormesis studies have shown that low dose rate ionizing radiation stimulates living system defense mechanisms.


ANALYSIS OF SERVICE QUALITY ON SHARED SERVICE CENTER PT PELABUHAN INDONESIA IV (PERSERO) []


Shared Service Center (SSC) is a strategy that implements a consolidation model of the company's back-office processing functions to increase business efficiency and effectiveness. This strategy is widely applied by international class companies. Having the vision to become an integrated, highly competitive, and international port management company is the main motivation for Pelindo IV to apply the SSC model to the company's back-office function in 2018. Since SSC was implemented, the company has not evaluated service quality. Therefore, this study aims to measure and analyze service attributes based on the relationship between the level of customer satisfaction and the level of fulfillment of SSC Pelindo IV with customer needs through Servqual (Service Quality) analysis. The results of this study indicate that on average, the Gap Score is -0.7575, meaning that customers have high expectations of SSC Pelindo IV, but in fact, the quality of services provided is not in accordance with customer expectations. Therefore, several recommendations are given to improve the quality of SSC services so that customers are satisfied.


Investigating the reasons for the dissolution of sheko language In SNNPR in Sheka zone []


Language is the brand of any people’s life and culture. Language includes people’s worldview, custom, way of life and history in general. The loss of any language by a people is the loss of their root and the loss of their identity. When a language is lost, such a people who experience the loss continue to live in the shadow of other people’s identity and culture. Ethiopia as a multilingual country is currently said to have over eighty six languages, though the dominant languages officially recognized by the government remain Amharic. The purpose of this study was to assess the reasons for the dissolution of Sheko language and to recommend fruitful recommendations. The data for this study were collected through questionnaires from a total of 30 educated and concerned bodies of Sheko people at five kebeles in yeki woreda. The sample of the study was taken by using purposive sampling method. In order to gather data from the subjects of the study; interview and group discussion were employed by 20 participants. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis were employed. SPSS version 20.0 Windows was used to analyze the results of the questionnaire. Chi square test was used to assure whether the Shekogna language and the factors were associated. The statistical data analysis was descriptive statistics, frequency, a percentage analysis and scores were used. The data that was gathered from the group discussion was qualitatively analyzed. The analysis provided qualitative data which is explanatory and interpretive in nature. Findings of the study revealed that the shekogna language is severely endangered within five kebeles in yeki woreda. The factors that affect the dissolution of the language are identified. These include: attitude, awareness, inspiration and perception of the people, the political dominance of the Shekitcho people, repeated conflicts targeted the sheko people, scattered settlement of sheko people in different zones and using other languages in ever day communication. Finally, some recommendations were forwarded based on the main findings of the study.


Excess Noise Factor in Avalanche Photodiodes with Dead Space Effect []


This project aims to produce a graphical user interface (GUI) for MATLAB programs written by Dr. J.S.Marsland as part of his research into the excess noise factor in avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The GUI will be produced using the GUIDE package supplied with the MATLAB software combined with the MATLAB programs. The GUI will then be used to compare this research work with the research work of others e.g. the Monte Carlo calculations made by the research group at the French Aerospace Laboratory (ONERA). Comparison with other research work will require the digitization of some graphs published in academic journals.


Excess Noise Factor in Avalanche Photodiodes with Dead Space Effect []


Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) amplify photo-generated currents by the process of impact ionisation; however, this is a random process which results in additional noise quantified by the excess noise factor. APDs with a low excess noise factor and high multiplication (amplification) have many applications in low-level light detection, such as medical imaging, astronomy, and such military applications as geodesy. Understanding the physics of APDs is crucial for the future improvement of photo-detectors. The GUI will be developed using the GUIDE package supplied with MATLAB. The GUI will then be used to compare this research with other works—for example, the Monte Carlo calculations performed by the research group at the French Aerospace Laboratory (ONERA). A comparison with other works will require the digitisation of graphs, some of which have been published in academic journals.


Rural Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change in Rice-Wheat Cropping []


The farmers had perceptions that contribute to climate change dimensions such as increase in temperature, unpredictable and irregular rainfall trends, increased intensity of heat during summer. The study was conducted by survey method in Adaptive Research Gujranwala, Pakistan zone during year 2020. Four tehsils of the said zone were randomly included in sampling frame. Then to select the respondent farmers, convenience non-probability sampling method was employed. A well-structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection from 100 respondent farmers. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model. The value of R2 implies that 67% of the variations in the perception of the farmers were explained by the independent variables like education, farming experience and farm size. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from soil degradation and erosion, intensified agriculture to increased use of chemical fertilizer & fossil fuel etc. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by strategies like planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates and using different crop varieties. 35% of the farmers did not adapt any strategy to climate change. Extension services should carry out massive campaign on tree planting, soil conservation practices and updated production technology of crops as it contributes to climate change.